Originally published under the title Quarterly notes on Christianity and Chinese religion since 1957, Ching Feng journal is one of the major publications of the Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture (CSCCRC), Chung Chi College, Shatin, Hong Kong, by which it seeks to promote critical and constructive studies of all aspects of Chinese Christianity, Chinese religion and culture, and inter-religious dialogue between Christianity and other religious traditions in Asia.


The Globethics.net library contains articles of Ching Feng as from vol. 4(2003) to current with a one year embargo.

Recent Submissions

  • The Life of Reverend Wong Fook-ping (Huang Fuping 黃福平,1892-1966): A Testimony of Faith in God and Love for Country

    Wong, Terese (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    This paper traces the life of a Chinese Anglican priest, Wong Fook-ping (Huang Fuping 黃福平, 1892–1966), and considers how the Christian gospel was promulgated in the era of Republican China from the perspective of a Chinese Christian. This paper focuses on events relating to the experience in the Anglican churches in the Kong Yuet Diocese (Gang-Yue jiaoqu) under the organization of the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui (Zhonghua shenggong hui) and considers Rev. Wong’s thoughts and belief through his writings in the context of the events during the era of Republican China and the early years of the People’s Republic of China up to the cultural revolution.
  • Ernst Faber’s (1839-1899): Theories of Human Nature

    Isay, Gad C (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    In 1893, a German Protestant missionary in China discussed Confucian theories of human nature in a book of 31 chapters. The intellectual background of the missionary himself—his name is Ernst Faber (1839–1899)—and the nature of his involvement in his contemporary Chinese scholarly scene, against the larger context of the cultural dialogue between China and the West, make this rather neglected source worthy of scholarly attention. The present study offers a selective outline of that book, with the purpose of acquainting readers with the contents of such work and encouraging various possible juxtapositions with intellectual developments around the turn of the twentieth century. This essay introduces Faber’s discussions of the early classics, Confucius (Kongzi), Zisi and The Doctrine of the Mean, Mencius (Mengzi), and Zhu Xi. Towards the end follows a full translation of Faber’s 26 concluding remarks that summarize both his learning of the Confucian sources and the ideas—mostly Christian—he thought would make his best contribution to his contemporary Chinese scholarly scene.
  • Free to Obey: Gao Panlong and Dietrich Bonhoeffer on Selflessness, Fate, and Freedom

    Katz, Sophia (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    An analysis of the approaches to fate found in the writings of a Ming dynasty Confucian scholar, Gao Panlong (1562–1626), and a Lutheran pastor, Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906–1945), reveals surprising similarities between Confucian and Christian attitudes to fate. Despite many philosophical and theological differences, both traditions accepted the understanding according to which fate, designated by the Chinese term ming 􀕶 and the German term Schicksal, is not a mere power of circumstance, but involves the guidance of a higher metaphysical reality, heaven (tian 􀋂) or God. The discernment of heaven’s or God’s “guiding hand” in fate is part of the process of self-cultivation, which also implies one’s conscious efforts to restrain selfish desires. Different philosophical and theological premises affect the understanding of self in Confucianism and Christianity as represented by Gao and Bonhoeffer. Nonetheless, both traditions consider the achievement of selflessness and the dedication of oneself to the service of others as a desired goal of one’s personal development. In Bonhoeffer’s Christian framework, the presence of God’s guidance in fate allows the person, under certain circumstances, to submit to fate believing that one is submitting to God’s will. Such submission, which can be achieved only by a selfless person, is further seen as a culmination of human freedom. The term “freedom” is absent from Gao’s Confucian philosophical vocabulary. However, the parallels in his writing to the ideas presented by Bonhoeffer suggest that Confucian submission to fate, when fate is perceived as “the order of heaven” (tianming 􀋂􀕶), can also be understood as freedom.
  • The Chinese Mission without Jesuits: The Suppression and Restoration of the Society of Jesus in China

    Standaert, Nicolas (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    Since 1582 there has been a continuous presence of Jesuits in China, except for the suppression period and its aftermath (which corresponds to the years 1775–1842). This period without Jesuits may provide various challenging insights. It shows that Chinese Christian communities and their leaders played a pivotal role in the continuation and vitality of Christian life. The three events of the suppression, absence, and restoration of the Society of Jesus in China illustrate the contribution of these Christian communities and their leaders.
  • The Founder of Eastern Religious Studies: James Legge and F. Max Muller

