• 1983: World Communication Year

      Markell, H. D. (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1983-01-01)
      None
    • A Brief History of Knowledge Building

      Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2010-12-17)
      Knowledge Building as a theoretical, pedagogical, and technological innovation focuses on the 21st century need to work creatively with knowledge. The team now advancing Knowledge Building spans multiple disciplines, sectors, and cultural contexts. Several teacher-researcher-government partnerships have formed to bring about the systemic changes required to accommodate pedagogical innovations that range from elementary to tertiary education and require new forms of teacher education. This paper tracks the evolution of Knowledge Building, starting with research on “knowledge transforming,” “intentional learning,” and other processes leading to the development of expertise. It provides an account of how the first networked collaborative learning environment was developed to support such processes and next-generation research and development to advance education for innovation and knowledge creation.
    • A Case Study of Institutional Reform Based on Innovation Diffusion Theory Through Instructional Technology

      Szabo, Michael; Sobon, Sonia A (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2003-06-15)
      A theory-based system of educational reform through instructional technology, the Training, Infrastructure and Empowerment System (TIES), was developed and piloted in a research university during the late 1990s. In 2001, a research study was conducted on this implementation using qualitative methodology. Interviews were conducted with 12 participants who represented 4 different stakeholder groups. Some of the themes to emerge were: (a) Vision for instructional technology, (b) learning technologies and alternative delivery systems, (c) adoption of innovation, (d) general challenges and (e) lessons learned. Discussion includes implications of these themes for reform of education as they relate to a theoretical reform framework. Suggestions for further research are also identified.
    • A Case Study on Learning Difficulties and Corresponding Supports for Learning in cMOOCs | Une étude de cas sur les difficultés d’apprentissage et le soutien correspondant pour l’apprentissage dans les cMOOC

      Li, Shuang; Tang, Qi; Zhang, Yanxia (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2016-04-14)
      cMOOCs, which are based on connectivist learning theory, bring challenges for learners as well as opportunities for self-inquiry. Previous studies have shown that learners in cMOOCs may have difficulties learning, but these studies do not provide any in-depth, empirical explorations of student difficulties or support strategies. This paper presents a case study on student difficulties and support requirements at the beginning of a cMOOC. Content analysis of messages posted by learners and instructors in four main online course learning spaces including Moodle, blogs, Facebook and Twitter was conducted. Three questions are explored in this paper: (1) What kinds of difficulties do learners encounter at the beginning of a cMOOC?; (2) Which of these difficulties are typical for most learners?; and (3) How are these difficulties responded to and supported in the cMOOC environment? Based on the research results of this study, we provide some reflections on learning support for cMOOCs and a discussion of the research itself in the last part of the paper. Les cMOOC, qui s’appuient sur une théorie pédagogique connectiviste, soulèvent des défis pour les apprenants ainsi que des occasions de questionnement de soi. Des études préalables ont démontré que les apprenants des cMOOC peuvent connaître des difficultés d’apprentissage, mais ces études n’offrent pas d’exploration empirique en profondeur des difficultés des élèves ni des stratégies de soutien. Cet article présente une étude de cas sur les difficultés des élèves et les besoins de soutien au début d’un cMOOC. On a procédé à l’analyse du contenu des messages publiés par les apprenants et les instructeurs dans les quatre principaux espaces en ligne pour l’apprentissage, c’est-à-dire Moodle, les blogues, Facebook et Twitter. Cet article explore trois questions : (1) Quels types de difficultés rencontrent les apprenants au début d’un cMOOC?; (2) Parmi ces difficultés, lesquelles sont typiques pour la plupart des apprenants?; et (3) Comment réagit-on à ces difficultés et comment y remédie-t-on dans l’environnement du cMOOC? En nous appuyant sur les résultats de recherche de cette étude, nous offrons quelques réflexions sur le soutien pédagogique pour les cMOOC et une discussion sur la recherche elle-même dans la dernière partie de l’article.
    • A Case Study: Development of Interactive Multi-Media Courseware in Dentistry

