Cadmus is a journal for fresh thinking and new perspectives that integrate knowledge from all fields of science, art and humanities to address real-life issues, inform policy and decision-making, and enhance our collective response to the challenges and opportunities facing the world today.


The library contains articles of Cadmus as of vol. 1(2010) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Job Creation through Sustainable Investing Using Human-Centered AI: An Integral Approach

    Mariana Bozesan; Tom Kehler; Thomas Schulz (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has vividly demonstrated that humanity is not well prepared to address global challenges, particularly existential threats. This paper shows us how to restart the economy and ensure
 employment using an integral approach to sustainable
 investing in early stage start-ups using human-centered AI. As stimulus packages are being made available, the need for fast-tracked, digitized and scalable investment decisions for implementing the UN SDGs within Planetary Boundaries becomes an obligation. Based on
 three decades of investment track record and four years of AI application data, this paper shows how to identify the black swans of integral sustainability and how to significantly improve the de-risking processes through human-centered AI. This AI has proven that automation of the investment analysis and prediction process using collective intelligence and machine learning results in a successful prediction accuracy that is four times higher
 than current methods and scalable.
  • Transformation into a New Education Paradigm and the Role of Ecosystemic Leadership

    Pavel Luksha; Witold Kinsner (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    The Education subgroup of the GL-21 project recognizes that education plays a triple role in regard to the new model of leadership. First, we need education to serve leadership, to help educate leaders of the 21st century. In order to do so, education itself needs to be transformed so it can deliver new curricula and new pedagogies and thus it needs new models of leadership to carry it forward. Finally, as the educational sector itself transforms, it can evolve into space for transformational leadership. In other words, it can lead the change
 for society, as a venue where new knowledge and skills can be developed or even created, and where the future can be prototyped. Accordingly, education must model the change that society needs. It has to respond to new challenges to become the change we want to see in the
 world. In this paper, we will focus on the necessary changes to education and its leadership
 to accomplish such a mission.
  • Reflections on Future Education: Ideas for a Model

    Fadwa El Guindi (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    A rapid change in technology is creating pressure on education to meet employment needs.
 Two overarching points are discussed in this article: first, rather than fearing the robotization
 of humans we should humanize technology to serve humanity and second, any educational
 reform must be contextualized: in particular social and cultural traditions, values and
 worldviews, considering the population size, demographics and special developmental
 challenges, instead of introducing “one size-fits-all” models. It concludes with thoughts
 about the current Coronavirus crisis and what it tells us about current global leadership,
 modes of governance, and the nature of education. The question is raised whether emphasis
 should be on activism or science. Are we better off with building minds or building skills in
 response to technological advances? The current crisis levels the global field of political and
 military dominance since the virus crosses borders and transcends dominance. The people
 are emerging as a force demanding science instead of diluted glib rhetoric. This emergency
 suggests the path Future Education has to take.
  • Sovereign Nation-States and Global Leadership

    Ivo Šlaus (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    A novel global governance and leadership paradigm is proposed.
  • Global System Change: A Whole System Approach to Addressing COVID-19 and Achieving the SDGs

    Frank Dixon (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    COVID-19 is a tragedy and opportunity for humanity. Reductionistic thinking and resulting
 flawed systems put human society in conflict with nature. They are the root causes of every
 major challenge facing humanity. To survive and prosper, we must align our economic,
 political and social systems with the laws of nature. COVID-19 provides an opportunity to do
 so. As we emerge from isolation, new whole system strategies are needed to transform society.
 If we continue business as usual, nature inevitably will provide more traumatic adjustments.
 This article summarizes a whole system approach for aligning human systems and society
 with the laws of nature. It concludes with the most powerful short-term strategy for driving
 system change—System Change Investing. The article is based on the book Global System
 Change: A Whole System Approach to Achieving Sustainability and Real Prosperity.*
  • Future Education and Its Challenges: A Millennial’s Perspective

    Marco Vitiello (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    In a rapidly changing world, school systems need to adapt themselves rapidly in order to be
 able to prepare their students for the upcoming challenges that are threatening the world
 today. If many steps have been taken by humanity towards progress, the multiple efforts
 needed to not stop this trend can be achieved only if human beings are taught differently from
 the past: soft skills must enter school programs more significantly, since only by nurturing
 empathetic and environmentally aware citizens who are able to think critically, will we be
 able to preserve democracy, improve social justice and international cooperation and save
 the world (and ourselves) from the threat of climate change
  • Leadership for a New Paradigm: Planetary Moment and Momentum

