• QEEG Studies of the Acute Effects of the Visionary Tryptamine DMT

      Juan Acosta-Urquidi (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2015-11-29)
      Recent brain imaging studies in Psychedelic Brain Science are breaking new ground in our understanding of neurological substrate of biological consciousness in humans. The emerging field of inner experience and neuroscience is particularly well suited to the reexamination of the actions of psychedelics on subjective conscious experience. This approach is best understood as neurophenomenology. My work over the last few years has focused on the EEG correlates of the visionary tryptamine DMT action.  I believe the researcher must also have the drug experience as part of the experimental protocol, in order to fully understand the richness of the phenomenon. The objective of this exploratory research was to examine the QEEG correlates of the psychoactive smoked inhalation of exogenous DMT action.  Known as a potent visionary tryptamine, DMT  is ubiquitous in nature and has also been localized in the brain and peripheral tissues of mammals, including humans. The exact function of this endogenous DMT is the subject of ongoing neuropharmacological  research. Three sources of DMT were tested: high purity synthetic 5-MeO- DMT, Bufo 5-MeO-DMT (an extract from the Sonoran desert toad venom, Bufo alvarius), and N,N- DMT from a natural extract of the Acacia tree Mimosa hostilis  root bark. The DMT was delivered by smoked inhalation (vaporization). The rapid onset (10-20 sec), short acting  (5-15 min.), and reversible nature of the effects made such a QEEG study feasible. DMT dosage was adjusted to elicit an effective psychedelic experience (ca. 20-30 mg for N,N-DMT; 2-5 mg for synthetic 5-MeO-DMT, and 30-40 mg for the Bufo 5-MeO-DMT material). Healthy volunteers (age 25-60; N=15 men, N=8 women) were tested.  The protocol consisted of:  5-10 min. baseline control (resting eyes closed) was first acquired, followed by the DMT test condition, usually lasting 5-15 min. When subjects recovered from the DMT induced altered state, a report of their subjective experience was recorded on video and a post recovery  EEG reading was made typically at 15-30 min. A statistical comparison (paired t-tests, correlated samples) of absolute power values for all EEG bands  between baseline vs. DMT tests and post recovery conditions was carried out for all subjects. The DMT- induced profound alterations in consciousness  were tracked with the shifts in the QEEG metrics analysed. The time course and intensity of the subjective experience correlated with the magnitude of the observed EEG effects. The most consistent effect was a robust suppression of Alpha, obtained for both N,N-DMT and 5-MeO-DMT (Alpha decreased ave. 72%, N=6). During recovery, some subjects showed Alpha rebound increased power at 15-25 min. post DMT (ave. 43% incr., P
    • Qualities Without the Man (Book Review)

      Darshana Jayemanne; University of Melbourne (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2007-08-17)
      Review of Dominic Pettman, emspan class="sans"Love and Other Technologies: Retrofitting Eros for the Information Age/span/emspan class="sans", New York, /spanFordham University Press, 2006. ISBN: 978-0823226696
    • Quantum Fluctuation Fields and Conscious Experience: How Neurodynamics Transcends Classical and Quantum Mechanics

      Alex Hankey; sVYASA Yoga University in Bangalore (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2017-03-26)
      Subjective experience presents a conundrum to science. Those convinced of its reality recognise that it requires explanation, but that classical physics is unable to provide one. They often assume that, as a consequence, quantum mechanics must provide the basis for a theory. However, consciousness seems able to reduce quantum wave packets, a process that quantum wave functions cannot accomplish, ruling out that approach. Recent research suggests that fluctuations at critical instabilities provide a non-reductive, double aspect information theory, i.e. properties identified as necessary aspects of any theory of experience. Due to complexity, biological systems support critical instabilities. Complexity means that they obey principles like Edge of Chaos and Fractal Physiology, and that organisms are not mechanical systems. Critical instabilities are in turn supported by the principle of Self-Organised Criticality, well known to be exhibited by neuronal cortices. The neurodynamics underlying experience and consciousness encompasses critical instabilities on networks of neurons. Due to a famous theorem from material science, the spin-glass neural network isomorphism, such instabilities can have arbitrary complexity, and can model and control genetic networks, well known to function at the Edge of Chaos. Here we show how information on sensory pathways enters conscious experience by means of the process of Inhibition of Lateral Inhibition identified by Karl Pribram, and making possible holographic representation of sense information.
    • Quantum Interpretations for Building Science/Religion Bridges

