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AbstractEl objetivo de este trabajo de investigación es demostrar que el futuro del medio radiofónico pasa por Internet, debido a la devaluación del modelo tradicional por ondas. Para ello, hemos analizado la evolución de la radio hertziana desde sus inicios hasta la actualidad, el consumo actual de radio y la influencia de Internet en la radio y los nuevos modelos comunicativos derivados de ella. Posteriormente, hemos detallado las características de la radio on-line y sus ventajas frente a la radio tradicional, proponiendo un nuevo modelo de radio al que hemos denominado multimedio.
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Mass Media and Public Services : The Effects of Radio Access on Public Education in BeninKhemani, Stuti; Keefer, Philip (2011-02-01)Does radio access improve public service provision? And if so, does it do so by increasing government accountability to citizens, or by persuading households to take advantage of publicly-provided services? Prior research has argued that citizens with greater access to mass media receive greater benefits from targeted government welfare programs, but has not addressed these questions for public services such as in education and health. Using unique data from Benin, this paper finds that literacy rates among school children are higher in villages exposed to signals from a larger number of community radio stations. The effect is identified based on a "natural experiment" in the northern communes of Benin where within-commune variation in village access to radio stations is exogenous to observed and unobserved village characteristics. In contrast to prior research, the authors find that this media effect does not operate through government accountability: government inputs into village schools and household knowledge of government education policies are no different in villages with greater access to community radio. Instead, households with greater access are more likely to make financial investments in the education of their children.
Radio's Impact on Preferences for Patronage BenefitsKeefer, Philip; Khemani, Stuti (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-06-26)Citizens in developing countries support politicians who provide patronage or clientelist benefits, such as government jobs and gifts at the time of elections. Can access to mass media that broadcasts public interest messages shift citizens' preferences for such benefits? This paper examines the impact of community radio on responses to novel survey vignettes that make an explicit trade-off between political promises of jobs for a few versus public services for all. The impact of community radio is identified through a natural experiment in the media market in northern Benin, which yields exogenous variation in access across villages. Respondents in villages with greater radio access are less likely to express support for patronage jobs that come at the expense of public health or education. Gift-giving is not necessarily traded off against public services; correspondingly, radio access does not reduce preferences for candidates who give gifts. The pattern of results is consistent with a particular mechanism for radio's impact: increasing citizens' demand for broadly delivered health and education and thereby shaping their preferences for clientelist candidates.
Do Informed Citizens Receive More…or Pay More? The Impact of Radio on the Government Distribution of Public Health BenefitsKeefer, Philip; Khemani, Stuti (2012-03-19)The government provision of free or
subsidized bed nets to combat malaria in Benin allows the
identification of new channels through which mass media
affect public policy outcomes. Prior research has concluded
that governments provide greater private benefits to
better-informed individuals. This paper shows, for the first
time, that governments can also respond by exploiting
informed individuals' greater willingness to pay for
these benefits. Using a "natural experiment" in
radio markets in northern Benin, the paper finds that media
access increases the likelihood that households pay for the
bed nets they receive from government, rather than getting
them for free. Households more exposed to radio programming
on the benefits of bed nets and the hazards of malaria place
a higher value on bed nets. Local government officials
exercise significant discretion over bed net pricing and
respond to higher demand by selling bed nets that they could
have distributed for free. Mass media appears to change the
private behavior of citizens -- in this case, to invest more
of their own resources on a public health good (bed nets) --
but not their ability to extract greater benefits from government.