The Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l'apprentissage et de la technologie is a peer-reviewed journal that welcomes papers on all aspects of educational technology and learning. Topics may include, but are not limited to: learning theory and technology, cognition and technology, instructional design theory and application, online learning, computer applications in education, simulations and gaming, and other aspects of the use of technology in the learning process. An important aim of this journal is the contribution to learning theory within the field of educational technology. Manuscripts may be submitted either in English or in French. There is no charge or fee to authors for article submission or processing. Published by the Canadian Network for Innovation in Education (CNIE).


The Globethics library contains articles of the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology as of vol. 15(1986) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Educational Technology Competency Framework: Defining a Community of Practice Across Canada

    Sonnenberg, Lyn; Onan, Arif; Archibald, Douglas (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-08-09)
    Post-secondary institutions need clarity regarding what their educational technology teams can offer. Educational technology is not simply a hammer that can be quickly utilized, but rather an instrument that needs to be tuned for each unique learning context. Using a modified Delphi approach, we validated an educational technology framework that highlights the necessary capabilities, competencies, and example activities needed in higher education across Canada, which moves away from traditional roles and responsibilities. This framework captures the need for teams to educate, collaborate, design, develop, administer, and lead within their institutions. It also highlights the revealed desire and need to create broader communities of practice and collaborations between various institutions. Educational technology teams themselves, when functioning optimally, will not only transform the academic experience for learners and teaching faculty, but they will ultimately shape the direction of higher education’s teaching and learning.
  • Teachers Perceptions of Google Classroom: Revealing Urgency for Teacher Professional Learning

    Martin, Brandy A. (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-08-09)
    As the use of educational technology is at the forefront of today’s educational revolution, it is imperative that educators are employing online learning environments such as Google Classroom to enhance 21st century pedagogy and student learning. Through this mixed method research study, it has been concluded that using Google Classroom will assist educators in creating learning environments which boast organization, accessibility, mobility, and 21st century learning skills. This research reveals there continues to be gaps between the possibilities of eLearning and the training of teachers to use it and develop their teaching practices within a technological mainstream that moves beyond positivism about its value. The researcher recommends that teachers receive immediate and sustained professional learning regarding the use of Google Classroom. This learning should focus on the pedagogical side of technology integration in order to enhance 21st century learning.
  • Web Enhanced Flipped Learning: A Case Study

    Arora, Bani; Arora, Naman (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-08-09)
    This research study is a technology-enhanced flipped learning pilot to observe the students’ engagement and learning in a self-regulated class through their individual feedback. Flipped learning was applied to a segment of the Study Skills course for more than two weeks to 129 students in the foundation year of a Teachers’ College in Bahrain. Divided across four sections, the students worked in small groups, prepared an assigned portion of the course content provided through a Learning Management System (LMS), and presented it to the rest of the class. Students used posters, flash cards, and digital technology in different forms such as PowerPoint slides, mobile phones, and Kahoot!. The reflective individual student responses on this experience were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings show a favourable response to group work, sharing ideas, saving time through collaboration, and use of technology. It is recommended that the study be extended to a larger sample group, to a larger number of the course topics, and include the use of different technology forms.
  • Pedagogical Design: Bridging Learning Theory and Learning Analytics

    Banihashem, Kazem; Macfadyen, Leah P. (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-08-09)
    Which learning analytics (LA) approach might be the best choice for your teaching and learning context? Learning analytics as a field of research and application seeks to collect, analyze, report, and interpret educational data with the goal of improving teaching and learning. But hasty adoption of learning analytics tools and methods that are simply convenient, promoted or available risks allowing learning analytics to ‘drive the pedagogical bus’. In this paper, we propose that careful reflection on pedagogical design choices and the learning theory that underpins them can and should inform selection of relevant learning analytics tools and approaches. We broadly review established learning theories and the implications of each for pedagogical design; for each design approach we offer examples of learning analytics most clearly aligned with the theoretical perspectives on learning and knowledge that have shaped it. Moreover, we argue that careful consideration of the learning theory underpinning the pragmatics of pedagogical design choices should guide LA implementation, and help educators and designers avoid the risk of gathering data on, and measuring outcomes for, activities that are not relevant to their pedagogical design or goals.
  • Editorial: Volume 47 Issue 1

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Lakhal, Sawsen (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-08-09)
    As the COVID-19 pandemic slowly subsides, this journal, which focuses on learning and technology, is overwhelmed with article submissions. The education response to the health and safety requirements of the pandemic included the use of new technologies for learning in many education spaces and geographic places. Suffice to say that the interest in the topic of technology-enabled learning has increased exponentially. Over the last year we have received more than double our usual number of submissions. While an exciting transformation in the field of education, we were unprepared for the influx. Many of our authors and reviewers work in some sector of education, as does the editorial team of the journal. Currently caught up with our response to submissions, there continues to be some delay in securing agreement and support from reviewers, many of whom are still dealing with the demand on education to continue near-normal delivery. As interest and expertise in the field develops, and with hope that the pandemic continues to subside, we expect to see these recent time delays diminish over the next year.
  • 25 Years of Ed Tech, 2020 By Martin Weller. Athabasca University Press.

