Racism today: Rationale for ecumenical commitment — World Council of Churches
KeywordsUnity, mission, evangelism and spirituality
Just and inclusive communities
Notting Hill, United Kingdom, 1969, May 19-24, Notting Hill Consultation on Racism
Programme to Combat Racism (PCR)
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AbstractThe World Council of Churches convened a meeting at the Ecumenical Centre, Geneva on December 4 & 5, 2008 with some of those who have been involved in the work of the Programme to Combat Racism to consider appropriate ways in which its 40th anniversary might be commemorated in 2009.
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The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity /Isaac, Benjamin,author.There was racism in the ancient world, after all. This groundbreaking book refutes the common belief that the ancient Greeks and Romans harbored "ethnic and cultural," but not racial, prejudice. It does so by comprehensively tracing the intellectual origins of racism back to classical antiquity. Benjamin Isaac's systematic analysis of ancient social prejudices and stereotypes reveals that some of those represent prototypes of racism--or proto-racism--which in turn inspired the early modern authors who developed the more familiar racist ideas. He considers the literature from classical Greece to late antiquity in a quest for the various forms of the discriminatory stereotypes and social hatred that have played such an important role in recent history and continue to do so in modern society. Magisterial in scope and scholarship, and engagingly written, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity further suggests that an understanding of ancient attitudes toward other peoples sheds light not only on Greco-Roman imperialism and the ideology of enslavement (and the concomitant integration or non-integration) of foreigners in those societies, but also on the disintegration of the Roman Empire and on more recent imperialism as well. The first part considers general themes in the history of discrimination; the second provides a detailed analysis of proto-racism and prejudices toward particular groups of foreigners in the Greco-Roman world. The last chapter concerns Jews in the ancient world, thus placing anti-Semitism in a broader context.
Rassismus: eine psychologisch relevante BegriffsanalyseTeo, Thomas (DEU, 2008-11-18)Es wird der Versuch unternommen, zentrale Bedeutungen des Begriffs Rassismus zu klären. Die Begriffe "Ausländerfeindlichkeit", "Ethnozentrismus" und "Fremdenfeindlichkeit" werden als unspezifisch für die Beschreibung und Erklärung einer Reihe von Problemzusammenhängen thematisiert. Als allgemeiner und damit übergeordneter Begriff wird der des Rassismus besprochen. Das Verhältnis von Rasse und Rassismus, die Rede von einem "Rassismus ohne Rassen", soziale und pseudowissenschaftliche Konstruktionen als Erklärungs- und Rechtfertigungsideologien auf dem Hintergrund der europäischen Kolonisation und Eroberung als Entstehungskontext des Rassismus werden diskutiert. Im Mittelpunkt steht der Versuch einer adäquaten Definition des Begriffs Rassismus, die brauchbar für das Erkennen von Differenzen ist und zugleich Selbstreflexionen möglich macht. Ausgehend von einer Standarddefinition werden der klassische, der reaktive, der Neo- und der diffuse Rassismusbegriff vorgestellt. Implikationen für die Psychologie werden abschließend diskutiert.
Becoming Yellow : A Short History of Racial Thinking /Keevak, Michael, author.In their earliest encounters with Asia, Europeans almost uniformly characterized the people of China and Japan as white. This was a means of describing their wealth and sophistication, their willingness to trade with the West, and their presumed capacity to become Christianized. But by the end of the seventeenth century the category of whiteness was reserved for Europeans only. When and how did Asians become "yellow" in the Western imagination? Looking at the history of racial thinking, Becoming Yellow explores the notion of yellowness and shows that this label originated not in early travel texts or objective descriptions, but in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century scientific discourses on race. From the walls of an ancient Egyptian tomb, which depicted people of varying skin tones including yellow, to the phrase "yellow peril" at the beginning of the twentieth century in Europe and America, Michael Keevak follows the development of perceptions about race and human difference. He indicates that the conceptual relationship between East Asians and yellow skin did not begin in Chinese culture or Western readings of East Asian cultural symbols, but in anthropological and medical records that described variations in skin color. Eighteenth-century taxonomers such as Carl Linnaeus, as well as Victorian scientists and early anthropologists, assigned colors to all racial groups, and once East Asians were lumped with members of the Mongolian race, they began to be considered yellow. Demonstrating how a racial distinction took root in Europe and traveled internationally, Becoming Yellow weaves together multiple narratives to tell the complex history of a problematic term.