• 50 Shades of Green: An Examination of Sustainability Policy on Canadian Campuses

      Vaughter, Philip; Wright, Tarah; Herbert, Yuill (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2015-12-31)
      AbstractKoichiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, asserts that education is one of the most effective instruments that society can employ in the effort to adopt sustainable development. This paper is a first effort to explore the degree to which Canadian institutions of higher education, including colleges and universities, have embraced this assertion. It includes the first census of the existing environment/sustainability policies and/or plans of Canadian postsecondary institutions (n = 220), and an examination of the relationships between the existence of an environment/sustainability policy/plan and the presence of other sustainability initiatives on campus. The focus on policies and plans is timely because in public institutions like colleges and universities, actions and practices are determined by policy. The results reveal a number of patterns and insights, including, for example, the influence of provincial legislation on the uptake of policies.RésuméKoichiro Matsuura, directeur général de l’UNESCO, affirme que l’éducation est l’un des instruments les plus puissants que la société puisse utiliser dans un effort de développement durable. Ce document constitue un premier effort pour explorer à quel point les institutions canadiennes d’enseignement supérieur ont mis cette affirmation en pratique. Cet effort comprend le premier recensement des politiques actuelles sur l’environnement et le développement durable, et des plans des établissements canadiens d’enseignement postsecondaire (n = 220), ainsi qu’un examen des relations entre l’existence d’un plan/d’une politique sur l’environnement/de développement durable et la présence d’autres initiatives de développement durable sur le campus. L’accent sur les politiques et les plans se fait à point nommé parce que dans les établissements publics, tels que les collèges et les universités, les actions et les pratiques sont déterminées par la politique. Les résultats révèlent un certain nombre de motifs et de découvertes incluant, par exemple, l’influence des lois provinciales sur l’adoption des politiques.
    • A Coherent System for Manitoba

      Sheffield, Edward F. (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 1974-06-30)
    • “A Community College with Ivory Tower Pretensions”: Perceptions of a New University

      McKenzie, Sierra; King, Alyson E. (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2016-04-13)
      AbstractThe ways in which a new university, the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), was represented in local, regional, and national newspapers highlight the difficulties of identity creation for organizations. Drawing on theories of organizational identity and supplemented by interviews with UOIT’s founding members, a qualitative analysis of newspaper articles about UOIT published between 2001 and 2004 demonstrates that the words and phrases used in these articles played an important role in establishing an image of UOIT that continues to impact its identity. These news reports also illustrate the complex relationships that existed between UOIT and its geographical, educational, and political contexts. Although UOIT was founded as a four-year baccalaureate degree-granting university, it was linked with its well-established neighbour, Durham College, with which it shared land and services. As a result, UOIT was viewed by some as no more than a “community college with ivory tower pretensions.”RésuméLa représentation de l’Institut universitaire de technologie de l’Ontario (IUTO) dans la presse locale, régionale et nationale met en évidence les difficultés de création d’une identité corporative. Une analyse qualitative des articles sur l’IUTO, publiés entre 2001 et 2004, étoffés par des entretiens avec les membres fondateurs de l’IUTO, démontre, en s’appuyant sur les théories de l’identité organisationnelle, que leur contenu a joué un rôle important dans la définition de l’image de l’IUTO qui affecte encore son identité. Ces reportages illustrent aussi les relations complexes entre l’UOIT et son cadre géographique, éducatif et politique. Bien que l’IUTO soit une université décernant des baccalauréats de quatre ans, il est lié à son voisin bien établi, le Collège communautaire Durham, car il partage avec lui les terres et les services. En conséquence, on considère parfois l’IUTO comme rien de plus qu’un « collège communautaire enfermé dans une tour d’ivoire ».
    • A Comparative Review of Canadian Health Professional Education Accreditation Systems

