Методи вдосконалення виконавського апарату музиканта-інструменталіста
Author(s)Андрейко, Оксана Іванівна
технічний та художній комплекси
біомеханістична та художня доцільність
artistic and technical complexes
reasonable musical-playing motion and artistic reasonable
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AbstractУ дисертації розглянуто проблему вдосконалення виконавського апарату музиканта-інструменталіста як сутнісної складової формування виконавської майстерності. Визначено структуру виконавського апарату, критерії сформованості його художнього та технічного комплексів. Педагогічним нововведенням дослідження є переорієнтація підходу до формування виконавського апарату з декларативно-функціонального на регулятивно-особистісний, що передбачає створення педагогічних умов для активізації рефлексивної діяльності студента-інструменталіста у його професійному становленні. З цією метою у дослідженні розроблено та апробовано методи вдосконалення комплексів виконавського апарату музиканта-інструменталіста та визначено педагогічні умови оптимізації даного процесу.
Studying the performance process of a musician-instrumentalist is an integrated research as it involves knowledge of various sciences: philosophy, psychology, pedagogy and fine art science that deal with a complex mechanism of cognitive and creative activity as well as formation of the performance mechanism of an instrumentalist through conscientious acquisitions of professional skills, sensible exposure of the figurative content of musical compositions that constitute the essence of professional reflections activity of a student and promote the development of his/her professional and personal qualities. All these factors are taken as the basis for research into the improvement of performance apparatus complexes of students-instrumentalists of fine arts higher educational institutions. The research material used is based on violin playing methodology. At the present stage of the development of musical education methodology innovative education technologies are becoming more and more important. Improvement of performance activity of the future instrumentalist depends greatly on education humanistic reorientation. For musical education heuristic and reflective methods of the musician performance apparatus training are becoming important. In a new education paradigm the vital importance is given to involving personal and sensitive sphere of a human being into the educational process, and in musical education the processes of conscientious regulation and self-regulation of the personal sphere and the sphere of feelings of a musician become domineering in his/her performing activity. The improvement and self-perfection of the musician-instrumentalist performance apparatus take place on the basis of the professional reflection methods. The given research determines self-conscientious, self-realizing training of skills of technical and artistic complexes of the instrumentalist performance apparatus as the major methods of professional reflection. These are: a partially searching method, or a heuristic method, method of self-observation and comparison that are 20 disclosed via a number of special methods. In a technical complex they are methods of sensor analysis of muscle feeling, regulation and control of muscular states in the formation of the instrumentalist techniques; in the artistic complex this is the method of disclosing the level of creative imagination and the type of thinking of a musical performer, defining and comprehension of an individual music image and the dominant musical image, the method of creative comprehension of a musical composition. Following theoretical analysis of the problem under investigation and taking into account the results of the establishing experiment, in the objectives and content of the forming experiment there were reflected the pedagogical conditions that promote the development and improvement of the performing apparatus of the violin player. Condition of pedagogical supervision of the process of improvement of the violin player’s performing apparatus are based on the major principles of modern psychological and pedagogical science: activity –personal approach to the development of student; definition of the active nature of learning and thinking; purposeful and organized influence on the student; his/her conscious activity as a subject; professional and reflective formation. Improvement of the performing apparatus of musician-instrumentalist is related to the student’s reflective activity in the process of acquiring technical and artistic skills. In psychological and pedagogical investigations, reflection is defined as activity directed towards self-actualization that discovers specific character of the human inner world. Professional reflection is characterized as direction of the individual’s thinking toward the objects of professional activity, personal professional qualities. In the process of formation of the performing apparatus it is just through reflective activity and deep self-actualization that this apparatus is improved, that technical creative and artistic creative potential of a musician-pedagogue are developed and realized. The major objectives the forming experiment were defined as follows: activization of the student’s professional self-realization in the process of acquisition of skills of technical and artistic complexes; student’s realization of the notional content and the role of the figurative dramatic plot in the process of disclosing the musical image of the composition; formation of the artistically expedient musical image of the performer in the process of the musical composition interpretation; achieving biomechanically expedient musical playing movements; acquisition of skills of sensor analysis, regulation and control in the process of creating artistically expedient musical technique of the instrumentalist. On the basis of the given methodology two improved levels of the technical complex are formed: rational and operational; as well as two improved levels of the artistic complex of the musician's 21 performance apparatus—analytical and figurative-dramatic. Thus, the research presents the technology of professional reflection in the process of the musician-instrumentalist performance apparatus improvement as the basis for developing his/her masterly performance. The development of the performance apparatus improvement methodology as a reflective formation of a professional has a potentially progressive tendency as it creates methodological foundation for life-long perfection and self-perfection of a musician-instrumentalist and in this way it contributes to educating a highly professional independent creative performer.