      David, Benoit; Demirjian, Arto; Shaw, Steven (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2009-02-13)
    • A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments / Comparaison des modes de participation dans des environnements formels, non formels et informels d'apprentissage en ligne

      Schwier, Richard; Seaton, Jennifer (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2012-11-22)
      Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online discussions were analyzed and compared employing Transcript Analysis Tools for measures of density, intensity, and reciprocity of participation (Fahy, Crawford, & Ally, 2001), and mean reply depth (Wiley, n.d.). This paper provides an initial description and comparison of participation patterns in a formal, non-formal, and informal learning environment, and discusses the significance of differences observed. La participation des apprenants varie-t-elle en fonction du contexte d'apprentissage? Existe-t-il des caractéristiques de participation spécifiques aux environnements formels, non formels et informels d'apprentissage en ligne? Six environnements d'apprentissage en ligne ont été sélectionnés pour illustrer les contextes formels, non formels et informels d'apprentissage et ont été comparés. Les transcriptions des discussions en ligne ont été analysées et comparées à l’aide des Transcript Analysis Tools pour mesurer la densité, l'intensité et la réciprocité de la participation (Fahy, Crawford, et Ally, 2001), ainsi que la profondeur moyenne de réponse (John Wiley & Sons, nd). Cet article décrit et compare les modes de participation dans un environnement formel, non formel et informel d'apprentissage, et discute la portée des différences observées.
    • A Connected Generation? Digital Inequalities in Elementary and High School Students According to Age and Socioeconomic Level | Une génération connectée? Inégalités numériques chez les élèves du primaire et du secondaire selon l’âge et le milieu socioéconomique

      Collin, Simon; Karsenti, Thierry; Ndimubandi, Alexis; Saffari, Hamid (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2017-01-31)
      The objective of this article was to better understand the relationship between students’ age and socioeconomic level, and its influence on students’ digital uses. We conducted a quantitative study of 401 elementary and high school students in Quebec. Four independent variables were initially selected: two related to age (actual age and education level) and two others related to the socioeconomic environment (school poverty index and parents’ employment status). The dependent variable that represented students’ digital uses was the number of different technologies they used weekly. We conducted correlation tests followed by a linear regression analysis. Socioeconomic level appears to have a stronger influence on students’ digital uses compared to age, and explanations for this are proposed.L'objectif de cet article est de mieux comprendre la relation entre l’âge et le milieu socioéconomique des élèves dans leurs usages numériques. Nous avons mené une étude quantitative auprès de 401 élèves du primaire et du secondaire dans la région de Montréal. Quatre variables indépendantes ont été sélectionnées initialement, dont les deux premières renvoient à l'âge (l'âge et l'ordre d'enseignement) alors que les deux dernières renseignent sur le milieu socioéconomique (l'indice de défavorisation des écoles et la situation d'emploi des parents d'élèves). La variable dépendante permettant de rendre compte des usages numériques des élèves était le nombre de technologies qu'ils utilisent sur une base hebdomadaire. Nous avons procédé à une régression linéaire précédée de tests de corrélation. Il en ressort que le niveau socioéconomique semble influencer davantage les usages numériques des élèves que l'âge pour plusieurs raisons explorées dans cette recherche.
    • A Consortium for Educational Audio Teleconferencing in British Columbia

      Robertson, William; Kaufman, David; Landsburg, June; Macleod, John; Zuckernick, Arlene (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1985-04-01)
      None
    • A Convergent Participation Model for Evaluation of Learning Objects