      Curran, Vernon R.; Fleet, Lisa; Deacon, Diana (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2006-06-30)
      Canadian governments and various stakeholder groups are advocating greater interprofessional collaboration amongst health care providers as a fundamental strategy for enhancing coordination and quality of care in the health care system. Interprofessional education for collaborative patient-centred practice (IECPCP) is an educational process by which students/learners (or workers) from different health professions learn together to improve collaboration. The educational system is believed to be a main determinant of interprofessional collaborative practice, yet academic institutions are largely influenced by accreditation, certification and licensure bodies. Accreditation processes have been linked to the continuous improvement of curricula in the health professions, and have also been identified as potential avenues for encouraging educational change and innovation. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the characteristics of the national accreditation systems of select Canadian health professional education programs at both the pre- and post-licensure educational levels and to show how these systems support and/or foster IECPCP. A review of the educational accreditation systems of medicine, nursing, pharmacy, social work, occupational therapy and physiotherapy was undertaken through key informant interviews and an analysis of accreditation process documentation. The results of this comparative review suggest that accreditation systems are more prevalent across the health professions at a pre-licensure level. Accreditation at the post- licensure level, particularly at the continuing professional education level, appears to be less well established across the majority of health professions. Overall, the findings of the review also suggest that current accreditation systems do not appear to promote nor foster interprofessional education for collaborative patient-centred practice in a systematic manner through either accreditation processes or standards. Through a critical adult learning perspective we argue that in order for traditional uni-professional structures within the health professional education system to be challenged, the accreditation system needs to place greater value on interprofessional education for collaborative patient-centred practice.
    • A Comparison of Factors Related to University Students’ Learning: College-Transfer and Direct-Entry from High School Students

      Acai, Anita; Newton, Genevieve (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2015-08-31)
      Abstract Articulation agreements between colleges and universities, whereby students with two-year college diplomas can receive advancement toward a four-year university degree, are provincially mandated in some Canadian provinces and highly encouraged in others. In this study, we compared learning in college-transfer and direct-entry from high school (DEHS) students at the University of Guelph–Humber in Ontario, using eight factors related to learning: age, gender, years of prior postsecondary experience, learning approach, academic performance, use of available learning resources, subjective course experience, and career goals. Our results show that while college-transfer students tend to be older than DEHS students, they do not significantly differ in either learning approach or academic performance. This is an important finding, suggesting that college-transfer programs are a viable option for non-traditional university students. We conclude that the academic success of college-transfer students is attainable with careful consideration of policies, such as admissions criteria, and the drafting of formal articulation agreements between institutions.Résumé Les ententes d’articulation entre les collèges et les universités (qui permettent aux étudiants de programmes d’études collégiales de deux ans d’être admis dans un programme universitaire de quatre ans) sont prescrites dans certaines provinces canadiennes et fortement encouragées dans d’autres. Chez des étudiants de l’Université de Guelph-Humber en Ontario, la présente étude a comparé huit facteurs liés à l’apprentissage, entre les études universitaires après un séjour au collège et les études universitaires directement après les études secondaires (DEHS), soit l’âge, le sexe, les années d’expérience postsecondaire, la méthode d’apprentissage, le rendement scolaire, l’utilisation de ressources d’apprentissage disponibles, l’expérience subjective en matière de cours et les objectifs de carrière. Nos résultats démontrent que, tandis que les étudiants qui passent par le collège ont tendance à être plus âgés que les étudiants DEHS, leurs méthodes d’apprentissage et leurs résultats scolaires restent sensiblement les mêmes. Cette constatation est importante et suggère que les programmes avec transfert collégial sont une solution acceptable pour les étudiants non traditionnels. Nous concluons que la réussite scolaire des étudiants qui transitent au collégial est réalisable si on étudie attentivement les politiques, comme les critères d’admission et la rédaction d’ententes d’articulation formelles entre les institutions.
    • A Critique of Job Market Reality for Postsecondary Graduates

      Selleck, Laura (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 1982-04-30)
    • A Discussion of Autonomy in the Relationship Between the Law Society of Upper Canada and the University-Based Law Schools

      Shanahan, Theresa (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2000-04-30)
      This paper explores the relationship between the university-based common law schools and the Law Society of Upper Canada in legal edu- cation in Ontario today. A central objective of this paper is to distinguish between institutional autonomy and professional autonomy and to iden- tify the competing interests and obligations of these two organizations involved in educating lawyers. In attempting to understand the differ- ences between the autonomous bodies that govern legal education, a cross-disciplinary approach is taken to these issues combining a socio- logical framework on the professions with a legal perspective. The nature of professional identity and socialization, and the premise upon which professional responsibility and expertise are based is considered within the evolution of legal education in Ontario. This paper argues that the changes in organizational autonomy within the Law Society of Upper Canada and the law schools have shaped the relationship between these two bodies and increased the law school's control over legal edu- cation. In so doing this shift has powerfully influenced the future of legal education in Ontario.
    • A Faculty-Based Mentorship Circle: Positioning New Faculty for Success

