• Defining a Field: Content, Theory, and Research Issues

      Willis, Jerry (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      The emerging field of information technology and teacher education (ITTE) can be defmed in many different ways. This paper proposes that ITTE be defined through a subject matter focus on the use of information technology, in all its forms, in teacher education. Although all of us prefer certain theories and methods of scholarship, there are many reasons to avoid defining, and thus limiting, the field by defining it in terms of a particular theory or research methodology. We should be thoughtfully eclectic when it comes to theoretical frameworks as well as the way in which theory is developed, used, and modified. We should be thoughtfully eclectic when it comes to methodology. There are many sources of information.
    • Guidelines for Using Technology to Prepare Social Studies Teachers

      Berson, Michael; Diem, Richard; Hicks, David; Mason, Cheryl; Lee, John; Dralle, Tony (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      Social studies teacher education faculty members who effectively integrate technology in methods courses provide students opportunities to explore applications for the K-12 classroom and to consider how technology is changing the way we teach and learn. As social studies teacher educators, one of our roles is to model appropriate uses of technology for our preservice teachers. Take for example the scenario in which preservice teacher Rob Dent collaborated with a classroom teacher to develop a technology infused unit of study, called "Who Wants to Be a Pioneer?" (see http://k12.albemarle.org/murrayelem/white/frontier / ). This student experienced designing and teaching a lesson using primary sources, while at the same time, he learned Web page development and design and classroom management techniques. Dent explains what technology skills he used in developing this project in videos 1 and 2 .This is just one example of preparing social studies teachers to use technology appropriately. We offer the following five principles as guides for the appropriate infusion of technology in social studies teacher preparation programs.
    • How Good Practice in Virginia Can Influence Change in England: Trans-Atlantic Lesson Drawing in the Use of Technology in Teaching

      Hulme, Rob; Hulme, Moira (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      The quest to make more effective use of ICT in subject teaching in schools is a major aim of education policy on both sides of the Atlantic. Both British and American Governments have over the past four years formulated policies intended to enhance the power of ICT in schools. Devising a strategy for change for which there are no precedents or "institutional memory," is an enterprise fraught with difficulty, both for the civil servants and ministers in the government's educational decision making machinery and for the local authority administrators, institutional managers, and teachers who are charged with making the policy work. For the British Government, the current challenge of implementing its National Grid for Learning (NGfL) is by necessity, a process requiring innovation and the search for intelligence about how to make best use of technology. For this reason, it is an aspect of educational reform, which has been characterised by a search for relevant knowledge and exemplar at all levels, particularly from the U.S. These, as we noted in the conclusion, are the most effective lessons to be drawn from the Virginia experience.
    • Preservice Technology Integration through Collaborative Action Communities

      Pierson, Melissa E.; McNeil, Sara (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      Building on a successful field-based preservice program aimed at effective strategies for teaching diverse urban youth, the University of Houston is instituting an action research process to actively collaborate with Houston-area school districts to establish networked learning communities of university faculty, preservice teachers, and school-based educators to support the development of future teachers. The College has specific plans to restructure its required one semester, three-credit-hour technology course to a series of three, one-credit-hour technology sections tied directly to methods courses to allow students to develop appropriate content methods-based technology proficiencies. Field-based students will work with identified mentor teachers who use technology in real classrooms, and students will compile and maintain electronic portfolios throughout their preservice experience. Virtual field experiences of exemplary teaching will be brought to campus-based students and unique campus resources to field-based students in the form of traditional and online video collections. To ensure that all members of our learning community are effectively prepared for appropriate inclusion of technology in content methods courses, faculty and students will participate in a comprehensive support model of classroom instruction, workshops, and field-based experiences with the aid of a cadre of trained Technology Fellows.
    • The Power of Technology to Inspire Students and Teachers in English Language Arts Classrooms

      Medicus, David; Wood, Susan Nelson (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      We spent years resisting technology; they had to drag us into the high tech age kicking and screaming! We are English language arts teachers who love books and nice notebooks, good pens, and fresh paper. But when our schools adopted a computerized absentee reporting and grading system, we had to learn to turn the computer on. We were on a path that would change our teaching forever. Technology will never replace good teaching, but it does have the potential to enhance good teaching and engage students more actively with the texts and the writing process. As teachers of English language arts and English educators, we strive to use multiple methodologies to invite students in to "the literacy club."
    • A Web-Based Resource Providing Reflective Online Support for Preservice Mathematics Teachers on School Practice