      Christopher Cochran; Dept. of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz; Stanley A. Klein; Dept. of Vision Science, Berkeley, University of California (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2017-03-26)
      This paper attempts a systematic comparison of the multiple interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM). The article ends with a summary table that has 13 rows and 10 columns. The columns are metaphysical principles such as determinism and reality. The rows are the main interpretations from 1925 to the present. Each row has entries such as Yes/No/Agnostic. We have contacted most of the living authors and based on their comments we have modified the entry for their interpretation. However, there is reasonable space for disagreement when it comes to determining the correct value of each box (Yes/No/Agnostic). We hope to improve the table in the future. We have also eliminated one of the columns and replaced it with two new columns. We believe that this topic is especially relevant to bridge building in dialogues on science, religion and spirituality because of the unique way that QM brings out metaphysical questions from within science. While any science may lend itself to metaphysical speculation, few sciences beyond QM have such a wide range of metaphysical speculation that all correspond to the same empirical results. This fact may humble scientists and have interesting consequences for how to build bridges between conflicting worldviews.
    • Quantum Mechanics & the Brain, and some of its Consequences

      Acacio de Barros; San Francisco State University; Gary Oas; Stanford Univesity (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2015-11-29)
      In this paper we examine the consequences of von Neumann's interpretation of quantum mechanics in the context of an insect conditioning experiment. We argue that either the insect has a mind (consciousness?), therefore collapsing the wave function, or it does not, therefore reacting to superpositions in a different way. Thus, a device to condition insects could be used to test von Neumann's interpretation, if insects are not conscious. If, on the other hand, insects possess a mind, such experiment would open up the possibility of using insect experiments to test Stapp's theory of mind-matter interaction.
    • Quantum Mechanics and Cognitive Science: The Probe and the Probed

      Varanasi Ramabrahmam (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-01-13)
      Attemp;ts are being made to use quantum mechanics as a probe to unravel the mysteries of consciousness. This paper examines this probe, quantum mechanics and its usefulness in getting an insight of working of human consciousness. The formation of quantum mechanics based on certain axioms, its development to study the dynamical behavior and motions of fundamental particles and quantum energy particles moving with the velocity of light, its insistence on wave functions, its probability approach, its dependence on uncertainty principles will all be critically discussed. The result of this discussion will be presented. Its limitations in unraveling the form, function and biological nature of consciousness will be presented. The alternative probe available and being used - the translation of Upanishadic insight and Advaita philosophy into cognitive science elements in delineating the definition, form and function of Consciousness will be given. The usefulness of this modeling and analysis in understanding the consciousness, mind and its functions in cognitive science and theory of human language acquisition and communication will also be presented. The physic-chemical nature of ideas, senses, thoughts, feelings, utterances will be grossly dealt with. The functions of consciousness and mind, in knowledge and language acquisition and communication will be dealt with.
    • Quantum Physics on Freud's Couch

      Andrea Careggio (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-08-26)
      Psyche is described by Homer as the energy of life and not as it is now understood, synonymous with the virtual organ named mind. Starting from the etymology of psyche it is possible to discover that the field of study of psychoanalysis is very close to that of quantum physics. In their correspondence Jung and Pauli had already guessed how the reality described by quantum theory is very similar to the description that psychoanalysis makes of the subconscious. Observing the ability of psychotherapists to interact with this inscrutable world could offer new insights to physics. The latter could finally undertake studies that lead to a theory and therefore a mathematical function that can include the psyche variable.
    • Quantum Uncertainty, Quantum Play, Quantum Sorrow

      David A. Grandy; Brigham Young University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2009-03-14)
      I argue that intrinsic (as opposed to epistemic or Einsteinian) quantum uncertainty informs the elemental life experiences of random play and compassionate sorrow. These experiences, like Niels Bohr’s quantum ontology, point toward unscripted novelty, fresh variation, and far-flung sympathetic interconnections. And in doing this, they allow the inner and outer feeling experiences to grow back together. As we feel the world sensibly—that is, touch it with our sense organs—it touches back in a way that engenders feeling-laden or sympathetic understanding.
    • Quentin Meillassoux and the Rehabilitation of the Principle of Sufficient Reason