    Sun, Yiping (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    James Legge (1815–1897) and F. Max Muller (1823–1900) are the pioneers of oriental religious studies. Legge studied and translated the Indian Buddhist scriptures. Muller studied and translated Chinese Confucian and Taoist classics. They intersected with each other while compiling the book, Sacred Books of the East; and they supported each other during the “term controversy.” Together they promoted the spread of Eastern religions in Europe. This paper argues that the achievements of and the problems encountered by Legge and Muller in translating the Eastern classics are still a vivid reference for religious exchange and dialogue today.
  • The Culture of Ancestral Temple of Chinese Pure Land Buddhism and the Practice of Humanistic Pure Land

    Ng, William Yau-nang (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    The recognition of ancestral temple in Pure Land Buddhism involves specific historical view; and the temple of a patriarch is often regarded as an “ancestral temple” because his followers pay him high respect. Thus ancestral temple does not only refer to a physical construction, but also high regard for the thoughts and deeds of a master. This article proposes that ancestral culture is actually a manifestation of the thoughts of a specific master, including his teachings, methods, ideas, deeds, and practices. Therefore, while ancestral temple is objectively defined according to a master and his ancestral temple, ancestral culture, or “spiritual ancestral temple,” is not necessarily bound to a temple, but can be spread out geographically as time goes. The Pure Land in Humanistic Buddhism in Taiwan is distinctive in its contemporary practice. On the one hand, it continues the transcendental concern of traditional Pure Land ancestral temples. On the other hand, it advocates a new way of practicing in the world. By studying the idea and practice of Pure Land in Humanistic Buddhism in Taiwan, this article points out that the Pure Land tradition in Humanist Buddhism in this island differs from the traditional culture of Pure Land ancestral temple in mainland China. However, Humanistic Pure Land in Taiwan is also founded on the core ideas of Master Taixu. In this respect, Taixu’s Humanistic Buddhism is the “spiritual ancestral temple” or “spiritual homeland” of Humanistic Pure Land Buddhism in Taiwan.
  • Buddhism and Christianity on Evil: Critical Evaluation of Masao Abe’s Comparative Studies

    Kwan, Kai-man (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    By studying Masao Abe’s comparative studies, this essay explores the possibility of a Buddhist-Christian dialogue. The essay is divided into five sections. First, Abe’s reservations about the Christian views on deity and evil are explained, and some revisions are proposed. The second section explains Abe’s concept of dynamic Sunyata, which he considers to be a satisfactory explanation of the world, and hence the concept of God is not needed. The third section focuses on Abe’s views on ethics. He argues that Buddhism also cares about ethics, and the solution to evil is the personal experience of absolute nothingness or Sunyata—which is also the awakening of the true self. This is neither dualism nor monotheism. For Buddhists, both absolute good and absolute evil are illusions, and this is the main difference between Buddhism and Christianity. On the basis of the experience of Sunyata, Buddhism re-establishes the distinction between good and evil, but it is not limited by this viewpoint. The fourth section will shift to a dialogue between Abe and some Western scholars. As many Western scholars disagree with Abe’s treatment of absolute evil, this section will discuss the criticisms of Christopher Ives, Richard Rubenstein, etc. Lastly, the author will reflect on Abe’s comments on Christianity, and respond to his queries of the Christian views on God and evil from theological and philosophical perspectives.
  • Consequential Transatlantic Networks Shaped the Polyglot Nature of the Protestant Missionary Enterprise in China

    Tiedemann, R G (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    The missionary enterprise of Protestant denominations in China was shaped by transatlantic interaction and co-operation from the start. In the course of the nineteenth century, the missionaries from the various European and North American societies formed a community of shared religious interests in China. Research into the history of the Protestant missionary enterprise in China has, however, focused primarily on “mainline” societies and has usually been understood as an Anglo-American endeavor of English-speaking evangelists. In contrast, this essay focuses on various evangelical free church groups that emerged during the transatlantic revivals of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries among Scandinavian Christians in Europe and the United States. Particular attention is paid to the revivalist crusades of the Swedish-American mission enthusiast Fredrik Franson among Scandinavian Christians on both sides of the Atlantic. His evangelistic endeavors resulted in the formation of several sending agencies that maintained close transatlantic links and co-operation on the Chinese mission field. Similar interactions have been observed among the various Scandinavian and American Pentecostal missionaries in China. Of particular interest are the so-called “emigrant missionaries” who, having left their home countries for the United States, ended up as evangelists in China. Some attention is paid to the fact that these “American” missionaries continued to employ Norwegian or Swedish as their working languages. It is argued that a significant aspect of the history of Christianity in China has remained hidden as a result of the language issue and the essentially unobtrusive engagement of these missionaries.
  • Richard Wilhelm and His Critics: A New Evaluation