      Waddell, Janice; Martin, Jennifer; Schwind, Jasna; Lapum, Jennifer (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2017-01-31)
      AbstractMultiple and competing priorities within a dynamic and changing academic environment can pose significant challenges for new faculty. Mentorship has been identified as an important strategy to help socialize new faculty to their roles and the expectations of the academic environment. It also helps them learn new skills that will position them to be successful in their academic career. In this article, the authors report on the implementation and evaluation of a mentorship circle initiative aimed at supporting new faculty in the first two years of their academic appointment. Participants reported that the mentorship circle provided them with a culture of support, a sense of belonging, and a safe space to discuss concerns and learn strategies from both mentors and fellow mentees as they adjusted to their new position. The interdisciplinary nature of the mentorship circle further facilitated faculty members’ capacity to navigate their role as new faculty and foster colleagueship.RésuméDans un milieu universitaire dynamique et évolutif, des priorités diverses et contradictoires peuvent représenter des défis importants pour les nouveaux membres du corps professoral. Le mentorat a été identifié comme une stratégie importante qui aide les nouveaux membres du corps professoral à socialiser dans le cadre de leurs fonctions et à répondre aux attentes du milieu universitaire. Le mentorat les aide aussi à acquérir de nouvelles compétences qui les prépareront à réussir leur carrière universitaire. Dans cet article, les auteurs font état de la mise en œuvre et de l’évaluation d’un cercle de mentorat visant à soutenir les nouveaux membres du corps professoral au cours de leurs deux premières années en fonction. Les participants ont signalé que le cercle de mentorat leur avait offert une culture de soutien, un sentiment d’appartenance et un espace sûr pour discuter de leurs préoccupations et acquérir, grâce au contact des mentors et d’autres collègues du cercle, des stratégies pour s’adapter à leur nouveau rôle. La nature interdisciplinaire du cercle de mentorat a facilité davantage la capacité des membres du corps enseignant à mener leur rôle et à cultiver des relations collégiales.
    • A Journey Toward Learner-Centered Curriculum

      Emes, Claudia; Cleveland-Innes, Martha (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2003-12-31)
      In higher education, competing demands for accountability and innovation in the face of globalization, technology, and budget cuts cause us to consider how best to prepare learners who will learn for a lifetime. We contend that a shift in our understanding of curriculum design to accommodate Iearner-centeredness will provide the framework for preparing graduates for a lifetime of learning. Learner-centered cur- riculum proposes to create highly developed individuals, providing them the skills to continue creating learning experiences, digest current knowledge, and create new knowledge within the curriculum itself. Curriculum characteristics, as identified in the curriculum design project presented here, include content appropriate to the characteristics of a new society. It also includes all that is required of a curriculum in order for it to be transparent and easily understood as the scaffolding of learn- ing. This definition of a learner-centered curriculum includes compo- nents that educators deem to be relevant and vital for students. It adds curriculum processes and required outcomes to prepare students for curriculum creation alongside educators.
    • A Large, First-Year, Introductory, Multi-Sectional Biological Concepts of Health Course Designed to Develop Skills and Enhance Deeper Learning

      Murrant, Coral L; Richardson, Nicolette S; Dyck, David J; Kirkland, James B; Newton, Genevieve S; Ritchie, Kerry L; Tishinsky, Justine M; Bettger, William J (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2015-12-31)
      AbstractLarge first-year biology classes, with their heavy emphasis on factual content, contribute to low student engagement and misrepresent the dynamic, interdisciplinary nature of biological science. We sought to redesign a course to deliver fundamental biology curriculum through the study of health, promote skills development, and encourage a deeper level of learning for a large, multi-section first-year class. We describe the Biological Concepts of Health course designed to encourage higher-order learning and teach oral communication and independent learning skills to large numbers of first-year students. We used the Blooming Biology Tool to determine the cognitive skills level assessed in the newly developed course and the courses it replaced. This evidence-based approach demonstrated that our new course design achieved the goal of encouraging a deeper level of cognition, and further, successfully introduced both oral communication and independent learning skills in large first-year classes.RésuméEn mettant l’emphase sur un contenu factuel, les grandes classes de biologie de première année contribuent au faible engagement des élèves et donnent une représentation imprécise de la nature dynamique et interdisciplinaire des sciences de la biologie. Afin d’offrir un programme fondamental en biologie par l’étude de la santé, de promouvoir le perfectionnement des compétences et d’encourager un niveau d’apprentissage marqué, nous avons repensé un cours pour une grande classe de première année contenant plusieurs sous-groupes. Nous décrivons le cours « Biological Concepts of Health » conçu pour encourager l’apprentissage supérieur, ainsi que pour enseigner la communication orale et les habiletés d’apprentissage individualisé à un grand nombre d’étudiants de première année. Pour déterminer le niveau d’habiletés cognitives évalué dans ce cours nouvellement conçu et les cours qu’il remplace, nous avons utilisé le « Blooming Biology Tool ». Cette approche éprouvée démontre que ce nouveau cours a atteint son but d’encourager l’approfondissement des connaissances et, par ailleurs, a réussi à introduire la communication orale, de même que les habiletés d’apprentissage individualisé aux grandes classes de première année.
    • A Little Less of the "Who Pays?"... ...A Little More of the "What For?"