      Martin Orensanz (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2017-11-11)
      Quentin Meillassoux has sparked new debates within contemporary philosophy. One of his suggestions is that the principle of sufficient reason leads to an infinite regress, unless the ontological argument uncovers a reason that accounts for everything. Graham Harman has indicated that the infinite regress of sufficient reasons that Meillassoux refers to does not necessarily lead to an absurd. A similar claim has been made by the proponents of infinitism for the infinite regress of propositions. It can be shown that the principle of sufficient reason does not need to be abandoned, and it is not necessary to accept the ontological argument either. Furthermore, the infinite regress of orders of facticity that Meillassoux refers to does not lead to an absurd. Instead, it suggests than facticity is not necessarily absolute. The consequence of this last point is that one does not need to accept the concept of the hyper-Chaos either.
    • "Can Politics be Thought in Interiority?" (Translation)

      Sylvain Lazarus; Tyler Harper; New York University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2016-05-23)
      “Can Politics be Thought in Interiority” is an essay from The Intelligence of Politics, one of two book-length works published by French anthropologist and political theorist, Sylvain Lazarus. The English translation of Lazarus’ first book, Anthropology of the Name, is set to come out in August 2015, and while that work can rightly be considered his magnum opus, “Can Politics be Thought in Interiority” provides a comprehensive, yet succinct statement of the concepts outlined in this much longer text. Broadly speaking, the central concern for Lazarus in this essay, as well as in his work as a whole, is to rehabilitate a form of leftist theory that maintains the radical edge of previous discourses, all without either descending into the violent pitfalls that plagued the various socialist and communist projects of the 20th century, or capitulating to the dominant neo-liberal or “parliamentary” regime. According to Lazarus, both the (failed) communist project and the current parliamentary-democratic project—though they espouse widely different ideologies—fall prey to and ultimately fail because of the same underlying structure. For Lazarus, this structure is what he terms “politics in exteriority,” which he defines as any mode of political organization that identifies politics in relation (and only in relation) to a specific “object” or set of objects, whether they be conceptual or empirical. The task of contemporary politics is not, according to Lazarus, to find new “objects” for politics to identify with (to use a current example, to maintain that the site of politics is not the nation-State but in “global citizenship” or the “global society”), but to move toward a non-dogmatic and praxis-oriented “politics in interiority,” which this essay outlines in detail.  It is also worth noting that Sylvain Lazarus’ work has been of crucial importance to the developement of the philosophical and political project of Alain Badiou, and is, alongside with Lacan, Plato, and Sartre, one of the most important influences on Badiou’s thought. Key terms and phrases in Badiou’s project, such as “the name,” “politics without the party,” and “politics at a distance from the State,” as well as assertions such as “politics is rare,” are ideas that have been developed in concert with Lazarus (during their many years of political and theoretical labour together), and in many cases, that have been culled directly (without alteration) from Lazarus’ body of work. As such, “Can Politics be Thought in Interiority”—outside of its substantial independent merits—will also be an invaluable resource for the ever-growing legion of Badiou scholars, who until now, have had almost no direct English-language contact with Lazarus’ work, and as such, have not been able to get a foothold on one of Badiou’s primary influences.
    • "Physics of the Idea": An Interview With Iain Hamilton Grant (2013)

      Leon Niemoczynski; Immaculata University; Iain Hamilton Grant; University of West England (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2013-12-29)
      This is an interview with the philosopher Iain Hamilton Grant, author of Idealism: The history of a philosophy (Acumen, 2011) and Philosophies of Nature After Schelling (Continuum, 2008).
    • Rationality, Dialogue, and Critical Inquiry: Toward a Viable Postfoundationalist Stance

