• Rationality, Dialogue, and Critical Inquiry: Toward a Viable Postfoundationalist Stance

      Paul Healy; Swinburne University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2007-08-17)
      pGiven the long-standing and deeply rooted intertwinement between reason and philosophy, there is a pressing need to reappraise our operative conceptions of rationality and critical inquiry in the wake of the transition from foundationalism to postfoundationalism.nbsp; For while opening up exciting new vistas, this transition poses perplexing problems regarding how we might go about justifying our knowledge claims without the possibility of recourse to incontrovertible foundations, indubitable starting points, or algorithmic procedures.nbsp; The challenge is all the more acute given that the turn to language and intersubjectivity that characterises this transition has fostered the proliferation of a diversity of competing and allegedly self-validating worldviews, that render the encounter with difference an indispensable feature of the contemporary epistemological landscape while reinforcing the threat of relativism and groundlessness./ppThrough engaging with the work of Juuml;rgen Habermas, Hans-Georg Gadamer and Michel Foucault, three theorists widely recognized as major contributors to the contemporary debate, the present paper responds to these problems by seeking to delineate the constitutive features of a dialogically-oriented conception of rationality and critical inquiry capable of meeting postfoundationalist needs.nbsp; In the process, it reinforces the advantages of the reading these theorists as complementary rather than as oppositional, as has typically been the case./p
    • Reading Elden's 'Mapping the Present'

      Ali M Rizvi; La Trobe University (Australia) (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2005-10-20)
      A discussion of S. Elden, Mapping the Present: Heidegger Foucault and the Project of A Spatial History, London, Continuum, 2001.
    • Recent Advances in Post-Quantum Physics

      Jack Sarfatti (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2017-03-26)
      Newton's mechanics in the 17th Century increased the lethality of artillery. Thermodynamics in the 19th led to the steam-powered Industrial Revolution in the UK. Maxwell's unification of electricity, magnetism and light gave us electrical power, the telegraph, radio and television. The discovery of quantum mechanics in the 20th century by Planck, Bohr, Einstein, Schrodinger, Heisenberg led to the creation of the atomic and hydrogen bomb as well as computer chips and the world-wide-web and Silicon Valley's multi-billion dollar corporations. The lesson is that breakthroughs in fundamental physics, both theoretical and experimental have always led to profound technological wealth-creating new industries and will continue to do so. There is now a new revolution brewing in quantum mechanics that can be divided into three periods. The first quantum revolution was from 1900 to about 1975. The second quantum information/computer revolution was from about 1975 to 2015. The early part of this story is told by MIT Professor David Kaiser in his award-winning book how a small group of Berkeley/San Francisco physicists triggered that second revolution. The third quantum revolution is how an extension of quantum mechanics has led to the understanding of consciousness as a natural physical phenomenon that can emerge in many material substrates not only in our carbon-based biochemistry. In particular, this new post-quantum mechanics will lead to naturally conscious artificial intelligence in nano-electronic machines as well as extending human life spans to hundreds of years and more. This development is not far off and is fraught with opportunities and dangers, just like nuclear power and genetic engineering.
    • Recognition or Decentred Agency? Philosophical Culture and its Discontents (Jurist, Beyond Hegel and Nietzsche: Philosophy, Culture, and Agency)

      Robert Sixto Sinnerbrink; Philosophy, Macquarie University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2007-12-28)
      Book review of: Elliot L. Jurist, Beyond Hegel and Nietzsche: Philosophy, Culture, and Agency, Cambridge, The MIT Press, 2000, ISBN: 0262100878.br /
    • Recollecting the Future (The Future of Critical Theory)

      Paul Ashton; Victoria and LaTrobe University (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2005-12-19)
      Conference Report: The Future of Critical Theory, Ashworth Program in Social Theory, University of Melbourne, 17-18 November 2005.
    • Reconstructing Bhaskar's Transcendental Analysis of Experimental Activity

      Dustin McWherter; Unaffiliated (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2012-05-03)
      In this essay I attempt a thorough reconstruction and modification of Roy Bhaskar's "transcendental analysis of experimental activity" to show that this analysis contains a powerful critique of regularity theories of causal laws and a strong case for a transcendental realist, powers-based theory of causal laws.  Despite the short and scattered places in which this analysis occurs in Bhaskar's texts, my reconstruction synthesizes these textual resources to formulate a unified analysis of experimentation that derives three distinct conclusions from four presuppositions and a complex of transcendental arguments.  These conclusions are: 1) Extra-experimental reality is, to a significant extent, an open system, 2) Causal laws must be distinguished from constant conjunctions of events, and 3) Causal laws are the transcendentally real tendencies of generative mechanisms.
    • Reconstructing the Tower of Babel: Mind and World, Consciousness and Experience