    Garry Jacobs; Donato Kiniger-Passigli; Ivo Šlaus; Alberto Zucconi; Stefan Brunnhuber (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    This is a unique moment in human history. It is a unique opportunity to generate the momentum needed for rapid transformation of national and global policies and institutions. We are confronted by challenges of a magnitude and urgency greater than ever before at precisely the moment when humanity faces a global leadership vacuum. These complex, multidimensional, interrelated challenges have already generated unprecedented awareness of fundamental flaws in prevailing ideas, values and institutions; a growing recognition of the need for a radical reordering of values and priorities; a greater willingness to embrace new policies; and a groundswell of public support among the younger generations for new solutions to safeguard their future. Leadership is needed to seize the moment and harness the momentum of the awakened energies to generate a shared vision, aspiration and social preparedness. Catalytic strategies are needed to overcome the inertia of established practices and the resistance of entrenched powers and vested interests. This will require the integration of knowledge about diverse fields, unprecedented cooperation between sectors and nations, and unparalleled coordination between the multitude of multilateral institutions. The transformation should culminate in a global social movement guided by the universal values of human security, human rights, wellbeing for all and harmony with nature. This is a Planetary Moment and a time for global leadership to generate Planetary Momentum.
  • Multilateralism: Its Past, Present and Future

    David A. Chikvaidze (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    The narrative ‘sweeps through’ history, starting with the Treaties of Westphalia in 1648, on to the Congress of Vienna of 1814-15, to the current terminology of ‘modern multilateralism’ with its lineage from the Versailles Treaty of 1919 and the League of Nations, to the United
 Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods in 1944, the European Coal and Steel Community of 1950, to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 and concluding the sweep with the Helsinki Process culminating in 1975. The objective of the
 ‘sweep through history’ and its main thrust is to analyze how at different times, the world powers of the day turned to multilateralism only after some prolonged, devastating conflict that they had had either blundered, or charged into, left them with no choice, but to sit down and talk, negotiate and take into account a balance of the interests of all parties. All these build up to a point where the narrative explores today’s challenges and ‘attacks’ on
 multilateralism and the seeming inability of the international community to reengage and work together, to stem, in the words of the United Nations Secretary-General “the wind of madness sweeping the globe.” The article makes the case, essentially, for the obvious:
 we are on the verge of blundering into something far more devastating than the world has experienced before for a variety of reasons, not least among them, unusually deteriorated relations among the most heavily armed and powerful States, a climate catastrophe that is already at our doorstep, the dark side of the unprecedented, quantum leaps in technological development, the deficit of trust among peoples, countries, communities, and societies. Add to that the ‘game-changing’ COVID-19 pandemic and what the world has before it, is a stage set for planetary calamity. We should pull back from the precipice in time. Multilateralism, modern multilateralism, which marks its 100th anniversary this year, is the only way to do this.
  • The World Health Crisis: A Historic Chance for a New Global Political Project

    Emil Constantinescu (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    In order to understand “What the world will look like after the pandemic”, we must first understand the present we inhabit and learn from the lessons of the recent past. The
 COVID-19 pandemic is merely the latest—if, unfortunately, greatest—of the various crises
 that have continuously eroded the foundations of our global representative democratic system since its creation in 1956. Yet unlike its predecessors, it striking athwart the various sectors of society serves to highlight their respective shortcomings and occasions an objective, ruthless and thorough examination of the economic, political, social and moral implications and consequences inherent to their revival. We are thus afforded a historic opportunity to fundamentally recalibrate the essential pillars of global society along fairer, more sustainable, more inclusive and more transparent lines. This Herculean task will require the collaboration of countless specialists, scholars and leaders across all sectors of society, whose sage input – based on collective millennia of accumulated expertise and wisdom in a “society of knowledge”—will prove invaluable to elaborating new societal guiding principles appropriate to the realities of the new millennium. This new cultural model must not only countervail the oncoming societal, cultural, and economic shocks of
 rapid technologization, globalization and worldwide development but also safeguard a vision of hope and confidence in mankind’s chosen path forward—while allowing for ad-hoc recalibrations of its constituent parts when proven ineffectual. The existing global networks
 of power, capital, knowledge and wealth can thus be reshaped into a new framework within which each of the world’s countless citizens can not only be, but also become.
  • Catalytic Strategies for Socially Transformative Leadership: Leadership Principles, Strategies and Examples