      Herrington, Tony; Herrington, Jan; Oliver, Ron; Omari, Arshad (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      I have come, over the years, in spite of all the reform agendas, to believe that the best we can do in teacher preparation programs, through a variety of courses and clinical experiences in intentionally selected schools, is to help academically able and socially committed students enter teaching with constructive dispositions and skills relating to young people, curriculum content, pedagogy, and the power of collective thought; well-developed habits of observation and reflection; reasonable confidence and an understanding that they are entering a process of learning something important every day, working toward the largest possibilities they can imagine. (Perrone, 1997, p. 649)
    • Using a Historic Site to Develop Virtual Reality-Enhanced Web-Based Instructional Material: Learning to Use Technology as a Partner in the Classroom

      Sherman, Greg; Hicks, David (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      Over the last decade a growing number of social studies educators have mirrored Berson's contention that interactive technologies hold a great deal of potential for transforming the teaching and learning of social studies (Braun, Jr. & Risinger, 1999; Diem, 1999, 1997; Martorella, 1998, 1997; Hope, 1996; Klenow, 1992; Mason, et al, 2000; NCSS, 1994; Saye & Brush, 1999; White, 1999; Yeager & Morris, 1995). Today, social studies teachers wishing to use computer-based technology to help them develop, define, and support effective learning environments have many options at their disposal. Some of the more obvious choices teachers can make surrounding the instructional use of computers include selecting potentially effective commercially produced social studies content applications, using the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) to access resources and conduct research, and authoring text-based as well as multimedia instructional material. However, research continues to suggest that despite the perceived potential of technology, many social studies teachers are currently reluctant or unable to utilize content specific uses of technology in their professional practice (Ehman & Glenn, 1991, Berson, 1996; Freiwald, 1997; Martorella, 1998; National Assessment of Educational Progress , 1999).
    • If We Didn’t Have the Schools We Have Today, Would We Create the Schools We Have Today?

      Carroll, Thomas G. (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      We have a unique opportunity in education today. Massive funds are pouring into the technology infrastructure of K-12 schools. It is estimated that $7 billion a year is being spent to equip schools with infrastructure, networking activities, and hardware.The investment of resources on this scale is comparable to the space program. The process of building this infrastructure is similar to launching a rocket in education. Now that we have launched that rocket, we must learn to fly. That may seem backwards, but it is often the ways things work. When the Wright brothers were going to make the first flight, there was no flight school to prepare them. There was nobody to teach them to fly. They just launched their plane and figured out how to fly it after they were on it. We are in the early stages of flight with technology in education. Pilots in the early stages of flight crashed a lot of planes, but they also discovered the principles of flight. They came together in learning communities where they could share their experiences and knowledge about what works and what does not work. They developed and evolved principles that make modern flight possible today, including the space program. That kind of learning opportunity is available to us in our schools today.
    • Distance Learning and the Visually Impaired: A Success Story

      Ferrell, Kay A.; Lowell, Nathan; Persichitte, Kay A. (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      This article describes a U.S. Department of Education grant funded project to develop and deliver a distance master's degree program in blindness and visual impairment to students in the 14 states of the Western Governor's Region. A small proportion of the students in the program are, themselves, blind or visually impaired. The article shares challenges, insights, and practitioner perspectives from the technological, design, and subject matter experts.
    • How Exemplary Computer-Using Teachers Differ From Other Teachers: Implications for Realizing the Potential of Computers in Schools

      Becker, Henry Jay (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      In a recent study of teachers who had reputations as being expert computer users, researchers at the Bank Street College of Education identified teachers who used computer software to provide intellectually exciting educational experiences (Sheingold & Hadley, 1990; Hadley & Sheingold, 1993). In the Bank Street study, the exemplary practitioners directly addressed curriculum goals by having students use a wide variety of computer software, including simulations, programming languages, spreadsheets, database programs, graphing programs, logic and problem-solving programs, writing tools, and electronic bulletin-board communications software. Over time and with experience, the teachers became enthusiastic about seeing their students exploit intellectual tools for writing, analyzing data, and solving problems; and they became more comfortable and confident about using computers themselves. Sheingold and Hadley (1990) provided a portrait of computer use that other teachers might aspire to and attain in their own teaching practice.
    • Preparing Tomorrow's English Language Arts Teachers Today: Principles and Practices for Infusing Technology