      Sean O Nuallain; stanford (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-01-13)
      This paper seeks an exit from the miasma enveloping science of the subjective. First, it unpacks the various meanings of the word "consciousness".  It agrees with contemporary literature that attention admits of two modes; involuntary attention  and voluntary attention. It goes on to argue that the former is best modeled by "interrupts" in computer operating systems and often reflect "chunked" learned skill behaviour.  Voluntary attention, on the other hand,  always  reflects a processing thread globally broadcast through the nervous system and is  thus inevitably conscious. It is this process  of selecting something to observe and moving back and forth from superposition (see my 2013 paper)   that AI systems cannot yet come close to mastering; from it emerge not only humans' trans-Turing computational capacities but very possibly the furthest reaches of human creativity, exemplified by the reveries of geniuses like Mozart and Einstein. In particular, it is arguable that the strong AI positions gained traction only because of the attenuation of psychology's domain from the mid 19th century. To clear the ground, several distinctions should be made. In terms of epistemological domain, humans function at sensorimotor, cognitive and noetic levels. The last, a distinction we adapt from Aristotle,  occurs  when "the unreasonable effectiveness of math" gives us insight into a level of reality that our evolutionary heritage should not allow. Secondly, the term "noumenal" is adapted to refer to instances in which the subject, trying to get a veridical purchase on a situation, considers itself as an object. So we can move from egocentric/coupled sensorimotion to allocentric/decoupled such. The Roomba vacuum needs only coupled knowledge; if I'm here, I do this. Allocentric knowledge  is a representation of the room.  In a final wrinkle, we term "relativistic" the attested phenomenon of egocentric sensorimotion in an allocentric context. This is an artifact of intentionality. That analysis extends also to cognition and noesis. The former was best characterized by Piaget as the result of internalization of processes that originally occurred midway between subject and world. For him, the royal road to epistemology was study of the development of children's minds - another sense of the "foundations of mind". Normative ie necessary facts about knowledge could be elicited from the contingent facts of its development. Moreover, the necessity of logic itself derived from universal restrictions on physical interaction with the world. The project reached its limits not just empirically, with many results being unreplicated, but epistemologically as we seem to know a lot more than Piaget's  "Naïve physics" warrants (see my 2003 book).  "Naïve physics" which does not use pi, i, e and other "Platonic" entities is a cognitive undertaking. And so Archimedes in his bath has a noumenal moment   of subject/object differentiation. Rather famously, Einstein extended this analysis, using only cognitive concepts/naïve physics, to argue that physics required that space and time had to be "relative" to the observer - paradoxically  in order to maintain the universality of physical law. Quantum mechanics (QM) is a fortiori noetic; indeed, it is a moot point whether reality at this level is cognitively penetrable. What is not controversial is Von Neumann's  attested proof that the boundary of subject and object in QM is moveable. Much work was done by researchers like Stapp  to ensure Von Neumann's breakthrough is compatible with special relativity. Yet that is not the full story. Quantum observation seems to change the external world; indeed, Stapp follows Dirac in arguing that the wave function of the universe changes during observation. Moreover, unless one (like Milne and Stapp) argues for two kinds of time, the observer can also change the past. The act of observation seems to be more akin to incantation/invocation in ancient religions. That is clearly disturbing. Yet "the unreasonable effectiveness of math" has led to  this conclusion. Math is capable of  the most elliptical and veridical description of reality that can reliably be communicated. In short, we are doing something in QM that possibly is part of humanity's heritage, even for the 99.9999..% of humanity which never knew QM. This type of capacity has famously been claimed by Shamans and often has been rolled into a totalizing theocratic ordering of society that should be resisted by every rational person. The response from fundamentalists is twofold. For their base, they insist on incessant repetitions of  prayers of incantation and invocation. These often remind God that he is omnipotent and should do something about the situation. If it doesn't work, the prayer has been insincere and should....well, it should be repeated more sincerely. The fundamentalists take a different strategy in their debate with the forces of "reason". They argue that, on an individual level, "reason" has led only to moral and epistemological relativism. On a social level, the extension of "rights" can only go so far until the facts of biology create the kind of backlash that allowed an opportunist like Trump become President. It is at this point that we will introduce "consciousness". Obviously, if everything is relative to "consciousness", the only reality, it contains the only value. However, if we grain our epistemology more finely, we find that there indeed are processes that are relative to individual "consciousness" which has a sampling speed of about 0.1 sec, and others that are biological, occurring indeed in the picoseconds,  or transcendent to "consciousness" in that they exemplify forces that in exigent fashion integrate us into the social group, The history of psychology, and of the public university, constrains the response to this in interesting ways. Arguably, academic psychologists are the people least qualified to tackle the issue of exigent forces as their entire career has been based on a notion of mind which accepts only externals that are relative to consciousness. Conversely, to accept the social forces - which today includes a surveillance state fully as pervasive as a theocracy - into the mix is to take a perhaps unwelcome step into the real world. This final point will delineate that step. The activists who today take part in rallies knowing that their texts to each other are being swept up by the police are themselves involved in delineating the  boundary of subject and object. For example, "Occupy" activists recently had perhaps a rather Lakoff/maternal view of the state shaken by the knowledge that a la Cointelpro, the state was bugging them. Of course, their erstwhile pre-FBI state was described by Marx as false "Bewusstsein", false consciousness. Their  passage into the real world no doubt has birthed many support groups who know that something sacred needs to be preserved, As indeed, in the individual case, is the sensorimotor passage from being blocked to flow, and the individual's passage from intersubjective to authentic. None of these processes is  the focus of academic psychology. They may, however, form the basis for religious practices that yearn for the betterment of humanity, rather than the retrenchment of a Neolithic worldview. Ironically, the facts of QM are on the side of the activists, self-authenticators, artists, and dancers. What we so far lack are authentic spiritual leaders, and we discuss below what they might do if extant.
    • Reconstruction of the Sociopolitical Hierarchy in Farabi’s Virtuous City based on Type of Knowledge and Function

