international development through sport
administrative and fiscal reforms
the fundamental law of sport
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AbstractIt can be argued that most of the countries of the world are industrial developing countries. After World War II, industrially developed countries drew lessons from the past, and initiated continuous support to ensure global stability. Unfortunately, however, no tangible progress was made, and many countries are still struggling for peace and social stability. In these circumstances, the United Nations has released a 10-year plan for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This encompasses a number of novel viewpoint and methods, including the concept of "International Development through Sport" (IDS), which has been operating as a pilot project. Even though the importance of sport has begun to be recognized worldwide, there has also been an undermining of the value of physical education (PE). Against this background, it seems necessary to investigate the situation of PE in the context of educational reform in developing countries. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive analysis of plans for future diffusion of PE in Cambodia from a policy perspective, and attempted to define the conditions and challenges of recent educational reforms. There are two approaches for analyzing PE dissemination: comprehensive overview of "law and policy" and "actual conditions and activities", along with policy and education history. Through this approach, it was demonstrated that are many accumulated problems to be solved in educational development, and that have proved to be obstacles to PE dissemination in Cambodia. Furthermore, it was revealed that training of both pre-service and in-service teachers, which is a common policy concern in other subject fields, is essential in order to secure the implementation of PE. Irrespective of viewpoint, future diffusion of PE is a problem that can be solved only through short-term and long-term efforts focusing on model schools in each region to ensure the source of qualified teachers, and that is a link between primary schools and teacher training centers to secure regional centers for diffusion of PE in the short term. It should help to lay a firm foundation for the study on the method of educational technology in PE by consolidating statistical analysis of PE with central and regional administration, and establishing faculties of education and PE departments that will ensure the lasting growth of PE as an educational discipline.
体育学研究 = Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences, 57(1), 297-313(2012)