    Kubin, Wolfgang (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
    The great German translator and scholar of ancient Chinese philosophy Richard Wilhelm (1873–1930) is still underestimated in German speaking countries. The reasons are manifold. He was a missionary in the beginning, but turned into a Confucian and finally into a Taoist mainly during his stay in Qingdao (1898–1925). As he was against German nationalists he was not welcome in nationalist Germany. As he was a Christian he is still not tolerated by nowadays sinologues who are without any belief. As a victim of postcolonial theory he is denied the recognition of the internationally most influential sinologue in the twentieth century, but his German translations often rendered into second foreign languages are still “used” as the best possible ones. Through his translations Richard Wilhelm was of great influence upon German philosophy (Heidegger), psychology (Jung), literature (Brecht), etc. He has to be judged as a giant in the European history of thought.
  • A Life between East and West: Dedication to Professor Lauren F. Pfister

    Ng, William Yau-nang (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2017)
  • A Partnership Model: Analysis on the Indigenization Process of Hong Kong Christian and Missionary Alliance

    Ho, Ellis Ming-cheung (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2016)
    The Christian and Missionary Alliance Mission established its operation base in Hong Kong in the 1950s. In accordance with the Mission’s policy, indigenization took priority from the start, being executed in a methodical, step-by-step manner. Hong Kong Chinese and Western mission personnel worked together in harmony toward this goal. This paper aims to investigate and analyze from a historical perspective three aspects of the Mission’s indigenization policy: selfsupport, self-propagation, and self-governance. This study will systematically outline how indigenization of the Hong Kong Christian and Missionary Alliance was achieved.
  • Karl Barth and Christian Theology of Religions: An Asian Response to Ensminger

    Chung, Paul S. (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2016)
    Sven Ensminger has presented a pioneering work in thoroughly investigating Karl Barth’s theology as a resource for Christian theology of religions. In response to Ensminger’s book, this paper deals with Barth’s insight into interreligious learning, and aims at supplementing Ensminger’s study in a critical and constructive manner.
  • A Tale of Three Bishops: Mapping the Ideologies of “Chineseness” and “Asian Values” in the Global Anglican Realignment in Vancouver

    Tse, Justin K.H. (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2016)
    Most accounts of the 2002 departure of some conservative Anglican parishes from Vancouver’s Diocese of New Westminster (DoNW) over same-sex blessings seemed to fit the narrative of a battle over sexuality in the global realignment of the Anglican Communion. However, attention to the consecration of two new Chinese Anglican bishops—Silas Ng Tak-yin and Stephen Leung Wing-hong, both from Hong Kong—reveals that their split from the DoNW’s Bishop Michael Ingham had more to do with an ideology of cultural pluralization deploying “Asian values.” I, therefore, argue that the schism in Vancouver was a division over the three bishops’ imaginations of global futures with “Chineseness” and “Asian values” as proxy words for this ideology. This paper contributes to the study of Chinese Christianities—as well as other religions—by examining “Chineseness” as an empty category that can be deployed for a variety of ideologies.
  • Watchman Nee in the Eyes of Wang Mingdao

    Ying, Fuk-Tsang (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2016)
    Wang Mingdao and Ni Tosheng (Watchman Nee) are famous figures in Chinese Christianity in the twentieth century. They, together with Yang Shaotang, were depicted by Leslie T. Lyall, missionary of China Inland Mission, as “might man” of the Chinese church. Many scholarly studies have been done on Wang and Nee. However, the relationship between the two has long been neglected. This paper aims to investigate their relationship from the perspective of Wang, which also helps us shed a new light on some important issues in the development of Chinese Christianity at the time.
  • Historiography and Community Identity: Hong Kong Christians and the Recording of the 2014 Pro-Democracy Movement