      Mohammad Ali Tavana; Hamid Nassaj; Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Isfahan; Morteza Bahrani; Associate Professor of Political Thought at the Institute for Cultural and Social Studies (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-12-12)
      Farabi’s Virtuous City has a special sociopolitical hierarchy, which at first glance, appears to be original. Now, the following questions are raised: What was Farabi’s main criteria for creating this sociopolitical hierarchy? And to what extent did he drew on historical facts to establish this hierarchy? Findings of the present research indicate that the two components of knowledge and function have been Farabi’s most important criteria for establishing the sociopolitical hierarchy of his Virtuous City. Accordingly, he categorizes the classes of Virtuous City as follows: 1- the ruling class; 2- assistants to the ruler, including Al-Afazel (the nobles), Zuvei al-lasana (speakers), Al-Moqadderoun (specialists), Al-Mujahedun (the military), Al-Maliyun (economic forces); 3- the masses; and 4- the opponents and adversaries, including Navabet and Bahimiyun. It seems that there are similarities between the function of some of these classes and the function of historical classes in the ancient Iran’s monarchy and the Islamic Caliphate system, yet Farabi’s innovation is in integrating them into a whole based on the criteria of knowledge and function and believing that those groups that do not meet the main objectives of Virtuous City -public happiness - may be suppressed. On the whole, it appears that Farabi’s Virtuous City has an organic class system in which not only the autonomy of classes and individuals is not recognized, but also any opposition is violently suppressed. Methodological approach of this article is methodological hermeneutics with an emphasis on Hirsch’s hermeneutics. 
    • Reductionism and Practicality

      Kevin Smith; Pschology, University of California at San Diego; Edward Vul; Pscyhology, University of California at San Diego (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2014-06-08)
      Like most domains of science, the study of the mind has been tackled at many scales of analysis, from the behavior of large groups of people (economics and ecology), to the diffusion of ions across cellular membranes (molecular biology and biophysics).  At each of these scales, researchers often believe that the critical phenomena of interest, and the most powerful explanatory constructs and mechanisms, reside at their scale of analysis, with finer scales argued to be incapable of predicting the interesting phenomena, while coarser scales are purported to miss critical mechanistic subtleties.  Here we argue by analogy that, for better or worse, researchers at all scales are correct: phenomena at each scale of analysis are intractable from other scales; thus, while reductionism is a useful scientific goal, it will not obviate the need for macroscopic research, constructs, and formalisms.
    • Reflections on the Existential Philosophy in T.S. Eliot's Poetry

      No Funding; Prajna Pani; Centurion University of Technology and Management (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2013-07-08)
      The paper examines a ground that the chosen philosophers share. It will address man’s existential crisis - his confusion and despair over his existence. T. S Eliot believed that his insight could pull humanity out of the despair and hopelessness of modern era. The paper emphasizes the self transcending character of human existence. The eternal human situation offers liberation of mankind which starts with a total knowledge of man by himself. Through philosophical and existential exploration we can enter into, in effect, another state of consciousness, where we reconnect with each of our will at a deeper and satisfying level.
    • Relating Language to Other Cognitive Systems: An Abridged Account