      Nesbit, John; Belfer, Karen; Vargo, John (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2002-10-15)
      The properties that distinguish learning objects from other forms of educational software - global accessibility, metadata standards, finer granularity and reusability - have implications for evaluation. This article proposes a convergent participation model for learning object evaluation in which representatives from stakeholder groups (e.g., students, instructors, subject matter experts, instructional designers, and media developers) converge toward more similar descriptions and ratings through a two-stage process supported by online collaboration tools. The article reviews evaluation models that have been applied to educational software and media, considers models for gathering and meta-evaluating individual user reviews that have recently emerged on the Web, and describes the peer review model adopted for the MERLOT repository. The convergent participation model is assessed in relation to other models and with respect to its support for eight goals of learning object evaluation: (1) aid for searching and selecting, (2) guidance for use, (3) formative evaluation, (4) influence on design practices, (5) professional development and student learning, (6) community building, (7) social recognition, and (8) economic exchange.
    • A Formative Analysis of Resources Used to Learn Software

      Kay, Robin H. (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2007-02-15)
      A comprehensive, formal comparison of resources used to learn computer software has yet to be researched. Understanding the relative strengths and weakness of resources would provide useful guidance to teachers and students. The purpose of the current study was to explore the effectiveness of seven key resources: human assistance, the manual, the keyboard, the screen, the software (other than main menu), the software main menu, and software help. Thirty-six adults (18 male, 18 female), representing three computer ability levels (beginner, intermediate, and advanced), volunteered to think out loud while they learned, for a period of 55 minutes, the rudimentary steps (moving the cursor, using a menu, entering data) required to use a spreadsheet software package (Lotus 1-2-3). The main menu, the screen, and the manual were the most effective resources used. Human assistance produced short term gains in learning but was not significantly related to overall task performance. Searching the keyboard was frequently done, but was relatively ineffective for improving learning. Software help was the least effective learning resource. Individual differences in using resources were observed with respect to ability level and gender. Résumé : L’objet de la présente étude consistait à évaluer un cours de perfectionnement professionnel en ligne pour les enseignants qualifiés dans le domaine des technologies de l’information et de la communication et à étudier les facteurs qui ont de l’influence sur le perfectionnement professionnel en ligne. L’étude a tenu compte de méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives, notamment un sondage, un groupe de discussion et une entrevue réalisée alors que le cours était donné et environ neuf mois après la fin du cours. Les données indiquent que la prestation en ligne du cours sur le perfectionnement professionnel sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication pour les enseignants qualifiés s’est avérée une réussite. Toutefois, il a été difficile d’initier une communauté d’apprentissage au milieu de l’apprentissage en ligne. Les enseignants participant ont éprouvé de grandes difficultés à mettre en pratique dans leur enseignement ce qu’ils avaient appris. L’étude suggère que les prochaines séances de perfectionnement professionnel en ligne sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication devront comprendre des séances en personne et devront être offertes à plus d’un enseignant par école. Le perfectionnement professionnel qui vise des changements devrait être considéré comme un processus continu et appuyé alors que l’école change.
    • A framework for identifying and promoting metacognitive knowledge and control in online discussants

      Murphy, Elizabeth (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2009-03-25)
      The effectiveness of computer-based learning environments depends on learners’ deployment of metacognitive and self-regulatory processes. Analysis of transmitted messages in a context of Computer Mediated Communication can provide a source of information on metacognitive activity. However, existing models or frameworks (e.g., Henri, 1992) that support the identification and assessment of metacognition have been described as subjective, lacking in clear criteria, and unreliable in contexts of scoring. This paper develops a framework that might be used by researchers analysing transcripts of discussions for evidence of engagement in metacognition, by instructors assessing learners’ participation in online discussions or by designers setting up metacognitive experiences for learners. Résumé : L’efficacité des environnements d’apprentissage assistés par ordinateur repose sur l’utilisation de processus de métacognition et d’autorégulation par les apprenants. L’analyse de messages transmis dans un contexte de communication assistée par ordinateur peut constituer une source d’information sur l’activité métacognitive. Cependant, les modèles et cadres existants (p. ex. Henri, 1992) qui permettent la reconnaissance et l’évaluation de la métacognition ont été décrits comme subjectifs, dépourvus de critères clairs et peu fiables dans des contextes de notation. Cet article décrit un cadre qui pourrait être utilisé par les chercheurs qui analysent les transcriptions de discussions à la recherche de preuves d’engagement métacognitif, par les instructeurs qui procèdent à l’évaluation de la participation des apprenants à des discussions en ligne ou par les concepteurs qui élaborent des expériences métacognitives pour les apprenants.
    • A Learning Module for BA Students to Develop ICT Skills for their Learning Activities | Un module de formation visant le développement des compétences TICE chez les étudiants en baccalauréat