    Kang, Di (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, 2016)
    Identity is constructed in relation to an “other,” and proven in narratives of events which present this contrast. One way the people of Hong Kong define themselves is through their struggle for civil liberties. The 2014 Occupy protests were not only socio-political, but also religious. Religious identity is engrained in Hong Kong people’s self-understanding as an embodiment of the freedom they enjoy in contrast to those across the border. Through their ideological encounter with the government, Hong Kong’s Christian community negotiates their uniqueness not only through protest, but also through literature which interpret the movement theologically, serving as a collective memory preserving and consolidating the group’s self-identification. This paper, through the methodology of historiography and social identity theory, intends to study the self-identification of the Hong Kong Christian community as a force behind the protest, and how their identity interacts with the recording of events as part of Hong Kong history.
  • Ecclesiology from Below: Urbanizing Catholicism in an Urbanizing China

    Wong, Stephanie M. (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2016)
    Given that the majority of Chinese Catholics have historically lived in rural villages rather than urban centers, China’s recent urbanization presents heightened challenges and opportunities for the Catholic Church in China. In order to understand the church’s engagement with this new urbanism, I consider an “ecclesiology from below” and analyze the ways in which rural and urban Catholic communities adjust their way of doing church in order to remain responsive to their social and pastoral circumstances. I propose that the rural-urban boundary in China is important to study—not because urbanization has made Catholic villagers and city-dwellers separate, but rather because after 1978 this boundary has become more permeable and therefore increasingly a site of ecclesiological experimentation. As ideas about Catholicism and its role move back and forth across this boundary, the transmission generates various new forms of church that will undoubtedly shape Chinese Catholicism in the years to come.
  • Moral Minority: The Changing Face of Christian Politics in Post-Sunflower Movement Taiwan

    Chiou, Mu-Tien (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2016)
    The 2014 Sunflower Student Movement in Taiwan ushered in a new era of civil participation for the Taiwanese churches, although in general this populist movement is more “public” than “theological.” Whereas the secular public represented by the students is increasingly confident of their civil agency shaping the democratic future of the island-state, big name Christian leaders nonetheless find that they must now unite their front to protect the sphere of family. This united political front has given birth to the Christian political party of Faith and Hope League (FHL) in 2015. As the Sunflower Movement can be seen as the latest offshoot of political liberalization and identity quest project in Taiwan in the past three decades, FHL also bear the marks of its public theological origin, which this paper identifies as a charismatic revivalist-driven megachurch movement. Through an examination of the developmental trajectory of the movement in Taiwan, this paper seeks to point out areas where Christians might work on to better connect with historic Christianity while serving the common good as a faithful minority in the only Chinese democracy.
  • Union Theological Seminary’s Dense Social Network in Twentieth-Century Chinese Christianity

    Sneller, Christopher D. (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2016)
  • The Kansu-Tibetan Border in the Eyes of American Christian and Missionary Alliance Missionaries

    Li, Wenwen (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2015)
    In the late Qing and the Republic of China, a group of missionaries was sent by the American Protestant Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA) to the region on the Kansu-Tibetan border. Aiming to gain a deep and thorough understanding of the intended preaching targets, the missionaries conducted detailed examination and documentation of the local multi-ethnic community, producing a great wealth of historical documents. In the hope to establish a firm foothold on the Kansu-Tibetan border—an important gateway to Tibet, the C&MA missionaries adopted some specific tactics and methods based on their analysis of the geographic context of the border region, the characteristics of the multi-ethnic community and the social structure and religious institution of the local tribes. Despite all their efforts to thoroughly and meticulously examine the indigenous society, the missionaries failed to genuinely acknowledge the local religion, which was primarily owing to their ingrained objectives, religious stance, and values.
  • The Narratives of “Faith Development”: A Case Study on the Christian Students from the Middle Schools of Fujian Province, China

    WANG, Zhixi (Christian Study Centre on Chinese Religion and Culture, Chung Chi College, 2015)
    The middle school period is seen as one when a child goes into adolescence; and during that stage, an adolescent tends to become psychologically rebellious against adults. From the perspective of religious education, it is noteworthy to understand how the religious faith of adolescents is shaped. Basing on the “faith development” theory proposed by James Fowler, Professor of Theology and Human Development at Emory University, the present paper takes as a case study the interview materials of nine middle school Christian students from three Protestant churches in City A and B along the coast of Fujian Province, China. These materials are analyzed, focusing on two central elements, that is, 1) interpersonal relationship and 2) religious symbols (rituals), which constitute the “faith development” narratives of these Christian students.

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