      Paul Healy; Swinburne University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2007-08-17)
      pGiven the long-standing and deeply rooted intertwinement between reason and philosophy, there is a pressing need to reappraise our operative conceptions of rationality and critical inquiry in the wake of the transition from foundationalism to postfoundationalism.nbsp; For while opening up exciting new vistas, this transition poses perplexing problems regarding how we might go about justifying our knowledge claims without the possibility of recourse to incontrovertible foundations, indubitable starting points, or algorithmic procedures.nbsp; The challenge is all the more acute given that the turn to language and intersubjectivity that characterises this transition has fostered the proliferation of a diversity of competing and allegedly self-validating worldviews, that render the encounter with difference an indispensable feature of the contemporary epistemological landscape while reinforcing the threat of relativism and groundlessness./ppThrough engaging with the work of Juuml;rgen Habermas, Hans-Georg Gadamer and Michel Foucault, three theorists widely recognized as major contributors to the contemporary debate, the present paper responds to these problems by seeking to delineate the constitutive features of a dialogically-oriented conception of rationality and critical inquiry capable of meeting postfoundationalist needs.nbsp; In the process, it reinforces the advantages of the reading these theorists as complementary rather than as oppositional, as has typically been the case./p
    • Reading Elden's 'Mapping the Present'

      Ali M Rizvi; La Trobe University (Australia) (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2005-10-20)
      A discussion of S. Elden, Mapping the Present: Heidegger Foucault and the Project of A Spatial History, London, Continuum, 2001.
    • Recent Advances in Post-Quantum Physics

      Jack Sarfatti (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2017-03-26)
      Newton's mechanics in the 17th Century increased the lethality of artillery. Thermodynamics in the 19th led to the steam-powered Industrial Revolution in the UK. Maxwell's unification of electricity, magnetism and light gave us electrical power, the telegraph, radio and television. The discovery of quantum mechanics in the 20th century by Planck, Bohr, Einstein, Schrodinger, Heisenberg led to the creation of the atomic and hydrogen bomb as well as computer chips and the world-wide-web and Silicon Valley's multi-billion dollar corporations. The lesson is that breakthroughs in fundamental physics, both theoretical and experimental have always led to profound technological wealth-creating new industries and will continue to do so. There is now a new revolution brewing in quantum mechanics that can be divided into three periods. The first quantum revolution was from 1900 to about 1975. The second quantum information/computer revolution was from about 1975 to 2015. The early part of this story is told by MIT Professor David Kaiser in his award-winning book how a small group of Berkeley/San Francisco physicists triggered that second revolution. The third quantum revolution is how an extension of quantum mechanics has led to the understanding of consciousness as a natural physical phenomenon that can emerge in many material substrates not only in our carbon-based biochemistry. In particular, this new post-quantum mechanics will lead to naturally conscious artificial intelligence in nano-electronic machines as well as extending human life spans to hundreds of years and more. This development is not far off and is fraught with opportunities and dangers, just like nuclear power and genetic engineering.
    • Recognition or Decentred Agency? Philosophical Culture and its Discontents (Jurist, Beyond Hegel and Nietzsche: Philosophy, Culture, and Agency)

      Robert Sixto Sinnerbrink; Philosophy, Macquarie University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2007-12-28)
      Book review of: Elliot L. Jurist, Beyond Hegel and Nietzsche: Philosophy, Culture, and Agency, Cambridge, The MIT Press, 2000, ISBN: 0262100878.br /
    • Recollecting the Future (The Future of Critical Theory)

      Paul Ashton; Victoria and LaTrobe University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2005-12-19)
      Conference Report: The Future of Critical Theory, Ashworth Program in Social Theory, University of Melbourne, 17-18 November 2005.
    • Reconstructing Bhaskar's Transcendental Analysis of Experimental Activity

      Dustin McWherter; Unaffiliated (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2012-05-03)
      In this essay I attempt a thorough reconstruction and modification of Roy Bhaskar's "transcendental analysis of experimental activity" to show that this analysis contains a powerful critique of regularity theories of causal laws and a strong case for a transcendental realist, powers-based theory of causal laws.  Despite the short and scattered places in which this analysis occurs in Bhaskar's texts, my reconstruction synthesizes these textual resources to formulate a unified analysis of experimentation that derives three distinct conclusions from four presuppositions and a complex of transcendental arguments.  These conclusions are: 1) Extra-experimental reality is, to a significant extent, an open system, 2) Causal laws must be distinguished from constant conjunctions of events, and 3) Causal laws are the transcendentally real tendencies of generative mechanisms.
    • Reconstructing the Tower of Babel: Mind and World, Consciousness and Experience