      Platteaux, Hervé; Hoein, Sergio (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2015-11-04)
      This case illustrates the process of developing a learning module to support BA students in their use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools in their learning. At the university where this case occurred, the skill level of ICT use among students in a learning context was very heterogeneous. The E-learning Competency Centre, or ECC, which was in charge of techno-pedagogical development at the institution, created a hybrid learning module that offered students learning materials and activities with both face-to-face workshops and online tutorials for autonomous learning. The students were able to choose subjects they wanted to learn "à la carte" by taking tutorials on their own and/or by participating in face-to-face workshops. The module described in this case is currently under construction. The design phase of this project is the focus of this case study.
    • A Proposed Model for the Systematic Design of Instructional Pictures

      Wiesenberg, Faye; Baine, David (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1994-01-15)
    • A Quantitative and Qualitative Inquiry into Future Teachers’ Use of Information and Communications Technology to Develop Students’ Information Literacy Skills | Enquête quantitative et qualitative auprès de futurs enseignants portant sur l’utilisation des technologies de l’information et de la communication pour développer les compétences informationnelles des élèves

      Simard, Stéphanie; Karsenti, Thierry (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2017-01-31)
      This study aims to understand how preservice programs prepare future teachers to use ICT to develop students’ information literacy skills. A survey was conducted from January 2014 through May 2014 with 413 future teachers in four French Canadian universities. In the spring of 2015, qualitative data were also collected from 48 students in their final year of an initial teacher training program. Our findings suggest that although future teachers receive formal ICT training as part of their program, information literacy is not formally addressed. Nevertheless, information literacy is perceived to be an important skill. In addition to a lack of formal training, future teachers perceive that barriers such as time constraints and lack of access to necessary technologies in the classroom will prevent them from helping students develop information literacy skills. Based on these results, we propose some practical implications and recommendations for preservice programs and education policy makers.Cette étude vise à mieux comprendre comment la formation initiale en enseignement prépare les futurs enseignants à utiliser les TIC pour développer les compétences informationnelles des élèves. Dans un premier temps, une enquête a été réalisée entre janvier et mai 2014 auprès de 413 futurs enseignants dans quatre universités québécoises. Dans un second temps, au printemps 2015, des données qualitatives ont été recueillies auprès de 48 futurs enseignants au cours du dernier trimestre de leur formation initiale. Nos analyses suggèrent que si les futurs enseignants reçoivent une formation à l’utilisation pédagogique des TIC, les compétences informationnelles ne sont pas explicitement abordées, et ce, bien qu’elles soient perçues comme essentielles. De plus, les contraintes de temps et l’accessibilité aux outils informatiques sont pressenties comme des défis importants. Sur la base des suggestions des participants, nous dégageons des retombées pratiques pour la formation initiale et pour les détenteurs d’enjeux en éducation.
    • A Response and Commentary to: A Review of e-Learning in Canada

      Anderson, Terry (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 2006-10-15)
    • A review of A Handbook of Computer Based Training (2nd Edition)

      Taylor, Stephen G. (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1990-06-15)
    • A review of A Reappmiaal of Instructional Television

      Baggaley, Jon (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1989-01-05)
    • A review of An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion

      Carrier, Gilles (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1988-05-05)
    • A review of Aspects of School Television in Europe

      Lewis, Richard F. (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1994-06-15)
    • A review of Canadian Internet Handbook (1995 Edition)

      Misanchuk, Earl R. (The Canadian Network for Innovation in Education, 1995-10-15)