• Making Public Policy Matter: The Hermeneutic Dimension

      Paul Healy; Swinburne University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2014-12-15)
      The present paper seeks to show how recourse to the hermeneutic dimension is needed to correct for problems that beset Bent Flyvbjerg’s vindication of the “dialogical ideal” in Making Social Science Matter. It achieves this outcome both by elucidating the conditions needed to advance the dialogical ideal and by providing these with the requisite philosophical grounding. More theoretical benefits aside, this is intended to help further the praxically-oriented mission that Flyvbjerg assigns phronetic researchers, namely, to “contribute to establishing the conditions for dialogue where such conditions are not already present.” Moreover, through thus vindicating the merits of the hermeneutic approach as a needed complement to the phronetic, this paper also helps clarify how Gadamerian hermeneutics can contribute to the deliberative democracy debate, with which the present topic has strong affinities, a theme that has so far remained relatively underdeveloped in the literature.
    • Mapping The Whole in EveryOne An Essay on: Non-Existence as the Engine and Axis of Existence

      Sperry Andrews; Human Connection Institute; Steven Salka; UC Berkeley (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2014-06-08)
      It is argued that an effective way to view consciousness is as a "superposition" of existence and nonexistence, producing an indivisible experience of "nonlocal being", plus who and what we perceive ourselves to be (local observers). This relationship between an observer-based localization and the nonlocal whole is examined. Using ideas from general relativity and quantum mechanics (QM), we suggest how a space-time continuum (GR)-including QM probability and uncertainty, as properties of consciousness-may have arisen as dynamic complementarities. Opportunities to contemplate the origins of existence are investigated, and corresponding experimental studies are suggested
    • Marx: The Historical Necessity of Slavery & Agriculture

      Dana Francisco Miranda (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2017-01-27)
      According to a Marxist code of evaluation, slavery seems to be an institution existing as an outdated anachronism, an economic remnant from a past phase in the historical development of man, as yet still present in modern economics as a defect.  Upon further readings, Karl Marx clearly articulates that slavery is an integral part of the existent economic model, i.e. capitalism, both in industry and in agriculture.  The separation of town and country according to a Marxist conception of history however leads to two distinct types of labor being present in capitalism; in agriculture slavery is blatant and honest in appearance, while in industry slavery is now disguised as ‘free’ labor.  More importantly, by looking at Marx’s criticism of direct slavery we are better able to understand his criticisms of free labor, indirect slavery. The primary question of Marxism then becomes: What material condition precipitates the transition of direct slavery to that of indirect ‘metaphorical’ slavery or free labor?  Why did chattel slavery as an economic institution end, and what were the material historical conditions that necessitated the transition from Wall Street to Wall Street? I want to know the fundamental relationship between slavery and capital. This paper then is more fundamentally an exploratory examination on whether or not Marx gives a compelling account for the material end of slavery as well as slavery’s relation to capital.  I thus examined how and why the division of town/country and industry/agriculture marked the differences between these kinds of slavery, and how this material condition then led to direct slavery’s ending as an economic model in agriculture. By navigating the implications of slavery upon agriculture and the development of capital a much deeper analysis begins with questioning the ‘necessity’ of historical developments and the creation of ‘historical necessity’.  In the interstices of history, cause and effect, agricultural slavery and capitalism, are much cloudier then Marx would have us believe.
    • Masters Disciples: Institution, Philosophy, Praxis

      Paul Ashton; Victoria and LaTrobe University; A. J. Bartlett; Deakin University; Justin Clemens; Deakin University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2006-10-27)
    • Materialism, Subjectivity and the Outcome of French Philosophy: Interview with Adrian Johnston

      Michael O'Neill Burns; University of Dundee; Brian Smith; University of Dundee (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2011-10-13)
      Interview with Adrian Johnston carried out by Michael Burns and Brian Smith.
    • Mathematical Frameworks for Consciousness

      Menas Kafatos; Chapman University; Ashok Narasimhan (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2016-10-14)
      If Awareness is fundamental in the universe, mathematical frameworks are better suited to reveal its fundamental aspects than physical models. Awareness operates through three fundamental laws which apply at all levels of reality and is characterized by three universal powers. We explore and summarize in general terms mathematical formalisms that may take us as close as possible to conscious awareness, beginning with the primary relationships between the observer with the observed, using a Hilbert space approach. We also examine insights from category theory, and the calculus of indications or laws of forms. Mathematical frameworks as fundamental languages of our interaction with the universe should be further developed with consciousness being the driving force.
    • Mathematics and Revolutionary Theory: Reading Castoriadis after Badiou