      Parr, J. Gordon (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 1973-12-31)
    • A Matter of Discipline: Open Access, the Humanities, and Art History

      Tomlin, Patrick (Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education, 2010-03-09)
      Recent events suggest that open access has gained new momentum in the humanities, but the slow and uneven development of open-access initiatives in humanist fields continues to hinder the consolidation of efforts across the university. Although various studies have traced the general origins of the humanities’ reticence to embrace open access, few have actually considered the scholarly practices and disciplinary priorities that shape a discipline’s adoption of its principles. This article examines the emergence, potential and actualized, of open access in art history. Part case study, part conceptual mapping, the discussion is framed within the context of three interlocking dynamics: the present state of academic publishing in art history; the dominance of the journal and self-archiving repository within open-access models of scholarly production; and the unique roles played by copyright and permissions in art historical scholarship. It is hoped that tracing the discipline-specific configuration of research provides a first step toward both investigating the identity that open access might assume within the humanities, from discipline to discipline, and explaining how and why it might allow scholars to better serve themselves and their audiences.  
    • A Methodological Approach to Selective Cutbacks

      Belanger, Charles H.; Tremblay, Lise (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 1982-12-31)
      At times - when budget must be severely reduced on short notice and when sensible decisions must arise from complex situations - planners have to work out simple but reliable measures of resource allocation and reduction. This paper recognizes the need for applied research in this area and proposes a budget reduction formula that has the advantage of relating financial planning to pro- gram evaluation, faculty resources, and activity levels of departmental units. The tool developed is flexible, as it can be manipulated without endangering its basic assumptions to describe best each unit's intrinsic characteristics. Futher- more, its redistributive effects can be readily measured and made to respond to institutional priorities.
    • A Mixed-Methods Inquiry into the Intimate Practices of Partnered Mature Students and Influences on Relationship, Sexual, and School Satisfaction

      van Rhijn, Tricia Marie; Murray, Sarah H.; Mizzi, Robert C. (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2015-08-31)
      Abstract Through the use of mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, the current study explored the impact of postsecondary study on the intimate relationships and school experiences of partnered mature students. Quantitative regression analyses indicated that parental status, family support, partner support, and sexual desire significantly predicted relationship satisfaction, while family support and partner support significantly predicted sexual satisfaction. Age and sexual desire predicted school satisfaction for women only. Through qualitative thematic analysis it was determined that not having enough time, feeling too tired, and being stressed negatively impacted sexual satisfaction, while experiencing personal growth was described as both beneficial and problematic. Some participants reported using sex to aid in their academic success by way of offering a distraction or reducing stress. We discuss possible ways that postsecondary institutions, through their campus programs, can better address the impact school may have on mature students’ intimate relationships.RésuméGrâce à l’utilisation d’une variété de méthodes qualitatives et quantitatives, l’étude suivante étudie l’effet des études post-secondaires sur les relations intimes et les expériences scolaires des étudiants adultes en couple. La régression des analyses quantitatives indique que le statut parental, le soutien familial, l’appui du partenaire et les désirs sexuels prédisent significativement la satisfaction à l’égard des relations personnelles, tandis que le soutien familial et l’appui du partenaire prédisent de façon significative la satisfaction sexuelle. L’âge prédit aussi la satisfaction académique chez les hommes et les femmes, de même que le désir sexuel chez les hommes seulement. En utilisant une analyse thématique qualitative, il a été déterminé que le fait de ne pas disposer d’assez de temps, la fatigue et le stress ont des répercussions négatives sur la satisfaction sexuelle. Enfin, une croissance personnelle a été décrite comme étant à la fois bénéfique et problématique. Certains participants ont déclaré avoir utilisé le sexe pour aider à leurs réussites scolaires afin de s’offrir une distraction ou de diminuer leur stress. Nous discutons des moyens possibles pour les institutions post-secondaires de mieux traiter, par le truchement de leurs programmes, l’effet que peuvent avoir les études sur les relations intimes des étudiants adultes.
    • A Model for Academic Planning

