KeywordsAsteroid,Asteroid belt,C-type asteroid,Dawn spacecraft,Galileo spacecraft,Hayabusa spacecraft,M-type asteroid,NEAR-Shoemaker spacecraft,S-type asteroid
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Science case for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): A component of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) missionUniversidad de Alicante. Departamento de Física, Ingeniería de Sistemas y Teoría de la Señal; Astronomía y Astrofísica; Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Küppers, M.; Pravec, Petr; Blum, J.; Delbo, M.; Green, S.F.; Rosenblatt, P.; et al. (RUA : Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de AlicanteElsevier, 2017-02-22)The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to test the kinetic impactor technique to deflect an asteroid. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is set to rendezvous with the asteroid system to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near-Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Having direct information on the surface and internal properties of small asteroids will allow us to understand how the various processes they undergo work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. Making these measurements from up close and comparing them with ground-based data from telescopes will also allow us to calibrate remote observations and improve our data interpretation of other systems. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the target by AIM, the mission will be the first fully documented impact experiment at asteroid scale, which will include the characterization of the target’s properties and the outcome of the impact. AIDA will thus offer a great opportunity to test and refine our understanding and models at the actual scale of an asteroid, and to check whether the current extrapolations of material strength from laboratory-scale targets to the scale of AIDA’s target are valid. Moreover, it will offer a first check of the validity of the kinetic impactor concept to deflect a small body and lead to improved efficiency for future kinetic impactor designs. This paper focuses on the science return of AIM, the current knowledge of its target from ground-based observations, and the instrumentation planned to get the necessary data.
Deriving asteroid mineralogies from reflectance spectra: Implications for the MUSES-C target asteroidBurbine,Thomas H.; McCoy,Timothy J.; Jarosewich,Eugene; Sunshine,Jessica M. (Department of Mineral Sciences, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution/Department of Mineral Sciences, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution/Department of Mineral Sciences, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution/Advanced Technology Applications Division, Science Applications International Corporation, 2003-03)In an effort to both bolster the spectral database on ordinary chondrites and constrain our ability to deconvolve modal, mineral chemistry and bulk chemical composition information from ordinary chondrites, we have initiated a spectral study of samples with known bulk compositions from the Smithsonian Institution's Analyzed Meteorite Powder collection. In this paper, we focus on deriving a better formula for determining asteroid mineralogies from reflectance spectra. The MUSES-C mission to asteroid 25143 1998 SF36 will allow any derived mineralogies to be tested with a returned sample.
Introducing the Eulalia and new Polana asteroid families: re-assessing primitive asteroid families in the inner Main BeltWalsh, Kevin J.; Delbó, Marco; Bottke, William F.; Vokrouhlický, David; Lauretta, Dante S. (2013-05-13)The so-called Nysa-Polana complex of asteroids is a diverse and widespread group. It appears to be two overlapping families of different asteroid taxonomies: (44) Nysa is an E-type asteroid with the lowest number in the midst of a predominantly S-type cluster and (142) Polana is a B-type asteroid near the low-albedo B- and C-type cluster. Using the data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission we have re-analyzed the region around the Nysa-Polana complex in the inner Main Belt, focusing on the low-albedo population. (142) Polana does not appear to be a member of the family of low-albedo asteroids in the Nysa-Polana complex. Rather, the largest is asteroid (495) Eulalia. This asteroid has never before been linked to this complex for an important dynamical reason: it currently has a proper eccentricity slightly below the range of most of the family members. However, its orbit is very close to the 3:1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter and is in a weak secular resonance. We show that its osculating eccentricity varies widely on short timescales and the averaged value diffuses over long timescales. The diffusive orbit, low-albedo, taxonomic similarity and semimajor axis strongly suggests that despite its current proper eccentricity, (495) Eulalia could have recently been at an orbit very central to the family. Hierarchical Clustering Method tests confirm that at an eccentricity of e=0.15, (495) Eulalia could be the parent of the family. The ``Eulalia family'' was formed between 900--1500 Myr ago, and likely resulted from the breakup of a 100--160 km parent body. There is also compelling evidence for an older and more widespread primitive family in the same region of the asteroid belt parented by asteroid (142) Polana.