      Sean O Nuallain; stanford (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-01-13)
      This paper seeks an exit from the miasma enveloping science of the subjective. First, it unpacks the various meanings of the word "consciousness".  It agrees with contemporary literature that attention admits of two modes; involuntary attention  and voluntary attention. It goes on to argue that the former is best modeled by "interrupts" in computer operating systems and often reflect "chunked" learned skill behaviour.  Voluntary attention, on the other hand,  always  reflects a processing thread globally broadcast through the nervous system and is  thus inevitably conscious. It is this process  of selecting something to observe and moving back and forth from superposition (see my 2013 paper)   that AI systems cannot yet come close to mastering; from it emerge not only humans' trans-Turing computational capacities but very possibly the furthest reaches of human creativity, exemplified by the reveries of geniuses like Mozart and Einstein. In particular, it is arguable that the strong AI positions gained traction only because of the attenuation of psychology's domain from the mid 19th century. To clear the ground, several distinctions should be made. In terms of epistemological domain, humans function at sensorimotor, cognitive and noetic levels. The last, a distinction we adapt from Aristotle,  occurs  when "the unreasonable effectiveness of math" gives us insight into a level of reality that our evolutionary heritage should not allow. Secondly, the term "noumenal" is adapted to refer to instances in which the subject, trying to get a veridical purchase on a situation, considers itself as an object. So we can move from egocentric/coupled sensorimotion to allocentric/decoupled such. The Roomba vacuum needs only coupled knowledge; if I'm here, I do this. Allocentric knowledge  is a representation of the room.  In a final wrinkle, we term "relativistic" the attested phenomenon of egocentric sensorimotion in an allocentric context. This is an artifact of intentionality. That analysis extends also to cognition and noesis. The former was best characterized by Piaget as the result of internalization of processes that originally occurred midway between subject and world. For him, the royal road to epistemology was study of the development of children's minds - another sense of the "foundations of mind". Normative ie necessary facts about knowledge could be elicited from the contingent facts of its development. Moreover, the necessity of logic itself derived from universal restrictions on physical interaction with the world. The project reached its limits not just empirically, with many results being unreplicated, but epistemologically as we seem to know a lot more than Piaget's  "Naïve physics" warrants (see my 2003 book).  "Naïve physics" which does not use pi, i, e and other "Platonic" entities is a cognitive undertaking. And so Archimedes in his bath has a noumenal moment   of subject/object differentiation. Rather famously, Einstein extended this analysis, using only cognitive concepts/naïve physics, to argue that physics required that space and time had to be "relative" to the observer - paradoxically  in order to maintain the universality of physical law. Quantum mechanics (QM) is a fortiori noetic; indeed, it is a moot point whether reality at this level is cognitively penetrable. What is not controversial is Von Neumann's  attested proof that the boundary of subject and object in QM is moveable. Much work was done by researchers like Stapp  to ensure Von Neumann's breakthrough is compatible with special relativity. Yet that is not the full story. Quantum observation seems to change the external world; indeed, Stapp follows Dirac in arguing that the wave function of the universe changes during observation. Moreover, unless one (like Milne and Stapp) argues for two kinds of time, the observer can also change the past. The act of observation seems to be more akin to incantation/invocation in ancient religions. That is clearly disturbing. Yet "the unreasonable effectiveness of math" has led to  this conclusion. Math is capable of  the most elliptical and veridical description of reality that can reliably be communicated. In short, we are doing something in QM that possibly is part of humanity's heritage, even for the 99.9999..% of humanity which never knew QM. This type of capacity has famously been claimed by Shamans and often has been rolled into a totalizing theocratic ordering of society that should be resisted by every rational person. The response from fundamentalists is twofold. For their base, they insist on incessant repetitions of  prayers of incantation and invocation. These often remind God that he is omnipotent and should do something about the situation. If it doesn't work, the prayer has been insincere and should....well, it should be repeated more sincerely. The fundamentalists take a different strategy in their debate with the forces of "reason". They argue that, on an individual level, "reason" has led only to moral and epistemological relativism. On a social level, the extension of "rights" can only go so far until the facts of biology create the kind of backlash that allowed an opportunist like Trump become President. It is at this point that we will introduce "consciousness". Obviously, if everything is relative to "consciousness", the only reality, it contains the only value. However, if we grain our epistemology more finely, we find that there indeed are processes that are relative to individual "consciousness" which has a sampling speed of about 0.1 sec, and others that are biological, occurring indeed in the picoseconds,  or transcendent to "consciousness" in that they exemplify forces that in exigent fashion integrate us into the social group, The history of psychology, and of the public university, constrains the response to this in interesting ways. Arguably, academic psychologists are the people least qualified to tackle the issue of exigent forces as their entire career has been based on a notion of mind which accepts only externals that are relative to consciousness. Conversely, to accept the social forces - which today includes a surveillance state fully as pervasive as a theocracy - into the mix is to take a perhaps unwelcome step into the real world. This final point will delineate that step. The activists who today take part in rallies knowing that their texts to each other are being swept up by the police are themselves involved in delineating the  boundary of subject and object. For example, "Occupy" activists recently had perhaps a rather Lakoff/maternal view of the state shaken by the knowledge that a la Cointelpro, the state was bugging them. Of course, their erstwhile pre-FBI state was described by Marx as false "Bewusstsein", false consciousness. Their  passage into the real world no doubt has birthed many support groups who know that something sacred needs to be preserved, As indeed, in the individual case, is the sensorimotor passage from being blocked to flow, and the individual's passage from intersubjective to authentic. None of these processes is  the focus of academic psychology. They may, however, form the basis for religious practices that yearn for the betterment of humanity, rather than the retrenchment of a Neolithic worldview. Ironically, the facts of QM are on the side of the activists, self-authenticators, artists, and dancers. What we so far lack are authentic spiritual leaders, and we discuss below what they might do if extant.
    • Reconstruction of the Sociopolitical Hierarchy in Farabi’s Virtuous City based on Type of Knowledge and Function

