The Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l'apprentissage et de la technologie is a peer-reviewed journal that welcomes papers on all aspects of educational technology and learning. Topics may include, but are not limited to: learning theory and technology, cognition and technology, instructional design theory and application, online learning, computer applications in education, simulations and gaming, and other aspects of the use of technology in the learning process. An important aim of this journal is the contribution to learning theory within the field of educational technology. Manuscripts may be submitted either in English or in French. There is no charge or fee to authors for article submission or processing. Published by the Canadian Network for Innovation in Education (CNIE).


The library contains articles of the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology as of vol. 15(1986) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Teaching with Sandbox Games: Minecraft, Game-Based Learning, and 21st Century Competencies

    Hébert, Cristyne; Jenson , Jennifer (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    In this paper, we present the findings of a research study, working with 12 educators in a large urban school board in Ontario using Minecraft for 21st century competency development. We identify a number of pedagogical moves teachers made to support 21st century learning through communication and collaboration, both in the classroom and in the game world, and three approaches to play, directed/guided, scaffolded, and open, that represented a three tiers of critical thinking and creativity/innovation. We argue that while an open, exploratory sandbox game such as Minecraft can meaningfully aid students in the development of 21st century competencies, it is in fact teachers’ decisions around how the game will be used in the classroom that determine whether or not 21st century competency development is supported.  
  • The Role of Video in the Flipped Language Classroom

    Verch, Angelika; Nissen, Elke (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    Flipped classrooms have become a widespread form of teaching. Yet, there is no consensus on how to define flipped (language) learning. Several authors consider the use of videos that prepares in-class activities as an essential principle. The article presents a study which examined the actual roles of videos in a corpus of 52 descriptions by L2 teachers of flipped language class settings and using Willis’ 1983 framework. In the corpus videos played a central role in before-class activities; a large number of videos were used. The roles that videos played in before-class activities in the settings did not all correspond to Willis’ framework; those which did not fit corresponded to direct instruction. The definition of a flipped setting was found to be unclear, as in a quarter of the descriptions the criteria did not apply. Video was not found to be necessarily constitutive for flipped language classes.
  • Boundary Crossing between Formal and Informal Learning Opportunities: A Pathway for Advancing e-Learning Sustainability

    Bradshaw, Kathlyn; Lock, Jennifer; Parchoma, Gale (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    In this article, third generation cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) (Engeström, 2011) will be the means for analyzing tensions and contradictions between formal and informal learning within a MOOC design. This article builds on previous work (Bradshaw, Parchoma & Lock, 2017) wherein cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) was used to establish formal and informal learning as activity systems. Formal and informal learning are considered in relation to designing learning for a MOOC environment.  Findings from an in situ study specifically examining CHAT elements in the process of design are considered in a movement towards making visible what those tasked with designing courses normally do not see in relation to informal learning. Implications for practice are presented in a CHAT-Informed MOOC design model intended to augment typical approaches to instructional design. The outcome is an argument for CHAT-Informed MOOC design model can intentionally address both formal and informal opportunities for learning.
  • Editorial

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Lakhal, Sawsen (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    More than one year after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, we release a delayed Issue #3, Fall 2020, of CJLT. As an education journal, we were not immune to the effects of the pandemic. Most authors and reviewers work in some sector of education, as does the editorial team of the journal. The demand on education to continue near-normal delivery, while keeping students safe, created innovative responses alongside unskillful use of varying types of distance delivery and technology-enabled learning. The illumination of the complexity, challenges, and, for some, the benefits of such alternative education delivery methods is unprecedented. Insight, debate, and critique on the topics of remote teaching and the more sophisticated online design and delivery is more common than it was a year ago.
  • Teachers' TPACK Professional Kowledge Mastering: The case of computer simulation integration in Cameroonian technical education in electronics programs

    Dabove-Foueko, Georges Modeste; Becerril Ortega, Raquel (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    This contribution proposes a classification of the status of mastery of professional knowledge activated in the teaching of a course using computer simulation. The assessment of knowledge domains carried out is based on the TPACK categorization of (Mishra and Koehler, 2006) and involves 40 high school teachers in Cameroon. Analysis of the data collected using a Likert questionnaire revealed an epistemological configuration consisting of three dominant statuses of professional knowledge mastery among teachers. Class 1 refers to the mastery status composed mainly of teachers with an "insufficient" level. It includes knowledge of content (CK), content-related technology (TCK) and content-based pedagogical technology (TPCK). Class 2 refers to the status of mastery for which most teachers express a "satisfactory" level. It is limited only to content-related pedagogical knowledge (PCK). Finally, class 3 corresponds to the status of mastery for which the majority of teachers express an "expert" level. It includes pedagogical knowledge (PK), technological knowledge (TK) and technopedagogical knowledge (TPK). These results open up the prospect of a reflection on the actions to be taken to develop the professionalism of teachers through training.
  • Serious Games in Higher Distance Education