      Vladimir Tasic; University of New Brunswick (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2012-12-14)
      The article offers a comparative analysis of the uses of set theory in Castoriadis's "The Imaginary Institution of Society" and Badiou's "Being and Event". 
    • Mathematics, Explanation and Reductionism: Exposing the Roots of the Egyptianism of European Civilization

      Arran Gare; Swinburne University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2005-10-20)
      We have reached the peculiar situation where the advance of mainstream science has required us to dismiss as unreal our own existence as free, creative agents, the very condition of there being science at all. Efforts to free science from this dead-end and to give a place to creative becoming in the world have been hampered by unexamined assumptions about what science should be, assumptions which presuppose that if creative becoming is explained, it will be explained away as an illusion. In this paper it is shown that this problem has permeated the whole of European civilization from the Ancient Greeks onwards, leading to a radical disjunction between cosmology which aims at a grasp of the universe through mathematics and history which aims to comprehend human action through stories. By going back to the Ancient Greeks and tracing the evolution of the denial of creative becoming, I trace the layers of assumptions that must in some way be transcended if we are to develop a truly post-Egyptian science consistent with the forms of understanding and explanation that have evolved within history.
    • Maximum Power and Maximum Entropy Production: Finalities in Nature

      Stanley Salthe; Binghamton University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2010-08-04)
      I begin with the definition of power, and find that it is finalistic inasmuch as work directs energy dissipation in the interests of some system. The maximum power principle of Lotka and Odum implies an optimal energy efficiency for any work; optima are also finalities.  I advance a statement of the maximum entropy production principle, suggesting that most work of dissipative structures is carried out at rates entailing energy flows faster than those that would associate with maximum power. This is finalistic in the sense that the out-of-equilibrium universe, taken as an isolated system, entrains work in the interest of global thermodynamic equilibration.  I posit an evolutionary scenario, with a development on Earth from abiotic times, when promoting convective energy flows could be viewed as the important function of dissipative structures, to biotic times when the preservation of living dissipative structures was added to the teleology.  Dissipative structures are required by the equilibrating universe to enhance local energy gradient dissipation.  
    • Meaning and Abduction as Process-Structure: A Diagram of Reasoning

      Inna Semetsky; Monash University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2009-11-25)
      This paper is informed by Charles Sanders Peirce’s philosophy as semiotics or the doctrine of signs. The paper’s purpose is to explore Peirce’s category of abduction as not being limited to the inference to the best explanation. In the context of the logic of discovery, abduction is posited as a necessary although not sufficient condition for the production of meanings. The structure of a genuine sign is triadic and represents a synthesis between precognitive ideas and conceptual representations. The novel model of reasoning is offered, based on the mathematical formalism borrowed from Gauss’ interpretation of the complex number. It is suggested that this model in a form of a diagram not only represents a semiotic process-structure but also overcomes the long-standing paradox of new knowledge. For Peirce, it is a diagram as a visual representation that may yield solutions to the otherwise unsolvable logical problems. What appears to us as a paradox is the very presence of abductive, or hypothetical, inference, as Peircean generic category of Firstness within the Thirdness of the total thought-process. Firstness (feeling), Secondness (action), and Thirdness (reason) together constitute a dynamic structure of experience.
    • Measurements and Knowledge

      Carlos Montemayor; Department of Philosophy, San Francisco State University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2015-11-29)
      This paper discusses the importance of scientifically informed philosophy and philosophically informed science for improving extant approaches to the study of the mind, and in particular, of conscious awareness. By using the work of Patrick Suppes as an illustration, the paper shows that a balance between science and philosophy is needed not only to produce new insights, but also to prevent dogmatism.
    • Memory, History, and Pluripotency: A Realist View of Literary Studies