    Clarke Gray, Brenna (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-08-09)
    Martin Weller’s 25 Years of Ed Tech is a necessary – and surprisingly fun! – review of the technologies, practices, pedagogies, and historical amnesias that have created (and plagued) the field of educational technologies for the last two and a half decades. In tracing the major technological developments, Weller also outlines the trends that shape these developments, and suggests some rules for good practice as we look towards a future where technology-enabled learning is almost certainly the norm, if not the default.
  • Sequences of Change of University Trainers in Intersectoral Training on Digital Competence in Education

    Meyer, Florian; Dyan-Charles, Clara; Pelletier, Caroline; Laporte, Guillaume; Arguin, Félix (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-08-09)
    The ACTION training (Attestation des Compétences en Technopédagogie et en Intégration des Outils Numériques) was held in the fall of 2019. It was offered to university trainers and some of their Bachelor of Education students. This unique model was aimed at developing the digital competence of these participants. Using the theoretical framework of professional growth from Clarke and Hollingsworth (2002), this research aimed to identify the sequences of change generated by this training in order to understand its contribution to the development of the digital competence (MEES, 2019) by the various participants. It led to the understanding that this innovative training model has a very interesting potential for the professional development of university trainers.
  • Students’ Learning Experience with a Flipped Introductory Organic Chemistry Course: A Course Designed for Non-Chemistry Majors

    Luong, Horace; Falkenberg, Thomas; Rahimian, Mahdi (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-08-09)
    The use of flipped classrooms has been gaining popularity across various disciplines as student-centered active learning pedagogy. In this study, an introductory organic chemistry course was delivered through flipped classroom methodologies, incorporating blended learning to deliver content and group work in the classroom.   The learning experiences of non-chemistry majors students enrolled in the course are discussed. The majority of the students adjusted to the pedagogy and felt autonomy in their learning. These students also believed that most of the flipped classroom design components were a good use of their time in learning organic chemistry.
  • Teaching with Sandbox Games: Minecraft, Game-Based Learning, and 21st Century Competencies

    Hébert, Cristyne; Jenson , Jennifer (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    In this paper, we present the findings of a research study, working with 12 educators in a large urban school board in Ontario using Minecraft for 21st century competency development. We identify a number of pedagogical moves teachers made to support 21st century learning through communication and collaboration, both in the classroom and in the game world, and three approaches to play, directed/guided, scaffolded, and open, that represented a three tiers of critical thinking and creativity/innovation. We argue that while an open, exploratory sandbox game such as Minecraft can meaningfully aid students in the development of 21st century competencies, it is in fact teachers’ decisions around how the game will be used in the classroom that determine whether or not 21st century competency development is supported.  
  • The Role of Video in the Flipped Language Classroom

    Verch, Angelika; Nissen, Elke (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    Flipped classrooms have become a widespread form of teaching. Yet, there is no consensus on how to define flipped (language) learning. Several authors consider the use of videos that prepares in-class activities as an essential principle. The article presents a study which examined the actual roles of videos in a corpus of 52 descriptions by L2 teachers of flipped language class settings and using Willis’ 1983 framework. In the corpus videos played a central role in before-class activities; a large number of videos were used. The roles that videos played in before-class activities in the settings did not all correspond to Willis’ framework; those which did not fit corresponded to direct instruction. The definition of a flipped setting was found to be unclear, as in a quarter of the descriptions the criteria did not apply. Video was not found to be necessarily constitutive for flipped language classes.
  • Boundary Crossing between Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities: A Pathway for Advancing e-Learning Sustainability

    Bradshaw, Kathlyn; Lock, Jennifer; Parchoma, Gale (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    In this article, third generation cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) (Engeström, 2011) will be the means for analyzing tensions and contradictions between formal and informal learning within a MOOC design. This article builds on previous work (Bradshaw, Parchoma & Lock, 2017) wherein cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) was used to establish formal and informal learning as activity systems. Formal and informal learning are considered in relation to designing learning for a MOOC environment.  Findings from an in situ study specifically examining CHAT elements in the process of design are considered in a movement towards making visible what those tasked with designing courses normally do not see in relation to informal learning. Implications for practice are presented in a CHAT-Informed MOOC design model intended to augment typical approaches to instructional design. The outcome is an argument for CHAT-Informed MOOC design model can intentionally address both formal and informal opportunities for learning.
  • Editorial