      Pope, Carol A.; Golub, Jeffrey N. (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      Teachers using technology in their English language arts classrooms are not only improving their instruction for their students; they are changing the very nature of that instruction. The following are three examples of English language arts classrooms where technology serves an integral part of classroom instruction.[see full text article for scenarios]These scenarios reveal teachers who not only know technology but also know how to use it appropriately in their teaching to the students' benefit. How do we prepare these kinds of teachers—the kinds of teachers who know their content (English language arts), know content pedagogy (how to teach English language arts), and know instructional technology (how to infuse technology appropriately into that teaching)?
    • Leaping Fire: Texts and Technology

      Carroll, Pamela S.; Bowman, Cynthia A. (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      As English educators, we are called upon to prepare future teachers of English language arts as they journey from content knowledge, to pedagogical knowledge, to classroom practice. It is an opportunity to share our passion for teaching and learning, for spiraling between theory and practice. We encourage our students to create classroom communities where wonder and the imagination are nurtured and challenged. Medicus and Wood illustrate many creative and exciting uses for technology, which capture the students' attention and interest, engaging students in classroom activities to promote academic achievement. They have focused on three concepts, which are central to the language arts teacher's practice—(a) connection/community, (b) artistic/aesthetic/imaginative thinking, and (c) literacy.
    • Setting the Priorities: Electronic Scholarly Publishing

      Willis, Jerry; Bull, Glen (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      Three journals were dedicated to publishing scholarly and professional papers in the field of educational technology and teacher education at the beginning of the year 2000: * Journal of Computers in Teacher Education (JCTE).* Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education (JITTE).* Journal of Technology and Teacher Education (JTATE). These three journals, plus the proceedings of the annual meeting of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, constitute the primary publication outlets for work in the area of technology and teacher education. Many other journals, of course, publish papers on the topic, but these four publications are the only ones dedicated solely to the topic of technology and teacher education. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education ( CITE Journal ) is an online journal that will serve as an electronic counterpart to the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education . The CITE Journal will complement rather than replace the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education . The rationale for an online journal is governed by three factors: demand, format, and participants.
    • A User's Guide to the CITE Journal

      Bull, Glen; Willis, Jerry; Bell, Lynn (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      This inaugural issue of Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education ( CITE Journal ) appears online in Summer 2000. It is the result of an extended collaboration that began several years ago. In fact, the genesis of the Summer 2000 issue can be traced to a specific event about two years ago.In April 1998, Linda Roberts, Director of the Office of Educational Technology within the U.S. Department of Education, convened a White House Conference on Technology Training for Teachers . The Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) was among the teacher educator associations invited to develop a position paper for the White House conference. The position paper developed in response to this request, "Statement of Basic Principles and Suggested Actions," became known as the Ames White Paper , because it was developed at a meeting of the SITE leadership convened at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa.
    • Promoting Appropriate Uses of Technology in Mathematics Teacher Preparation

      Stohl Drier, Hollylynne; Harper, Suzanne; Timmerman, Maria A.; Garofalo, Joe; Shockey, Tod (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      In the Principles and Standards of School Mathematics the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) identified the "Technology Principle" as one of six principles of high quality mathematics education (NCTM, 2000). This principle states: "Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances students' learning" (p. 24). There is widespread agreement that mathematics teachers, not technological tools, are the key change agents to bringing about reform in mathematics teaching with technology (Kaput, 1992; NCTM 1991, 2000). Yet, preparing teachers to use technology appropriately is a complex task for teacher educators (Mergendoller, 1994). Waits and Demana (2000) argue that adoption of technology by teachers requires professional development that focuses on both conceptual and pedagogical issues, ongoing support in terms of "intensive start-up assistance and regular follow-up activities" and a desire to change from within the profession (p. 53). In addition, studies of teachers' implementation of educational technology document that at least three to five years are needed for teachers to become competent and confident in teaching with technology (Dwyer, Ringstaff, & Sandholtz, 1991; Means & Olson, 1994).
    • Preparing Tomorrow's Science Teachers to Use Technology: Guidelines for Science Educators