      Mohammad Ali Tavana; Hamid Nassaj; Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Isfahan; Morteza Bahrani; Associate Professor of Political Thought at the Institute for Cultural and Social Studies (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-12-12)
      Farabi’s Virtuous City has a special sociopolitical hierarchy, which at first glance, appears to be original. Now, the following questions are raised: What was Farabi’s main criteria for creating this sociopolitical hierarchy? And to what extent did he drew on historical facts to establish this hierarchy? Findings of the present research indicate that the two components of knowledge and function have been Farabi’s most important criteria for establishing the sociopolitical hierarchy of his Virtuous City. Accordingly, he categorizes the classes of Virtuous City as follows: 1- the ruling class; 2- assistants to the ruler, including Al-Afazel (the nobles), Zuvei al-lasana (speakers), Al-Moqadderoun (specialists), Al-Mujahedun (the military), Al-Maliyun (economic forces); 3- the masses; and 4- the opponents and adversaries, including Navabet and Bahimiyun. It seems that there are similarities between the function of some of these classes and the function of historical classes in the ancient Iran’s monarchy and the Islamic Caliphate system, yet Farabi’s innovation is in integrating them into a whole based on the criteria of knowledge and function and believing that those groups that do not meet the main objectives of Virtuous City -public happiness - may be suppressed. On the whole, it appears that Farabi’s Virtuous City has an organic class system in which not only the autonomy of classes and individuals is not recognized, but also any opposition is violently suppressed. Methodological approach of this article is methodological hermeneutics with an emphasis on Hirsch’s hermeneutics. 
    • Reductionism and Practicality

      Kevin Smith; Pschology, University of California at San Diego; Edward Vul; Pscyhology, University of California at San Diego (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2014-06-08)
      Like most domains of science, the study of the mind has been tackled at many scales of analysis, from the behavior of large groups of people (economics and ecology), to the diffusion of ions across cellular membranes (molecular biology and biophysics).  At each of these scales, researchers often believe that the critical phenomena of interest, and the most powerful explanatory constructs and mechanisms, reside at their scale of analysis, with finer scales argued to be incapable of predicting the interesting phenomena, while coarser scales are purported to miss critical mechanistic subtleties.  Here we argue by analogy that, for better or worse, researchers at all scales are correct: phenomena at each scale of analysis are intractable from other scales; thus, while reductionism is a useful scientific goal, it will not obviate the need for macroscopic research, constructs, and formalisms.