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Lakhal, Sawsen (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    More than one year after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, we release a delayed Issue #3, Fall 2020, of CJLT. As an education journal, we were not immune to the effects of the pandemic. Most authors and reviewers work in some sector of education, as does the editorial team of the journal. The demand on education to continue near-normal delivery, while keeping students safe, created innovative responses alongside unskillful use of varying types of distance delivery and technology-enabled learning. The illumination of the complexity, challenges, and, for some, the benefits of such alternative education delivery methods is unprecedented. Insight, debate, and critique on the topics of remote teaching and the more sophisticated online design and delivery is more common than it was a year ago.
  • Teachers' TPACK Professional Kowledge Mastering: The case of computer simulation integration in Cameroonian technical education in electronics programs

    Dabove-Foueko, Georges Modeste; Becerril Ortega, Raquel (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    This contribution proposes a classification of the status of mastery of professional knowledge activated in the teaching of a course using computer simulation. The assessment of knowledge domains carried out is based on the TPACK categorization of (Mishra and Koehler, 2006) and involves 40 high school teachers in Cameroon. Analysis of the data collected using a Likert questionnaire revealed an epistemological configuration consisting of three dominant statuses of professional knowledge mastery among teachers. Class 1 refers to the mastery status composed mainly of teachers with an "insufficient" level. It includes knowledge of content (CK), content-related technology (TCK) and content-based pedagogical technology (TPCK). Class 2 refers to the status of mastery for which most teachers express a "satisfactory" level. It is limited only to content-related pedagogical knowledge (PCK). Finally, class 3 corresponds to the status of mastery for which the majority of teachers express an "expert" level. It includes pedagogical knowledge (PK), technological knowledge (TK) and technopedagogical knowledge (TPK). These results open up the prospect of a reflection on the actions to be taken to develop the professionalism of teachers through training.
  • Serious Games in Higher Distance Education

    Celestini, Ann (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    Games have been socially entrenched throughout history as a form of entertainment. Current rapidly changing technological advances have permitted an increasingly prominent means of utilizing these sources of entertainment in an instructional capacity for educational purposes. Serious gaming as a result, focuses on engaging learners in activities which are not solely developed for enjoyment purposes. Goal oriented pursuits based in either an authentic or fictitious scenario can be designed to improve a learner or players motor and cognitive abilities or knowledge (de Freitas & Jarvis, 2006; Lamb et al., 2018; Protopsaltis et al., 2011). Serious gaming promotes intentional, active, and mobile learning that can be successfully used as a supplemental educational tool to facilitate a situated understanding of specific content (Admiral et al., 2011; Gee, 2005). This paper is a brief overview of game-based learning, or serious games, as an innovative instructional strategy in higher distance education.
  • Virtual Lab Integration in Undergraduate Courses: Insights from Course Design and Implementation

    Papaconstantinou, Maria; Kilkenny, Dawn; Garside, Christopher; Ju, William; Najafi, Hedieh; Harrison, Laurie (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    The instructors of four biology-related courses at a Canadian university integrated Labster virtual labs in their courses as a pre-lab activity, lecture substitute, or to provide lab experience in courses with no on-site labs. The instructors used a backward design approach to align the labs with the learning objectives of their courses and to connect the labs with their course assessments. A study was conducted to examine students’ perceptions of the usefulness of the virtual labs in terms of content knowledge and lab skills. At the end of each course, the instructors administered an anonymous survey in their classes. In total, 370 students participated. Across all four courses, survey results showed that at least 77% of the students found that virtual lab simulations helped them understand course concepts. At least 74% of the students navigated the virtual labs with no issues and 58% of the students found the simulations to be of high quality.
  • MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South: A Review

    Devers, Christopher (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    This timely and eye-opening book from Ke Zhang, Curt Bonk, Tom Reeves, and Tom Reynolds, MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South (Zhang, Bonk, Reeves, & Reynolds, 2020), provides 28 chapters that describe the challenges, successes, and opportunities of MOOCs and open education from the perspective of 68 authors from 47 countries in the Global South ( Before those chapters, a detailed preface from the four editors lays out the journey that the world community took to get to this point in the metaphor of a wanderer who makes his or her path by pushing ahead and exploring the road in front. In addition, an insightful foreword is provided by Mimi Miyoung Lee from the University of Houston who had previously co-edited an award-winning book with Bonk, Reeves, and Reynolds; namely, MOOCs and Open Education Around the World (Bonk, Lee, Reeves, & Reynolds, 2015). Thus, consider the current book Part 2 of what is likely to become a many act play in the world of MOOCs and open education. With the foreword and preface, there are 30 pieces in total (Note: the front matter is available for free from:
  • Mediography: Media on Television and Children

    Lane, Nancy (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1985-10-01)
  • Microware Reviews

    Proctor, Leonard (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1984-04-01)
  • AMTEC '82: Still on the Right Track

    Chalmers, John (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1982-10-01)
  • Opinion: Copyright: Now or Never

    Hose, Ian (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1985-01-01)

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