      Flick, Larry; Bell, Randy (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2000)
      Science and technology education have enjoyed a meaningful partnership across most of this century. The work of scientists embraces an array of technologies, and major accomplishments in science are often accompanied by sophisticated applications of technology. As a result, a complete science education has, in principle, involved a commitment to the inclusion of technology, both as a tool for learning science content and processes and as a topic of instruction in itself (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 1993; National Research Council [NRC], 1996). These elements have traditionally been a part of teacher education in secondary science.Science education has generally involved teaching not only a body of knowledge but also the processes and activities of scientific work. This view has linked the scientific uses of technology with hands-on experiences. The term "hands-on science" was descriptive of the major curriculum reform projects of the 1960s and became a label for a revolution in teaching science through the next two decades (Flick, 1993). So-called "hands-on science" instruction impacted teacher education as new curricula made its way into preservice courses. Teacher education was also influenced by teaching methods, such as the learning cycle (Lawson, Abraham, & Renner, 1989), based on theories of student learning that implied the necessity of interacting with physical materials.
    • Teachers as Telecollaborative Project Designers: A Curriculum-Based Approach

      Harris, Judi (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2001)
      Successful technology-using teachers function more as instructional designers than lesson planners. This is especially true when they seek to incorporate the use of forward-thinking, computer-mediated innovations such as telecomputing tools into existing curricula. New tools require new techniques, incorporated into new models of teaching and learning processes, if the tools' most powerful attributes (Clark, 1983) are to be exploited. When attempting to encourage meaningful curricular infusion of telecommunications into elementary, middle-level, and secondary-level learning, teachers must pay careful attention to key ideas both from diffusion of innovations research and from the education of instructional designers.
    • A Model for Collaborative Relationships Between Instructional Technology and Teacher Education Programs

      Shoffner, Mary B.; Dias, Laurie B.; Thomas, Christine D. (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2001)
      Public and government agencies in the United States are calling for increased accountability in all aspects of K-12 education and teacher preparation, demanding standards of performance and allocating funding to assist students and teachers to meet these standards. With the current influx of federally funded grants such as the Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers To Use Technology , many in instructional technology (IT) departments who serve teacher education programs wrestle once again with working outside the initial teacher certification areas. In light of new standards, not only in technology but also in all content areas, how can IT departments work with teacher education faculty and programs to ensure that novice teachers will be able to meet these standards? We propose that developing purposeful relationships of a cooperative nature between these two programs is a critical step toward preparing preservice educators to integrate technology.
    • Heightening Reflection Through Dialogue: A Case for Electronic Journaling and Electronic Concept Mapping in Science Classes

      Germann, Paul; Young-Soo, Kim; Patton, Martha D. (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2001)
      The literature on concept mapping and on journaling in the science classroom is well established (Ambron, 1991; Anderson & Huang, 1989; Barenholtz & Tamir, 1992; Emig, 1977; Fulwiler, 1980; Jegede, Alaiyemola, & Okebukola., 1990; Langer & Applebee, 1987; Nakhleh & Krajcik, 1991; Novak, Gowin, & Johansen, 1983; Novak & Gowin, 1984; Richardson, 1990; Wallace & Mintzes, 1990; Wandersee, 1990; Zulich & Bean, 1991), but there has been limited research on electronic variations of these well-established learning tools. Does the electronic medium alter the learning environment in significant ways? In valuable ways? In what ways might the electronic medium heighten "reflective practice," a quality promoted in teacher education (Bean & Zulich, 1989; Davison, King, & Kitchener, 1990; Schon, 1983, 1987; Zeichner & Liston, 1987)?
    • Goals and Attitudes Related to Technology Use in a Social Studies Method Course

      Bennett, Linda; Scholes, Roberta (Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), 2001)
      What technology goals are essential to the preparation of prospective elementary school teachers? The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE, 1994) and the International Society of Technology in Education (ISTE, 1996) have recommended fundamental concepts and skills needed by all prospective teachers for applying technology in educational settings. ISTE recommended that all teachers need basic computer/technology operation and concepts, personal and professional use of technology, and specialty content preparation in educational computing and technology literacy. The following are ISTE guidelines related to technology in professional education programs.