    Garry Jacobs; Donato Kiniger-Passigli; Hazel Henderson; Janani Ramanathan (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    Transformative leadership is the process of consciously accelerating the evolution of global society. This paper provides an overview of initial research findings of the project on Global Leadership in the 21st century (GL21) initiated by WAAS in collaboration with the United Nations Office at Geneva, preparatory to a major conference at UNOG on October 27-28, 2020. The objective of GL21 is to identify fundamental principles of social transformation that can be consciously applied to accelerate progress on addressing global challenges and opportunities and to illustrate these principles by citing successful instances of significant transformative achievements in different fields of activity at the local, national and global level. GL21 is examining past and recent achievements of social transformation related to peace and disarmament, governance and human rights, economy and the environment, business and finance, the application of science and technology for social progress, global governance and rule of law, education and wellbeing. Through this project WAAS and UNOG seek to learn from humanity’s collective experience and convert that experience into codified principles of knowledge which can be more consciously and systematically applied in different fields and issues to accelerate global social evolution. The principles and examples cited in this paper are not new or unknown. Nor do they represent a complete and comprehensive approach to accelerating global progress. Each sheds light on a different aspect, dimension or element of a greater whole, steps and stages in the process of human accomplishment and social transformation. We may recognize each of them and know that we already know it. But in most cases we have not assembled the pieces mentally or fully understood their interrelationships with one another to form a knowledge of the whole process of social transformation or fully converted the rich knowledge they contain into powerful mental and practical instruments for universal application. The goal of GL21 is to forge a wider conception of the process of social transformation, to assemble a universal toolbox of effective, proven strategies and catalysts, and to illustrate how they can be applied to break the leadership logjam which presently prevents and retards global progress. Taken together we believe they confirm the premise that rapid, radical global progress on addressing the greatest challenges confronting humanity is possible here and now. Project GL21 examines many different types of leadership, of which outstanding individual personalities are the archetypal conception but not the only form. Effective leadership always transcends the actions of any one individual or small group. Leadership is a living social process that encompasses the whole society in which and on which it acts. It may be initiated by idealistic individuals, inspired by lofty ideas and values, and empowered by innovative organizations, but transformative leadership sooner or later influences the actions of a great many people and organizations and spreads until it becomes a broad-based social movement and eventually becomes institutionalized in the customs and culture of society. Outstanding individual leaders and the broad-based social movements are two complementary ends of the leadership spectrum. This paper examines the role of many different component elements, stages and instruments of the process of socially transformative leadership.
  • Global Leadership in the 21st Century

    Alexander Likhotal (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    This generation has grown in the belief that history has ended before them, that now we live in an era of comfort and stability. Indeed, the post-Cold War context has given birth to beliefs that global solutions could be agreed upon and implemented to tackle global challenges. This proved to be an illusion. Awakening from a happy slumber to face reality was bitter. The COVID-19 crisis shock reminds us that we live in history, that the world is continuously morphing. The pandemic and its aftermath is not so much a turning point but a catalyst and
 activator that brutally reveals and intensifies tendencies in the transformation of the world that arrived long before the current crisis. Change and leadership are absolutely inseparable. However, it is exactly at this time of rapid change that there is an overall feeling of political
 leadership deficit. What shall we expect in the post-coronavirus world? Does leadership still matter? And if yes, what kind of leadership? If we want to cure the disease rather than its symptoms, it is time to start thinking in terms of synergies and opportunities, outside the usual multiple-choice box of threats and priorities. Only new “effective multilateralism” can re-establish trust, based not on traditional states’ balance of power and interests but on globally shared risks and concerns of communities. The real transformational leadership
 required today lies not in enhancing what is, but in advancing toward what will be!
  • Economics as a Science – or viewed from the perspective of scientists in other fields

    Joaquim Vergés (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    The aim of this article is to underline that the core paradigm of mainstream economics,
 economics’ standard model (ESM), rests upon an explanatory theory that draws on
 deductive assumptions which are not supported by what observations of the reality of market
 economies show us; either in the present day or historically. A theoretical setting, therefore,
 fails to provide a proper explanation of how our economic system—a market economy based
 on private firms, or capitalist—operates in reality. Or that it does not explain it well for the
 vast majority of cases, goods, sectors or markets. I am far from being the first one to highlight
 this. This ‘deficiency’ of the ESM has relevant implications. It is something more than a pure
 theoretical issue. The fact that this explanatory model (much dominated by microeconomics)
 postulates that the ‘free-play market’ leads spontaneously to an optimum of social utility (a
 general equilibrium of efficient markets), has nevertheless implications beyond the economic
 discipline. In the political arena neoliberalism draws on this theoretical postulate to defend
 its principles of no (or minimum) intervention by governments in the economy, of no (or
 minimum) regulation of markets. i. e., to defend what lies behind the well-known expression
 ‘the less State the better’: minimum public expenditure, minimum taxes. And, furthermore,
 this general equilibrium model that supports such a postulate dominates the way economics
 is customarily taught, i.e., how the workings of a market economy is explained in textbooks
 and in university classrooms.
  • The New Growth Model and Economic Policy Platform