      Jones, Larry R. (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 1978-12-31)
      Under conditions of limited and selective growth, institutions propose resource allocation changes which are not strictly related to overall institutional enrollment levels. These proposals often focus attention on the resource impact of internal shifts in student demand and the desirability of maintaining minimum or "critical mass "levels of academic program breadth and quality. This paper addresses the academic planning procedures needed to advance non-enrollment driven resource maintenance and acquisition proposals at institutional and state levels. The purpose of critical mass modeling for academic planning is to facilitate analysis, prioritization and negotiation of academic program alternatives and resources. The critical mass approach to academic planning would establish a campus-wide process and informa- tion base for prioritization of academic program development through (a) analysis of existing breadth and depth of faculty expertise in instruction and research at the sub- disciplinary level, (b) identification of subdisciplinary areas in which academic units would like to provide instruction and research in the future. Critical mass denotes the level of course offerings and research which academic units could not reduce and still maintain programs which fulfill their own objectives compatible with the overall mission of their institution. Critical mass program size and "core" resource requirements would be established by academic unit faculty and then would be negotiated with committees of academic senates and with institutional administrations. The planning process described is designed for application in medium and large sized institutions in which formal, comprehensive and integrated academic ¡resource planning systems do not operate presently.
    • A Model for Evaluating Program Costs: A General View

      Vallerand, Noel (Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education, 1977-08-31)
      The university accepts the responsibility of educational programs, carries out research programs and offers programs in diverse areas to the community at large. In order to do this, the university requires human and physical resources which, without taking into con-sideration their intrinsic value, are all translated into financial resources. It follows logically that this requires an allocation of resources for the different programs which takes into account the development priorities which the very implantation of the programs tries to reveal. But the process which consists of foreseeing the rational allocation of resources is extremely delicate, as much on the level of political significance, internal and external, as on the technical level which consists of focussing on the tools required for a new reading of budgetary reality.
    • A model for the allocation and utilisation of academic staff resources

      Griew, Stephen (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 1980-12-31)
      It is argued that since an institution's recurrent income is so critically dependent on its total full-time equivalent enrolment, resource allocation should be based on measures of the contributions of individual teaching units to the institution's total full-time enrolment. A model is presented that permits the estimation of such contributions. The parameters generated by this model provide a basis for judgements concerning the efficiency of academic staff utilisation, the equitable deployment of staff in matrix organisations, the utilisation of staff in complex settings such as the professional school, and the assess- ment of spare, re-allocable teaching capacity. It is argued that the model assists an institution in facing up to the constraints imposed by its staff utilisation policies and, further, that it generates information of a kind that facilitates rational planning and decision-making in the allocation and utilisation of scarce teaching resources.
    • A New Coalition Emerges

      Allnutt, David E. (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 1985-04-30)
    • A New Immigrant Experience of Navigating Multiculturalism and Indigenous Content in Teacher Education

      Marom, Lilach (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 2017-01-31)
      AbstractIn this article, which is grounded in my own experiences, I discuss the responsibilities of new immigrant teacher educators when teaching courses related to diversity and multiculturalism in Canada. I highlight the complexities that underlie discourses of multiculturalism in teacher education, and the important role that new immigrant teacher educators have in locating themselves within the frame of settler colonialism in Canada. I argue that there is a need for genuine dialogue and critical reflexivity that encourage teacher educators and teacher candidates to locate themselves within a complex web of privileges and oppressions, and I explore possible new directions for teaching multiculturalism and Indigenous content in teacher education.RésuméDans cet article fondé sur mon expérience personnelle, je discute des responsabilités des formateurs en enseignement pour nouveaux immigrants lorsqu’ils donnent des cours sur la diversité et le multiculturalisme au Canada. Je mets en lumière la complexité inhérente aux discours sur le multiculturalisme dans la formation des enseignants et le rôle important que tiennent les formateurs en enseignement pour nouveaux immigrants quand ils se positionnent dans le contexte du colonialisme au Canada. Je maintiens qu’il est nécessaire d’établir un dialogue véritable et une réflexivité critique qui encourage les formateurs en enseignement et les étudiants aux programmes de formation en enseignement à se positionner à l’intérieur d’un tissu complexe de privilèges et d’oppressions. J’explore aussi de nouvelles avenues pour enseigner le multiculturalisme et les contenus autochtones dans la formation en enseignement. 
    • A Participatory Approach to the Development of Centralized Information Systems

      Noble, Howat; Stoll, Robert A.; Calvert, Ian S. (Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 1978-04-30)
      In this article, we address the development and implementation of centralized information systems in the public sector. More specifically, we are concerned with implementation of such systems where a central governmental agency is collecting information from a number of similar institutions; for example, hospitals and colleges. It is our contention that the numerous problems traditionally associated with such systems often stem from the lack of a realistic participatory approach in the development and implementation of the system. This article discusses the participatory approach to the development and implementation of such a system - the Ontario College Information System (OCIS), a computer-based information system containing information on Ontario's twenty-two Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology.