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AbstractThis study was to summarize the empirical studies conducted to evaluate the effect of pedagogical agents. By using 28 recent pedagogical agent studies remained through data filtering, common variables were found. Independent variables were presence of agent, image effect, voice effect, and animation effect and dependent variables were distinguished into affective (persona effect) and cognitive (retention & transfer test) domain. Grouping comparisons were used for estimating average effect size with 6 studies exactly fitted to the frame of variables. According to the effect size calculation, presence of agent and voice effect had a strong effect across the dependent variables and image effect was also significant in persona. However, animation effect was not significant. In addition, there were relatively small numbers of studies about animation effect.