An Appraisal of Illiteracy Reduction Plans and Designing a low cost Model to Improve Literacy Rate in Pakistan
AbstractGovernment of Pakistan has launched various illiteracy reduction plans from time to time to promote literacy rate in the country but these plans could not achieve the targets. This study was designed to appraise these illiteracy reduction plans and to design a low cost model to improve literacy rate in Pakistan. The main objectives of the study were: to appraise the illiteracy reduction plans introduced in Pakistan, from time to time, to identify the needs and problems of the direct affectees (all the illiterates above the age of 10 years), to know the ground realities regarding implementation of illiteracy reduction plans/projects at Government and NGOs level and to design a low cost model to improve the literacy rate in Pakistan. The population of the study was comprised of Educationists i.e. Ph.D. degree holders in Education, Executives working in the top level management in policy formation, plan designing, project development and program development, Executives working in National Planning Commission, Provincial Secretary, Additional Secretary, Deputy Secretary and EDOs (Education and literacy), Literacy teachers, Heads of different NGOs, Community representatives and Direct beneficiaries (the brick makers, manual workers, laborers, peasants etc). Snowball sampling technique was used to find the most relevant persons (respondents) for different illiteracy reduction programmes in different areas for the conduct of this research study. A mixed-method research design was used i.e. data was quantitative and qualitative. For quantitative data a questionnaire was developed at five point rating scale ranging from indicating strongly disagree to indicating strongly agree; a selection of indicating uncertain/dont know. For qualitative data some open ended questions were included in the questionnaire. An interview schedule was also developed for Head of NGOs, community representatives and direct beneficiaries. Data collection was started from the person who had been involved for long with the illiteracy eradication programmes. On his identification the other respondent was selected. Overall 1200 questionnaires were sent to the respondents but 998 questionnaires were got back. In this way, data was collected from 1348 (998 questionnaires and 350 interviews) respondents. Main findings of the study showed that need assessment was not carried out before launching illiteracy reduction programs, objectives of the illiteracy reduction programmes were not relevant to the literacy needs of the participants, local community was not involved in the running the literacy centers, religious leaders, intellectuals and retired personnel were not invited to support the illiteracy eradication programmes, and political instability in the country was a hurdle in the achievement of the targets of the illiteracy eradication programmes. In the light of the findings of the study, a low cost model was designed to improve the literacy rate in Pakistan. The proposed model was presented to 10 experts in the discipline of education for its validation. The model was improved in the light of expertsopinion. They were satisfied that this low cost model will be useful for increasing the literacy rate in Pakistan.
Ashiq Hussain, . (2010) An Appraisal of Illiteracy Reduction Plans and Designing a low cost Model to Improve Literacy Rate in Pakistan. Doctoral thesis, University of Education, Lahore.