Effect of long-term physical activity intervention on the functional capacity of persons with intellectual disability : a Potchefstroom cohort / Tamrin Veldsman
Full recordShow full item record
AbstractPhysical inactivity, a modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) both in persons with intellectual disability (ID) and non-ID, is considered the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Long-term regular participation in physical activity is associated with a reduced risk for CHD. Literature currently lacks evidence on the effect of long-term physical activity on the functional capacity and risk factors for developing CHD in persons with ID. The purpose of this study was firstly, to determine the effect of a long-term physical activity intervention on the risk factors associated with developing CHD and secondly the effect of a combined aerobic and resistance physical activity intervention on the functional capacity of persons with ID. A cohort of seventy-four (74) participants living in a care facility in Potchefstroom, South Africa, participated in this study, a seven-year follow-up physical activity intervention study. To determine the effect of a seven-year combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention programme, data was collected in 2006 and in 2013. At baseline (2006) and end (2013), a CHD risk profile was determined by means of a questionnaire and physical assessment. The physical assessment included resting blood pressure, peripheral glucose and cholesterol measurements, and body composition by means of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage derived from skinfold measurements. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by means of the adapted sub-maximal YMCA bicycle ergometer protocol from which a physical work capacity (PWC) was calculated. The participants followed a structured physical activity intervention two days per week for at least 45 minutes for a seven year period. The exercise intervention consists of cardiorespiratory exercises, muscle stretches and muscle endurance exercises. All data analyses were performed with SPSS 22.0 (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY) statistical analysis software programme. The descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviations) as well as frequencies were calculated to describe the characteristics of the participants and the point prevalence of the CHD risk factors. General Linier Model analyses were applied to determine the significant changes in CHD risk factors measured from baseline to end with adjustment for baseline measurements. McNemar exact test indicated significant changes in the point prevalence of the CHD risk factors from baseline to end. The relationship between the changes in the cardiorespiratory fitness and the measured risk factors were performed with a partial correlation analysis adjusting for age in 2013. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The results indicate that the prevalence of inactivity decreased with 50% after the seven-year intervention program. Prevalence of age as a risk factor for developing CHD increased significantly post-intervention from 10% to 18%. Body mass decreased significantly in men (1.25 ± 5.43 kg) and increased significantly in women (0.15 ± 6.83kg). BMI changes reflect changes in body mass of the participants. Body fat percentages increased both in men (2.98%) and in women (0.95%). A significant increase in systolic blood pressure (6.2 ± 10.1 mmHg) for men and diastolic blood pressure (6.35 ± 10.42 mmHg) for women was found. Physical work capacity in both male (1.90 ± 0.73 watt/kg) and female (1.55 ± 0.43 watt/kg) participants decreased to 1.43 ± 0.45 watt/kg and 1.14 ± 0.46 watt/kg respectively during the intervention period. Although a correlation between changes in PWC and the risk factors for CHD was found, none of the correlations was significant when adjusted for age in 2013. The conclusion drawn from this study is that a long-term physical activity intervention in a population with ID reduced the point prevalence for physical inactivity and overweight and obesity, in spite of a decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness. The changes in cardiorespiratory fitness did not relate to the changes observed in the risk factors of CHD.
MSc (Biokinetics), North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2015