    Dragan Djuricin (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    Structural crises of the past have had a significant impact on the world economy even before the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in 2020. The ongoing medical crisis exacerbates the double-dip recession we have witnessed before. Challenges are consequential. By checking the pulse of the global economy, we see a high level of risk, fragile growth outlook, and increasing tensions between economic scholars and architects of the system over the evident polarization regarding rules concerning new economics. It is undeniable that the global economy has imbalances, like high financialization, income inequality, climate change, and economic shutdown. So, it desperately needs a new platform for shaping a better future. Identification of inflection points in the line of reasoning will help reveal the compatibility of emerging conceptual platforms.
  • Urbanization, Innovation and Governance: The Quest for Sustainable Development

    Hans d’Orville (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    The article discusses the interrelated issues of urbanisation, innovation and governance in the
 quest for sustainable development. Given present trends in urbanisation, cities are playing
 an ever more important role in the world’s development and globalisation process. Cities
 must innovate to achieve sustainability. The technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution
 enable cities to innovate in multiple ways. Innovation turns ideas into value and generates
 new products, services and processes, driven by multiple stakeholders. Likewise, there is a
 focus on innovative means for governance. Given divergences between cities, regions and
 countries, strategies for urban and regional development tend to differ, affecting the quality
 of life of residents and the prospects for attaining the SDGs. Cities invest increasingly in new
 technologies to improve infrastructure delivery, thereby increasing GDP growth. Economic
 values must however be balanced with societal values. The use of emerging and disruptive
 technologies based on digitalisation will create new opportunities and generate services and
 employment, driven by Artificial Intelligence (AI), 5G technologies, Internet of Things, big
 data, blockchain and robots. These new technologies have stimulated the growth of smart and
 innovative cities, accompanied by the transformation of urban public services responding to
 citizens’ needs. AI can be a driving force to help advance SDGs. Improved connectivity and
 broadband access are key to the development of a digital economy. Urban governance is
 affected by many factors influencing sustainable development. Urbanisation and its traffic
 congestion and environmental degradation must be tackled through investment in efficient
 and novel systems. There is also the goal of abandoning fossil-fuel power plants through
 renewable energy sources. China has focused on strengthening its innovation capacity and
 can offer examples for other countries, in particular Africa. Beyond city infrastructure,
 technological innovation is also transforming education delivery and the distribution of
 educational content: building future-ready education systems, including recourse to virtual
 reality and machine learning. Demands on governments are diversifying, deepening and
 quickening, and hence governments must harness new tools to govern better and create and
 enforce new norms, rules and policies. The G-20 has established the Global Smart Cities
 Alliance as a new partnership to advance the responsible and ethical use of smart city
 technology. It will seek to minimize the risks and maximize the benefits of rapid urbanization.
 The Alliance is complemented by a Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which shall
 serve as a focal point for multi-stakeholder dialogue and concrete cooperation on governance
 challenges and opportunities presented by advanced technologies.
  • Civil Society and Youth Leadership for Transformation

    Thomas Reuter; Michael Marien; David Harries (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    This discussion paper looks at the current historical momentum and potential future
 development of civil society and youth leadership for a systemic transformation to a
 sustainable new civilization. It identifies emerging challenges, obstacles, and some of the
 innovative new leadership strategies that have been developed to overcome them. Civil society
 is central in the process of transformation in a dual sense: As the target of transformation—
 it is civil society at large together with governments and the private sector that must shift
 to sustainable practices in our daily lives,—and as an instigator of change—individuals,
 informal networks or organized groups of citizens specifically dedicated to promoting this
 transformation. This boundary between recipients and agents in society is fluid, as more and
 more people take action or join organized efforts to elicit a purposeful transformation.
  • Global Transformative Leadership in the 21st Century: A Science, Engineering, Technology Integrated and Strategic Perspective