      Leonard Talmy; Department of Linguistics, University of Buffalo (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2014-06-08)
      An important research direction in cognitive science consists of cross-comparing the forms of organization exhibited by different cognitive systems, with the long-range aim of ascertaining the overall character of human cognitive organization.  Relatively distinct major cognitive systems of this sort would seem to include: (different modalities of) perception, motor control, affect, reasoning, language, and cultural structure.  The general finding is that some properties of organization are shown by only one system, some by several, and some by all.  This arrangement is called the "overlapping systems model of cognitive organization".  This paper demonstrates the model by comparing properties of organization across language and vision. Language is first shown to represent certain features of cognitive organization not well realized in vision, such as the representation of "reality status", with such member notions as factual, conditional, potential, and counterfactual.  In turn, vision is shown to represent certain features of organization not well realized in language, such as symmetry, rotation, dilation, and pattern of distribution.  Finally, both language and vision are shown to represent certain features of organization in common, such as the schematization of spatial relations between objects.
    • Relational Creativity and the Symmetry of Freedom and Nature

      Philip Michael Rose; Department of Philosophy, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2005-10-20)
      One of the more important and persistent of problems in speculative philosophy is reconciling the relation between freedom and nature. This is often referred to as the problem of freedom and determinism, but this way of formulating the problem assumes, uncritically, that nature is and must necessarily be a purely deterministic framework. As I hope to show, the so-called problem of freedom and determinism lies precisely in this deterministic assumption. By reorienting the question in terms of the relation between freedom and nature, rather than freedom and determinism, we can better see how the problem of their tension or ‘contradiction’ only arises if nature itself is defined and characterized in a very limited, purely deterministic way. Once we step outside the deterministic assumption and entertain alternative views of nature, the problem of freedom and determinism does not arise.
    • Remarks on the Foundations of Biology

      Seán Ó Nualláin; stanford (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2009-03-14)
      This paper attempts, inevitably briefly, a re-categorization and partial resolution of some foundational issues in biology -clearing exercise extends the notion of causality in biology from merely the efficient cause to include also final and formal causality. The Human Genome Project (hpg) can be looked on as an attempt to ground explanation of the phenotype in terms of an efficient cause rooted in a gene. This notion gives rise to the first section discussing the computational metaphor and epigenesis and suggesting ways to extend this metaphor. The extended notion of causality alluded to above is necessary, but not sufficient, to demarcate a specific explanatory realm for the biological. While the universe can ultimately, perhaps, be explained by quantum fluctuations being computed through the laws of nature, the origin of life remains a mystery. The ground-clearing exercise refers to coincidences that motivate the cosmological anthropic principle, before raising an alert about the possibility of similar thermodynamic laws facilitating the emergence of life. "Life itself seems to involve symbolic operations that can be described by the grammatical rules within tightly-defined limits of complexity. The nascent field of biosemiotics has extended this argument, often in a Peircean direction. Yet, even here, the task involved needs to be specified. Is the organism creating proteins to launch an immune counter-attack ? Alternatively, is a pluripotent stem cell generating an entire organism? We consider what these separate tasks might look like computationally. The paper ends with further delimitation of the specifically biological. At what point in the infinitesimal does life refuse to reveal its secrets? Conversely, at what specific levels in increasing size and complexity do boundary conditions emerge with hierarchy becoming immanent?
    • Repairing Historicity

      none; Bennett B. Gilbert; Male (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2020-10-14)
      This paper advances a fresh theorization of historicity.  The word and concept of historicity has become so widespread and popular that they have ceased to have definite meaning and are used to stand for unsupported notions of the values inherent in human experience.  This paper attempts to repair the concept by re-defining it as the temporal aspect of the interdependence of life; having history is to have a life intertwined with the lives of all others and with the universe.  After separating out the looser uses, surveying some of the literature, and defining what needs to be done, the paper examines shortcomings in the very different and widely influential conceptions of historicity of Koselleck and Heidegger.  It then advances a new conception and fits it into the theoretical and moral capabilities of the philosophy of history as a core of philosophical anthropology.
    • Reparsing Nature: The Bionoetics Framework and the Age of Magic and Wonder

