Évaluer l'impact des stéréotypes dans les supports multimédia Evaluating the impact of stereotypes in multimedia tools
Keywordsstereotypes and auto stereotypes
Internet search in language lessons
stéréotypes et auto stéréotypes
recherche sur Internet en cours de langues
Special aspects of education
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AbstractLa navigation sur Internet offre aux enseignants de langues vivantes un kaléidoscope de supports authentiques variés, qui reflète des points de vues multi perspectivistes sur les réalités socioculturelles des groupes qui utilisent la langue apprise. La navigation est probablement un des usages du multimédia les plus développés dans l'enseignement de masse en langues. Il suffit, pour s'en convaincre, de parcourir les méthodes éditées ces cinq dernières années pour voir que l'outil multimédia est surtout sollicité pour faire des recherches sur des thèmes étudiés en classe et de nombreux travaux ont mis en avant le potentiel de cet outil. Dans les classes, l'idée selon laquelle il est indispensable de laisser les élèves naviguer sans guidage dans l'hypertexte a très vite cédé la place à la nécessité de réduire l'accès aux ressources Internet à l'intérieur de cadres contraints, en général à partir de sites présélectionnés à cet effet en vue de réaliser des tâches dans la langue d'étude. Aujourd'hui, dans la formation en langue des enseignants, deux types de dispositifs Tice (technologies de l'information et de la communication pour l'éducation) occupent la première place : les cyberenquêtes (webquests) et les échanges par courrier électronique, mais à nouveau, les limites des cyberenquêtes sont perceptibles, elles recréent des contraintes formelles dans lesquelles on force les repérages. Dans cet article, nous nous intéresserons à un dispositif intégrant des activités plus libres de navigation et de choix de supports vidéo que nous avons réintégré dans une démarche culturelle en classe. Nous considérerons la façon dont la variété de ces supports, libres et contraints, influe sur la construction des repères identitaires des élèves. Nous étudierons ce phénomène en lien avec les mécanismes cognitifs et socio discursifs que les apprenants mettent en œuvre lorsqu'ils sont exposés à ces supports à la fois dans et hors la classe dans un même dispositif didactique.<br>Surfing on the Internet offers modern language teachers a kaleidoscope of varied and authentic media reflecting multi-perspective viewpoints on the socio-cultural reality of the groups using the language being learned. Surfing is probably one of the most developed uses of the multimedia in the mass teaching of languages. One need only skim through the textbooks published during the past five years to see that multimedia tools are called on especially in order to research themes studied in class, and many papers have put forth the potential of those tools. In class, the idea that students must be allowed to surf through hypertext without any guidance very quickly gave way to the need to bring access to Internet resources back into well-defined frameworks, usually starting from sites pre-selected for the purpose in order to carry out tasks in the language studied. At present, two types of ICT (information and communication technologies) set-ups play a leading role in language training for teachers, i.e. webquests and e-mail exchanges, but once again, the limitations of webquests are perceptible, as they re-create form-related constraints inside which the reference points are pre-determined. In this article, we examine a set-up integrating freer activities involving both surfing and the choice of video media, which we have reintegrated into a cultural approach in class. We consider the way in which the variety of these media, both free and pre-determined, influence the building of the students' reference points in matters of identity. We will study this phenomenon in connection with the cognitive and socio-discursive mechanisms that learners implement when they are exposed to such media in one and the same teaching set-up, both in and outside class.
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From Snow White to Frozen : An evaluation of popular gender representation indicators applied to Disney’s princess filmsNyh, Johan (Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för geografi, medier och kommunikation, 2015)Simple content analysis methods, such as the Bechdel test and measuring percentage of female talk time or characters, have seen a surge of attention from mainstream media and in social media the last couple of years. Underlying assumptions are generally shared with the gender role socialization model and consequently, an importance is stated, due to a high degree to which impressions from media shape in particular young children’s identification processes. For young girls, the Disney Princesses franchise (with Frozen included) stands out as the number one player commercially as well as in customer awareness. The vertical lineup of Disney princesses spans from the passive and domestic working Snow White in 1937 to independent and super-power wielding princess Elsa in 2013, which makes the line of films an optimal test subject in evaluating above-mentioned simple content analysis methods. As a control, a meta-study has been conducted on previous academic studies on the same range of films. The sampled research, within fields spanning from qualitative content analysis and semiotics to coded content analysis, all come to the same conclusions regarding the general changes over time in representations of female characters. The objective of this thesis is to answer whether or not there is a correlation between these changes and those indicated by the simple content analysis methods, i.e. whether or not the simple popular methods are in general coherence with the more intricate academic methods.
Victim-Blaming: A New Term for an Old TrendSchoellkopf, Julia Churchill (DigitalCommons@University of Rhode Island, 2012-05-22)Victim-blaming is a phenomenon that has been happening since at least the beginning of recorded history but has only recently been identified as a dynamic used to empower the criminal and maintain the status quo. Victim-blaming is perpetuated by sexism, the Just World Theory, cognitive biases, and the theories of self-blame. Victim-blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or abuse is held partly or entirely responsible for the actions committed against them. In other words, the victims are held accountable for the maltreatment they have been subjected to. Perpetrators of crimes for which they blame the victim commonly enjoy a privileged social status opposite the victim, and their blame typically involves use of stereotypical negative words.
An exploration of stereotype perceptions amongst support staff within a South African higher education institutionGiven R.B. Moloto; Lizelle Brink; J. Alewyn Nel (AOSIS, 2014-02-01)<p><strong>Orientation:</strong> After the 1994 democratic elections, South African organisations had to replace discriminatory policies with new policies to integrate all people and to embrace diversity. As a consequence stereotypes may be more prevalent in diverse working environments.</p><p><strong>Research purpose:</strong> The objective of this study was to explore the experience of stereotypes amongst the support staff within a higher education institution.</p><p><strong>Motivation for this study: </strong>Changes within South African working environments, and specifically higher education institutions, resulted in more diverse management teams and a more culturally diverse workforce. With this in mind, the experience of stereotypes may become more prevalent within South African working environments. Many researchers have focused on stereotypes; however, studies on stereotypes within South Africa are limited, especially within higher education institutions.</p><p><strong> Research approach, design and method:</strong> The research approach was qualitative and a case study design was employed. A combination of both quota and convenience sampling was used. The sample consisted of (<em>N</em> = 30) support staff within a higher education institution in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data.</p><p><strong>Main findings: </strong>The results indicated that the participants do experience stereotypes within their workplace and also hold stereotypes of other people within their workplace. The most prevalent stereotypes mentioned by participants were age, gender, racial and occupational stereotypes. There is also an indication that stereotypes have cognitive, emotional and behavioural effects on the stereotyped.</p><p><strong style="font-weight: bold;">Practical/managerial implications:</strong> Organisations should do away with stereotyping by embracing and managing diversity and dealing with stereotypes, specifically within higher education institutions. When managers are aware of stereotypes and the effects thereof in the organisation, they can make every effort to eradicate the stereotypes and address the impact thereof.</p><p><strong>Contribution: </strong>In an environment where there is a diverse workforce, stereotyping is more likely to exist. This study will provide useful information about stereotypes within a higher education institution seeing that there are a limited number of studies on this topic within South Africa and within this specific occupation. The results of the study will enlighten the organisation to become more aware of stereotypes and the debilitating impact that they have on the individual and the organisation, thereby providing the organisation with the opportunity to address stereotypes and the impact thereof on employees and the organisation.</p>