Real-time crowd density mapping using a novel sensory fusion model of infrared and visual systems
AbstractCrowd dynamic management research has seen significant attention in recent years in research and industry in an attempt to improve safety level and management of large scale events and in large public places such as stadiums, theatres, railway stations, subways and other places where high flow of people at high densities is expected. Failure to detect the crowd behaviour at the right time could lead to unnecessary injuries and fatalities. Over the past decades there have been many incidents of crowd which caused major injuries and fatalities and lead to physical damages. Examples of crowd disasters occurred in past decades include the tragedy of Hillsborough football stadium at Sheffield where at least 93 football supporters have been killed and 400 injured in 1989 in Britain's worst-ever sporting disaster (BBC, 1989). Recently in Cambodia a pedestrians stampede during the Water Festival celebration resulted in 345 deaths and 400 injuries (BBC, 2010) and in 2011 at least 16 people were killed and 50 others were injured in a stampede in the northern Indian town of Haridwar (BBC, 2011). Such disasters could be avoided or losses reduced by using different technologies. Crowd simulation models have been found effective in the prediction of potential crowd hazards in critical situations and thus help in reducing fatalities. However, there is a need to combine the advancement in simulation with real time crowd characterisation such as the estimation of real time density in order to provide accurate prognosis in crowd behaviour and enhance crowd management and safety, particularly in mega event such as the Hajj. This paper addresses the use of novel sensory technology in order to estimate people’s dynamic density du ring one of the Hajj activities. The ultimate goal is that real time accurate estimation of density in different areas within the crowd could help to improve the decision making process and provide more accurate prediction of the crowd dynamics. This paper investigates the use of infrared and visual cameras supported by auxiliary sensors and artificial intelligence to evaluate the accuracy in estimating crowd density in an open space during Muslims Pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca).
YASEEN, S., AL-HABAIBEH, A., SU, D. and OTHAM, F., 2013. Real-time crowd density mapping using a novel sensory fusion model of infrared and visual systems. Safety Science, 57, pp. 313-325. ISSN 0925-7535