      Martin Goffeney; University at Buffalo (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2013-12-29)
      Speculative realism has, over the course of its rapid and controversial emergence in the past decade, been frequently criticized from the perspective of historical materialism, for its putative reliance on abstraction and eschewal of a sufficiently rigorous ideological alignment. This paper takes such critiques as a starting point for an examination of the contributions recent thought in the area of speculative realism has to offer the study of the humanities – specifically, the study of literature and literary history. In particular, contemporary realist thought has the potential to enable scholars of literature to move beyond the anthropocentric and specialized notions of history as an exclusively cultural entity, which have dominated the discipline since the twentieth century. Paying especially close attention to the work of Graham Harman and Manuel DeLanda, it is my argument that emergent realist philosophy offers literary scholars a set of powerful conceptual tools which can be put toward the work of accounting for the hitherto neglected ontological status of the literary text – illuminating the status of the text as a particular variety of real and physical object that participates in a system of real and physical history and memory.
    • Metaphilosophy and the Promises of Pluralism

      Ralph Shain; Missouri State University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-12-12)
      This is a review essay on metaphilosophy. Books under review are:Søren Overgaard, Paul Gilbert and Stephen Burwood, An Introduction to Metaphilosophy (Cambridge University Press, 2013)and Jeffrey A. Bell, Andrew Cutrofello, and Paul M. Livingston, editors, Beyond the Analytic-Continental Divide:  Pluralist Philosophy in the Twenty-First Century (Routledge, 2016)
    • Metareligion as the Human Singularity

      Christopher Langan (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-01-13)
      Based on the author's notes for a presentation to the Foundations of Mind group in October of 2017, this paper examines the role of metareligion in obtaining a favorable outcome for the human species as it approaches a Singularity with both Human and Technological aspects. For limited technical background, please consult two of the author's previous papers (Langan, 2002, 2017).
    • Mind and Cosmos: The Complex Interplay Between Mind, Brain, Gene, Behavior and Environment. Towards an Integrated Conceptual Framework

      Nicola Luigi Braggazi (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2019-11-17)
      Scientific reductionism - either epistemological (the body of scientific knowledge pertaining a given domain can explain the knowledge of other domains), ontological (the complexity of reality is just given by molecules and their interactions, and nothing more), or methodological (the knowledge of certain phenomena can be explained just taking into account simpler components) - has dominated centuries of scholarly production, discoveries and dissemination. Only recently, multidisciplinary, holistic approaches based on consilience (convergence or concordance of evidence) have emerged, suggesting that reality can be understood in terms of non-linear feedback loops and complex, multifaceted webs of interactions underlying the emergence of consciousness and self, thus overcoming the shortcomings derived from adopting a strict reductionism (mentalism versus physicalism), classical compartmentalization-based approaches or the Cartesian dualism (immaterial mind, res cogitans, versus material body, res extensa). The need of more integrated conceptual frameworks explaining the emergence of the self has led to conceiving reality and phenomena not as static, interacting concepts but as complex, dynamic, self-organizing networks and highly adaptive systems. Recently, merging biological and psychological disciplines (ranging from developmental genomics to neurobiology and neuropsychology), the US psychologist and psychotherapist John Arden has elaborated a complex conceptual framework, consisting of i) self-organization, ii) social self and social brain, iii) epigenetics, iv) psycho-neuro-immunology, v) self-regulation and self-maintenance and vi) habits and motivation. This conceptual theory integrates different complexity levels in a coherent framework and appears to be a promising proposal for exploring the emergence of self and consciousness as well as for integrating the different psychotherapeutic approaches available. Obviously, this is only the beginning of a grand theory that can shed light on the relationship between mind and cosmos, and on the complex interplay between mind, brain, gene, behavior and environment, leading towards an integrated conceptual framework.
    • Mind as a Virtual Phase-Conjugated Hologram

      Glen Rein (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2017-03-26)
      Because of its superior information processing capability, previous authors have proposed that phase conjugation holography offers a feasible mechanism to explain various aspects of human perception. These previous models focused on the relationship between the perceived image of an object and the actual object with little attention to the anatomical location of the phase-conjugation mirror. The present article proposes that phase-conjugation mirrors exist in the brain as 3D networks of organic molecules previously observed to exhibit phase-conjugation behavior. In particular rhodopsin photoreceptor molecules are proposed to form extra-retinal, deep brain networks which function as phase-conjugation mirrors which are distributed throughout the brain. Furthermore, such networks are proposed to convert endogenous biophotons into virtual holograms which function to store cognitive information in the brain. Such a system offers a new functional definition of the mind.
    • Mind, Brain, and Neuroscience

