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Keywordsrefugee convention of 1951
1951 års flyktingkonvention
human rights: african refugee convention
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AbstractThe purpose of this essay is to show that an individual or a group fleeing environmental change can count as what will be called core refugees. This is done by comparing the main criteria for a refugee in the refugee convention of 1951 and the African union’s refugee convention of 1969. These two conventions are used since they represent different views of who’s a refugee, even though they are related. Some frequent reasons to why people flee environmental change had to be established. This was made by analysing a report from the EACH-FOR project. The project is an empiric study on the connection between people fleeing and environmental change, the project also discusses plausible scenarios for the future of refugees. The main criteria, established from the two conventions, were used when proving that people fleeing environmental change often can be counted as “core refugees”. In this essay a possible reaction from states and a negative impact on the definition of refugees is proposed, if a widening of the legal definition were to take place. This essay is only trying to explore possibilities for, and contributing to the discussion about, “environmental refugees” and the moral rights that they can claim.
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The Impacts of Refugees on Neighboring CountriesWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2017-08-10)This brief focuses on the period of
displacement and seeks to outline the impact of refugees on
neighboring countries, including the developmental
implications of forced displacement. The study has two main
sections. The first section describes trends in the
distribution of refugees in asylum countries. A series of
graphs and tables highlights the fact that the largest
percentage of refugees is found in countries neighboring
their country of origin, most of which are middle-income
countries. The second section discusses how neighboring
countries that host refugees for protracted periods
experience long-term economic, social, political, and
environmental impacts. Furthermore, it also shows that in
terms of the impacts and the opportunities that the presence
of refugees create, there can be winners and losers among
both the displaced and their hosts. Finally, this brief
presents examples of global experience of development
interventions that have focused on mitigating the negative
aspects of large-scale and protracted displacement and
strengthening the productive capacities of refugees in host countries.
Sustainable Refugee ReturnChristensen, Asger; Zetter, Roger; Harild, Niels (World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-08)Refugee return is one of the three so-called durable solutions to refugee displacement envisaged by United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the international community. The objective of this study is to identify the conditions that influence the decisions by refugees in protracted displacement regarding return to their home country - when, why, and by whom are decisions on return or other coping strategies made, and how are they affected both by life in exile and by the situation in the country of origin. The primary purpose of the study is to inform the World Bank’s country and regional strategies, as well as its operational approaches on ways to address forced displacement by showing that well thought out development actions that are responsive to the circumstances of specific displacement situations can contribute to the sustainable return and reintegration for displaced. Using a desk study method, the analysis has drawn on the existing literature on refugee decision-making regarding return together with eight country return cases. The study assesses both the conditions of life in asylum and those in the country of origin including activities to support reconstruction and development by governments and development actors including the World Bank, that have influenced whether, and to which extent, refugees were able to return in a durable manner or have adapted in other ways to opportunities and constraints in places of exile and origin. This paper will make the case that to assist return to become sustainable, it is necessary to also address development challenges affecting both the returnees and those who remained, and these cannot be met alone through short-term humanitarian efforts alongside political, social, peace building, and security considerations.
Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of AfricaUNHCR; World Bank Group (World Bank, Washington, DC and UNHCR, Geneva, 2015-07-23)The Horn of Africa (HOA) covers Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda. Despite its rich endowment in human, social, and natural capital, the region is plagued by a complex history of weak governance, insecurity, increasing environmental degradation, entrenched poverty, and a range of persistent development challenges. Conflict remains endemic in the region. The complex cultural, social, and political nature of these conflicts is compounded by demographic shifts due both to population growth and the movement of people, as well as imbalanced service provision, inaccessibility, the growing threat of pandemic diseases, increasing conflicts over scarce natural resources, and harsh climatic conditions including frequent droughts and floods. There are four major protracted displacement situations in the HOA, each with its own characteristics but also with similarities: (1) Eritrea, with significant mixed migration; (2) Somalia, with conflict and violence in areas of origin and food insecurity and destruction of shelter due to floods and droughts; (3) South Sudan, as a result of conflict with Sudan, and internal conflict; and (4) Sudan, where displacement is driven by tensions between center and peripheral regions, and a highly inequitable division of power and wealth. The study sought to analyze the forced displacement and development nexus, explore the mixed migration phenomenon, assess the impacts of refugees and migrants on hosting areas and communities, identify ongoing innovative interventions, and propose entry points and practical steps to address the development dimensions of forced displacement and mixed migration in the HOA, including regional operations, institutional reforms, and policy changes.