Full recordShow full item record
Abstract德富蘇峰於文久三年(1863)生於熊本，追溯他的思想源流，可知其受到橫井實學黨與基督教影響極深，而它們分別代表傳統儒家與近代洋學。儘管蘇峰受到橫井小楠思想強烈的影響，但是他卻不遺餘力地否認、排除自身的儒教思想。因此，可發現蘇峰對西洋自由主義的憧憬，與他強烈批判「儒教主義」的意圖合而為一。 本文以德富蘇峰的「自由」論為主題，其初期著作《自由、道德、及儒教主義》(明治十七年)為基本史料。在此著作中，蘇峰論述了自由為何、道德為何、自由與道德之關係等問題。因此，筆者擬藉由分析《自由、道德、及儒教主義》之論述，試圖闡明蘇峰如何藉由抨擊「儒教主義」攝取西洋自由論；而在日本文明開化與追求對外獨立發展的時代，蘇峰也富有強烈的國家主義(Nationalism)色彩。再者，此書付梓的明治十七年，時值自由民權運動趨於沒落，明治政府亦在十四年政變後，著手進行反動的儒教主義教育。蘇峰於是在此背景下展開他的「自由」論，因此其「自由」論擁有重視「政治自由」的特質。本文將考察蘇峰是以何種觀點詮釋、攝取啓蒙主義和自由民權運動的自由論，進而形成自己獨特的「自由」論。 藉由分析《自由、道德、及儒教主義》一書，可理解蘇峰的「自由」論是以批判「儒教主義」為主，並欲創造出具備「盡職分」的新道德之「平民」。在闡明西洋自由論和日本自由論之後，可發現此點既是蘇峰「自由」論的最大特質。
TokutomiSoho was born in Kumamoto in the third year of Bunkyu. His thoughts could be traced back to YOKOI JITSUGAKU PARTY(橫井實學黨)and Christianity. Although he was deeply influenced by YokoiShonan(橫井小楠), TokutomiSoho actually had spared no effort to deny “Confucianism”. Therefore, his longing for Western liberalism was integrated with the animadvertion of “Confucianism”. This thesis based on TokutomiSoho’s early essay －“Liberty, Moral, and Confucianism”, will focus on his thoughts on“Liberty”. In the essay, he discussed “what is Liberty, what is Moral, and the relations between those two”. Thus, by analyzing the “Liberty, Moral, and Confucianism” , I’d like to examine the ‘Liberty’ in early TokutomiSoho’s thoughts and how he absorbed Western liberalism with the criticism of “Confucianism”. Also, during the ages of Japan’s Civilization and Enlightenment(文明開化) and its regaining independence, TokutomiSoho’s thoughts somehow contained Nationalism in the early stage. The essay aforementioned was written in the seventeenth year of Meiji, given the background that Japan’s Freedom and People’s Rights Movement(自由民權運動) tended to decline, while at the same time its government embarked on reactionary education of Confucianism after the cope in the fourteenth year of Meiji ,consequently his thoughts on ‘Liberty’ contained the characteristic of ‘political liberty’. This thesis examines how TokutomiSoho interpreted, and assimilated ‘Liberty’ from Enlightenment(啓蒙主義) and Freedom and People’s Rights Movement, and further, formed his own thoughts on ‘Liberty’. By analyzing the “Liberty, Moral, and Confucianism”, I cleared that TokutomiSoho’s ‘Liberty’ is mainly developed under his criticism of “Confucianism”. His intention was to cultivate ‘people’ (平民) by new moral, that is , ‘exertion of the duty’. After expounding Western liberalism and Japanese liberalism, the idea that new moral is the characteristic of the ‘Liberty’ in TokutomiSoho’s thoughts and is also the restriction of that can be found.