    Celestini, Ann (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    Games have been socially entrenched throughout history as a form of entertainment. Current rapidly changing technological advances have permitted an increasingly prominent means of utilizing these sources of entertainment in an instructional capacity for educational purposes. Serious gaming as a result, focuses on engaging learners in activities which are not solely developed for enjoyment purposes. Goal oriented pursuits based in either an authentic or fictitious scenario can be designed to improve a learner or players motor and cognitive abilities or knowledge (de Freitas & Jarvis, 2006; Lamb et al., 2018; Protopsaltis et al., 2011). Serious gaming promotes intentional, active, and mobile learning that can be successfully used as a supplemental educational tool to facilitate a situated understanding of specific content (Admiral et al., 2011; Gee, 2005). This paper is a brief overview of game-based learning, or serious games, as an innovative instructional strategy in higher distance education.
  • Virtual Lab Integration in Undergraduate Courses: Insights from Course Design and Implementation

    Papaconstantinou, Maria; Kilkenny, Dawn; Garside, Christopher; Ju, William; Najafi, Hedieh; Harrison, Laurie (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    The instructors of four biology-related courses at a Canadian university integrated Labster virtual labs in their courses as a pre-lab activity, lecture substitute, or to provide lab experience in courses with no on-site labs. The instructors used a backward design approach to align the labs with the learning objectives of their courses and to connect the labs with their course assessments. A study was conducted to examine students’ perceptions of the usefulness of the virtual labs in terms of content knowledge and lab skills. At the end of each course, the instructors administered an anonymous survey in their classes. In total, 370 students participated. Across all four courses, survey results showed that at least 77% of the students found that virtual lab simulations helped them understand course concepts. At least 74% of the students navigated the virtual labs with no issues and 58% of the students found the simulations to be of high quality.
  • MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South: A Review

    Devers, Christopher (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2021-05-28)
    This timely and eye-opening book from Ke Zhang, Curt Bonk, Tom Reeves, and Tom Reynolds, MOOCs and Open Education in the Global South (Zhang, Bonk, Reeves, & Reynolds, 2020), provides 28 chapters that describe the challenges, successes, and opportunities of MOOCs and open education from the perspective of 68 authors from 47 countries in the Global South ( Before those chapters, a detailed preface from the four editors lays out the journey that the world community took to get to this point in the metaphor of a wanderer who makes his or her path by pushing ahead and exploring the road in front. In addition, an insightful foreword is provided by Mimi Miyoung Lee from the University of Houston who had previously co-edited an award-winning book with Bonk, Reeves, and Reynolds; namely, MOOCs and Open Education Around the World (Bonk, Lee, Reeves, & Reynolds, 2015). Thus, consider the current book Part 2 of what is likely to become a many act play in the world of MOOCs and open education. With the foreword and preface, there are 30 pieces in total (Note: the front matter is available for free from:
  • Mediography: Media on Television and Children

    Lane, Nancy (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1985-10-01)
  • Microware Reviews

    Proctor, Leonard (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1984-04-01)
  • AMTEC '82: Still on the Right Track

    Chalmers, John (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1982-10-01)
  • Opinion: Copyright: Now or Never

    Hose, Ian (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1985-01-01)
  • Mediography: Media on Canadian Studies

    Lane, Nancy (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1983-07-01)
  • Knowing Ourselves

    Osborne, Ken (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1983-07-01)
  • Computer News

    Kenny, Rick (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1984-07-01)
  • Computer News

    Kenny, Rick (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1983-04-01)
  • From the Media Periodicals

    Ellis, Richard (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1984-10-01)
  • Awards: AMTEC '84 Media Festival

    Graham, Bob (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1984-10-01)
  • Editorial: ET: The Educational Technologist

    Hlynka, Denis (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1983-01-01)
  • Profile: AECT

    McLaren, Joan (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1983-01-01)

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