Keywordsanimal parasite,animal pathogen,antifungal,commensalism,dutch elm disease,fungal infection,fungal parasite,fungal pathogen,fungi,fungus,mycetismus,mycosis,mycotoxicosis,parasitism,plant parasite,plant pathogen
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AbstractBy the end of this section, you will be able to: <list> <item>Describe fungal parasites and pathogens of plants</item> <item>Describe the different types of fungal infections in humans</item> <item>Explain why antifungal therapy is hampered by the similarity between fungal and animal cells</item> </list>
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People, Parasites, and Plowshares : Learning From Our Body's Most Terrifying Invaders /Despommier, Dickson D.,author.Dickson D. Despommier's vivid, visceral account of the biology, behavior, and history of parasites follows the interplay between these fascinating life forms and human society over thousands of years. Despommier focuses on long-term host-parasite associations, which have evolved to avoid or even subvert the human immune system. Some parasites do great damage to their hosts, while others have signed a kind of "peace treaty" in exchange for their long lives within them. Many parasites also practice clever survival strategies that medical scientists hope to mimic as they search for treatments for Crohn's disease, food allergies, type 1 diabetes, organ transplantation, and other medical challenges. Despommier concentrates on particularly remarkable and often highly pathogenic organisms, describing their lifecycles and the mechanisms they use to avoid elimination. He details their attack and survival plans and the nature of the illnesses they cause in general terms, enabling readers of all backgrounds to steal a glimpse into the secret work of such effective invaders. He also points to the cultural contexts in which these parasites thrive and reviews the current treatments available to defeat them. Encouraging scientists to continue to study these organisms even if their threat is largely contained, Despommier shows how closer dissection of the substances parasites produce to alter our response to them could help unravel some of our most complex medical conundrums.
Recent developments in the epidemiology and management of tuberculosis &amp;ndash; new solutions to old problems?Thaiss WM; Thaiss CC; Thaiss CA (Dove Press, 2012-01-01)Wolfgang M Thaiss1, Cornelius C Thaiss2, Christoph A Thaiss31Christian-Albrechts-Universty, Kiel, 2Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis is an ancient human disease that is still a major cause of death and one of the most challenging public health problems worldwide. After decades of stagnancy, new public&amp;ndash;private partnerships to fight the disease and the increasing awareness of a vicious circle between the tuberculosis epidemic and the obstruction of economic development have fuelled recent progress in our understanding of the disease. As a result, new strategies to improve management and treatment of tuberculosis have been initiated. At the same time, however, the devastating effect of human immunodeficiency virus on tuberculosis susceptibility and the rapid expansion of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis threaten to undermine the advances made by tuberculosis management programs. With an estimated 9 million new cases annually, tuberculosis affects a higher number of individuals worldwide than ever before. Here, recent developments in the epidemiology and management of tuberculosis are summarized and an overview is provided of emerging strategies to combat this ancient scourge.Keywords: tuberculosis, epidemiology, management, multidrug resistance, vaccine
Clinical Features, Presence of Human Herpesvirus-8 and Treatment Results in Classic Kaposi SarcomaÖzlem Su; Nahide Onsun; Hande Arda; Ömer Ümmetoğlu; Ayşe Pekdemir (Galenos Yayincilik, 2008-12-01)Background and Design: Classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs predominantly among the elderly, with Jews, Italians and Greeks. Classic KS has been seen relatively frequently in Turkey. Our aim was to evaluate the demographic, clinical features of Kaposi sarcoma and etiopathological role of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Treatment results of 18 classic Kaposi’s sarcoma were also concluded.Material and Method: Eighteen cases of classic Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed as clinically and histopathologically between January 2001 and August 2008 in our dermatology department were taken to this study. Demographic, clinical features and treatment results were reviewed retrospectively in all patients. HHV-8 was investigated in the lesional skin of 7 patients.Results: A male/female ratio of 2/1 was found. Mean age at diagnosis was 67.2 (37-94) years. Bilaterally lower extremities were involved in 15 patients (83.3%), the trunk was involved in 3 patients (16.6%). Plaques and nodules were the common type of lesions (66.6% and 55.5%). Nine patients had no symptoms (50%). Edema was the most common symptom (38.8%). A second primary malignancy was found in 2 patients (11.1%). HHV-8 was detected in 6 of the 7 patients(85.7%). Majority of the patients were treated with interferon alfa (subcutaneously) and cryotherapy as a monotherapy or a combination therapy. Imiquimod was the second agent in combined treatment (27.7%). Conclusion: We suggest that interferon alfa and imiquimod can be used as first line therapy agents with their antiviral and immunmodulatuar features in the treatment of KKS. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 122-6)