      Henry P. Stapp; University of California at Berkeley (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2014-06-08)
      Quantum mechanics as conceived by Niels Bohr and formulated in rigorous terms by John von Neumann is expressed as quantum neuroscience: a description of the relationship between certain conscious experiences of an observer that are described in terms of the concepts of classical physics and neural processes that are described in terms of the concepts of quantum physics. The theory is applied to recent neuroscience data to determine the rapidity of the observer's probing actions that is needed to account for the capacity of a person's mental intentions to influence that person's bodily actions in the intended way.
    • Mind/Body/Spirit Complex in Quantum Mechanics

      Justin M. Riddle; University of California at Berkeley (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2014-06-08)
      Prevailing theories of consciousness may be characterized as either a physicalist view of mind with material building blocks that grow in complexity unto an emergent conscious experience, or as a dualistic model in which mind-body interaction is taken as the interface of conscious intent and unconscious bodily processing. Roger Penrose supports a model of consciousness that goes beyond dualism by adding a third domain [19]. The Three World model describes interconnected yet independent aspects of consciousness: Physical, Mental & Platonic. These three worlds are grounded in the three axioms of quantum mechanics: measurement, superposition and entanglement. The Mental World corresponds to the superposition principle in which all possible future realities are superposed as potentials before a choice is made. The superposition is analogous to the choices we make everyday. In the Physical World, the measurement principles states that the quantum system must collapse the superposed possibilities into a single actuality. The most peculiar phenomenon in quantum mechanics is entanglement. Quantum systems may be entangled in a timeless and spaceless way such that they will still be connected despite separation in space or time. The Platonic World is akin to entanglement, because mathematics and conceptual forms are unchanging regardless of space or time. Finally, a new model called Fractal Trialism is proposed which describes how there is a nested trialism within each of the three worlds in order to elaborate their interconnectedness. This model describes digital computers, quantum computers and shared experience.
    • Models Learning Change

      Philip F Henshaw; HDS (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2010-08-04)
      We live in a complex world, made more complex by the difficulty of distinguishing between our cultural ideas of how things work and the independent physical systems of our world we interact with.   Environmental systems are hard to recognize and constantly change their behavior independent of what people think about them.  So rules for them we’ve come to trust can become misleading without notice.   Learning how to know when natural system realities are changing, and models will need to change with them, starts with identifying the difference between natural physical systems and our cultural ideas of them, between information and its subjects.   The leverage used for doing that is the distinctly different way information models and physical systems use energy, are organized, and display different kinds of limits.   Environmental systems often have independent learning parts, for example, and models can’t. A useful method for identifying individual environmental systems and tracking their independent changes is found in how the conservation of energy requires developmental processes with a recognizable complex continuity, that does not apply to information models.   The characteristic continuities of developmental processes can be identified from recorded measures or implied by models of physical systems, and prompt key questions about approaching changes in organization precipitated by changes in scale, that will require finding new variables or concepts for related models. It builds a new bridge of methodology between theoretical and physical systems, introducing a new kind of empirical research.   An example of steering economic systems and their models is used, pertaining to the timing of responses to limits of growth and its feasibility.  
    • Modernity, Post-Modernity and Proto-Historicism: Reorienting Humanity Through a New Sense of Narrative Emplotment

      Andrew Kirkpatrick; Swinburne University of Technology (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2014-12-15)
      As a grand narrative of progress, the utopian project of modernity is primarily concerned with notions of rationalism, universalism, and the development of a metalanguage. The triumph of the Moderate Enlightenment has seen logics of domination, accumulation and individualism incorporated into the project of modernity, with these logics giving rise to globalised capitalism as the metalanguage of modernity and neoliberal economics as the grand narrative of rational progress. The project of modernity is all but complete, requiring only the formality of an end. However, rather than utopia, the foreseeable endpoint of modernity is environmental collapse, with neoliberal economics also serving as a grand narrative of environmental destruction. As an anti-modern response, postmodernism has been a triumphant failure. While there is much to be gained from the postmodern critique of modernity, its incredulity towards metanarratives has left it incapable of forming an adequate response to modernity, especially in regards to action on climate change. Postmodernism is better characterized as a crisis located within modernity itself and it will be argued that rather than the pursuit of the modern or the post-modern, we need to re-imagine ourselves as proto-historical to overcome the impasse of late-capitalism.