      Seán O Nualláin; Foundations of Mind (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-12-12)
      In this short note, radical proposals are made about the direction of the "exact" and "social" sciences. While it is uncontroversial to state that, as of 2018 as indeed for at least a generation before, the paradigms and consequently methodologies and institutions are no longer fit for purpose, few have raised their head over the parapet sufficiently high to enunciate articulated  alternatives. The foundations of mind project has published over 150 papers from names like Kauffmann, Freeman, Stapp, as well as left-fielders like Capra, Langan, Wolf and Sarfatti; while it continues to struggle financially, the record download levels suggests many are listening. In this brief paper I will try to eschew technical terms where possible as the intent is that those not familiar with any discipline and its controversies can understand the basic problems. Those wishing to find the original references can peruse the 7 volumes of proceedings we published 2014-2018.
    • Resistance

      Roberto Echavarren (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2010-12-20)
      The poetic space, as I see it, is a space of resistance. Resistance against the media which do not need poetry. Communication among poets is a go-between, a web of messages, performances and presentations, the circulation of books and digital materials. These activities are political, functioning as politics in the Greek sense: discussion in a public arena, exchanges of opinion and criticism, interventions, concerted decisions, group projects, a net of relationships around the production of texts, articulating versions and diversions of language. These activities and exchanges give the participants a sense of fulfillment. In this sense to pass is to think, to question a certain regime, to marvel that it is still there, to wonder what makes it possible, going into its enclaves, looking for traces of the movements which formed it and discovering in those stories apparently in ashes, how to think, how to live otherwise.
    • Reterritorializing Ireland and Mental Health

      Sean O Nuallain; stanford (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2018-01-13)
      It has escaped many people's attention that, just as the 1998 GFA rescinded the claim of the Irish state on the 6 counties, it also gave up any territorial claim by that state on the rest of the island. It is fair to say that the fake  exhilaration of the Celtic tiger years and the genuine relief of many in the North of Ireland finally having a life pushed consideration of this down the list of priorities. Yet it is perhaps no coincidence that this deterritorialization emerged simultaneously with an Irish deep state, with banks, universities and indeed private music rights agencies made exempt from the rule of law.  Moreover, deterritorialization was a hallmark of the Clinton presidency and the risks of alienation, predicted by Deleuze as he authored the concept, were seen as perhaps balanced by "peace, prosperity, and progress". As of 2015, more Irish citizens had committed suicide in the republic since the 2008 crash than the total number of deaths in the troubles. While this can indeed be attributed to anomie/alienation, it is worth noting that in his classic paper on the subject Durkheim pointed out the vanishingly low rate of suicide in his contemporary Ireland. The status quo seems untenable, and international human rights lawyer Hassan Ahmed demonstrated in our 2016 conference that the 1998 GFA coupled with the 2004 referendum means Ireland is in breach of international law in not granting nationality to all born on the island. Yet deterritorialization has had the paradoxical result of making Gaelic culture more portable than ever, and to increase its following by orders of magnitude. What this paper proposes is reterritorializing Ireland by providing a Mecca for the tens of millions who value this culture. Here  we look at ways of reterritorializing Ireland from reinstating the claim on the whole island to explicitly repudiating it for a 26 or 30 county state with East of the Bann left in the non-EU UK.
    • Retrieving and Projecting the Transcendent Function with Complexes and the Rosarium Philosophorum

      Matthew Gildersleeve (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2016-05-23)
      The purpose of this article is to retrieve the work presented in (Gildersleeve, 2015a and Gildersleeve, 2015b) on the transcendent function and complexes as well as an ontological interpretation of Jung’s work on the Rosarium Philosophorum (Gildersleeve, 2015c) to project a new meaning of the phenomenology and ontology of the transcendent function. This article enables complexes and the Rosarium Philosophorum to be understood in connection to the ontology of the transcendent function that was presented in (Gildersleeve, 2015a). This article can hermeneutically retrieve the transcendent function because when complexes and the Rosarium Philosophorum are explained ontologically they unconceal new possibilities that were not available in (Gildersleeve, 2015a).  By retrieving the transcendent function in this way, this article will explain more detail of the phenomenological and ontological meaning of the transcendent function which will include complexes and the Rosarium Philosophorum. 
    • Review of "Reclaiming Enchantment: Humanity In A Creative Universe" by Stuart Kauffman

      Seán Ó Nualláin; stanford (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2015-08-23)
      Review of  "Reclaiming Enchantment: Humanity In A Creative Universe" by Stuart Kauffman NY: OUP, 2016.
    • Review of "Collected Papers of Martin Kay: A Half-Century of Computational Linguistics"

      Seán Ó Nualláin; stanford (Cosmos Publishing Cooperative, 2015-08-23)
      Is computational a dead linguistics; review of "Collected Papers of Martin Kay: A Half-Century of Computational Linguistics"Martin Kay (2010) with the editorial assistance of Dan Flickinger & Stephan Oepen" 639 pp. CSLI Publications Stanford University