    Rodolfo Fiorini; Carlos Alvarez Pereira; Garry Jacobs; Donato Kiniger-Passigli; Alberto Zucconi; Nebojša Nešković; Herwig Schopper; Vojislav Mitic; Hazel Henderson; Mariana Todorova (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    The goal of this paper is to focus on the Global Leadership Challenge in the 21st Century with an integrated and strategic perspective in science, engineering and technology (SET). “In any crisis, leaders have two equally important responsibilities: solve the immediate problem and keep it from happening again. The COVID-19 pandemic is a case in point. We need to save lives now while also improving the way we respond to outbreaks in general. The first point is more pressing, but the second has crucial long-term consequences,” according to Bill Gates. What is happening is a vivid example of a global “tipping event”, in which multiple social systems flip simultaneously to a distinctly new state. A global arbitrary multiscale systems science (GAMSS) perspective might create the required knowledge and paradigm shift in thinking.
  • Leadership, Human Needs, and Values: The Importance of World Constitutionalism

    Winston P. Nagan; Samantha R. Manausa (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    This article introduces the twin themes of leadership and global constitutionalism. Today, we have a global constitution: the UN Charter. It has evolved into a weak instrument of global governance, and it needs to be strengthened by wise and brave leadership. The
 article provides a short overview of the historic emergence of constitutionalism, stressing the importance of the Atlantic Charter and the Four Freedoms. The article explores the complexities of leadership in a global social process context, and suggests a few modest
 changes to the structure and function of the UN system that may boost the power of the UN
 Charter as a juridical instrument. The article explores the emergence of human needs and values from the global social process and the challenges that these problems pose for global leadership. The article then provides a summary of the keynote precepts and challenges
 that require vigorous promotion and defense by leadership. It next provides a map of value needs and institutions on a global level and ties these issues in, with essential value needs in the UN Charter and the International Bill of Rights. This is to underscore the importance of these challenges for human survival. The article concludes with a careful analysis of the
 crisis of global climate change and the importance of this challenge for global leadership. The challenges in the UN Charter, the International Bill of Rights, as well as those arriving from the current pandemic and climate change, will all influence the survival of humanity as a whole. The urgency of brave and courageous leadership is now imperative.
  • The Role of Finance in Solving Global Issues and in the Transition to a New Civilisation

    Ketan Patel; Christian Hansmeyer (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    Finance is one of the fundamental tools that has underpinned and shaped global civilisation,
 alongside agriculture and writing systems. During the past 5,000 years finance has adapted
 and innovated to scale civilisation by funding industrial development, technological
 advancement and human progress generally. Given this traditional role, finance should
 play an essential role in supporting the solutions to the world’s major challenges, including
 income inequality, climate change, mass migration, unsustainable resource consumption,
 among others. In the industrial era, finance was banker to industry, government and the
 military, among others, in its conquests. By the last quarter of the 21st Century, finance
 had become ‘Big Finance’ and was a major power bloc in its own right. Today, ever more
 sophisticated forms of finance have been highly innovative at financing itself, without
 directly touching an endeavour to invest in, and so streams of finance find themselves
 divorced from the world’s challenges, rather than solving them, leading to a rise in calls for
 the need to reform and reinvent many of its tools and institutions. In the absence of reform
 from within, revolution from without has often addressed imbalances in other spheres of
 life and has carried with it substantial risks and costs. Looking ahead, as the world enters
 the information age, the internet is transforming finance into something digital, global,
 distributed, and disintermediated and this promises to transform it into something radically
 different than it is today. Current financial institutions have a choice of either being at the
 forefront of this transformation, launching their own reforms and revolution, to be relevant
 to the challenges and opportunities of the mainstream, or risking being swept away. This
 paper is intended to provide a high-level conceptual overview of the history, challenges and
 questions facing finance as the world transitions to the next world order.
  • From Limits to Growth to Unlimited Wellbeing: A Revolutionary’s Vision of Wealth and Welfare

    Garry Jacobs; Ivo Šlaus (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
  • University Education in Crisis? Transdisciplinary Approaches in the Arts, Humanities & Sciences

    Marcel Van de Voorde (Risk Institute, Trieste- Geneva, 2020-07-01)
    The modern approach to University education and research cuts across traditional boundaries. In order to obtain maximum benefit from research effort globally, universities need to adapt their approaches to the management and organization of research and teaching, to foster
 transdisciplinary working and promote global mobility for the next generation of students.

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