Ethic@ , uma publicação do Núcleo de Ética e Filosofia Política da UFSC , tem como objetivo principal publicar trabalhos (artigos, resenhas, entrevistas, etc.) de excelência e vanguarda na área de Filosofia Moral Moderna e Contemporânea. Com periodicidade semestral (junho e dezembro), a revista ficará disponível gratuitamente na versão eletrônica a cada número no endereço www.cfh.ufsc.br/ethic@ e, posteriormente, será editada no formato tradicional ou em CD-ROM para usos pessoais ou consultas em bibliotecas. ethic@ não possui orientação ideológica e publica artigos de quaisquer tradições ou linhas de pesquisa filosófica que satisfaçam os requisitos de excelência acadêmica. Os trabalhos podem versar tanto sobre questões meta-éticas quanto normativas e de ética aplicada. Neste último caso, a discussão deve ser claramente feita a partir de um ponto de vista filosófico.

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The Globethics.net library contains articles of ethic@ as of vol. 1(2002) to current.

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  • The new challenges of neuroscience ethics

    Nahra, Cinara (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    The aim of this article is to discuss the challenges that the ethics of neuroscience will face in the third decade of the XXI century. I will discuss here the American project BRAIN initiative launched in 2013 and I challenge this regarding the participation and research that has been done by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of USA (DARPA). I also question the research on the brain and neurotechnologies developed by private corporations such as the Tech giants and other billionaire companies. I propose here that it is necessary to start a huge reformulation in the field of ethics of neuroscience aiming to contribute to make neuroscience and neurotechnology more and more available to everyone and for the benefit of humankind.
  • The limits of the neuroscience of moral responsibility

    Costa, Daniel de Vasconcelos (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    The findings of the neuroscientist Benjamin Libet are among the most discussed in moral philosophy. They present a clear challenge to the notion of intentional action as a consciously chosen action. According to them, the awareness of the decision to act by the subjects of his studies came only after the moment of preparedness of the action in our brains, called â readiness potentialâ . Many, including Libet, saw these results as an evidence that we do not have free will nor moral responsibility. The aim of this article is to criticize the claim that moral responsibility would be in danger because of the Libetâ s findings. First, the concept of free will as intentional action will be explained in order to understand how the notion of being conscious in deciding when and how to act is relevant. Then, the findings from Libetâ s experiments and the argument of how they could be a challenge to the notions of free will and of moral responsibility are presented. At the end, it will be argued that the notion of moral responsibility involves more than psychological capacities, but, foremost, the attribution of social roles in a moral community.
  • Semantic normativity and naturalism: a consideration of the semantic and interpretive dimensions of normative perspectives

    Barros, Roberto (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    The purpose of this article is to problematize the interpretative character of normative perspectives, assuming that the enunciative content of the norm is always understood through a projective and objective perspective on the part of those who formulate it, and with a comprehensive and meaningful attitude on the part of one who seeks to interpret it. Such approach presupposes, therefore, a consideration of structural aspects acting in normative formulations, but also of interpretive factors when a normative perspective is problematized. The intention is to highlight the impossibility of providing the ultimate foundation for standards and then to argue in favor of the positive aspects of this point of view.
  • Why interpret Millâ s ethical theory as a kind of act-utilitarianism

    Gontijo, Fernanda Belo (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    It is widely known among ethicists that Millâ s moral theory is utilitarianism. It is not a consensus, however, what is the kind of utilitarianism he actually defended, if an act- or rule-utilitarianism. This paper aims to present the grounds for such dispute and supports that Mill is an act-utilitarian.
  • Ethical recommendations for music therapy in neurorehabilitation: impure a priori foundations and transpersonal holism

    Torriani, Tristan Guillermo (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    Music therapy has been proven useful in the treatment of a wide range of disorders, even if often in only an auxiliary role. Its use for patients requiring neurological rehabilitation is rather recent and its effectiveness has been assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Practitioners must undergo rigorous training to obtain certification and must be able to combine a high level of therapeutic and artistic skills. As members of multidisciplinary teams, music therapists are expected to (1) justify their participation by employing the most effective methods at their disposal; (2) adapt or even create musical material best suited to patientsâ needs; and (3) strive for a theoretical understanding of what their intervention is trying accomplish. These recommendations emerge from concrete realities that we could not take cognizance of purely a priori. An attempt to ground them post hoc in an abstract universal conception of human dignity realized in Kantâ s practical reason, attractive as that might seem philosophically, is ridden with logical gaps (non-sequiturs) and circularity (Rorty). Moral concepts ought rather to be understood as impure a priori criteria for moral judgment acquired and negotiated through linguistic socialization (Herder, Piaget, Vygotsky, Wittgenstein, Habermas). The collective construction of a future neuroethics makes sense as a humanitarian plea (Herderâ s Humanität) following the jurisprudential practice of English common law rather than the top-down imposition of a global civil code. In so far as music therapy is concerned, it will most likely remain embedded in the moral anthropological context of local languages, cultures and traditions, albeit with some foreign influences caused by international exchange. 
  • Neuroethics and COVID-19

    Dall'Agnol, Darlei (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    This work has two main goals: (i) to present some neuroscientific investigations in order to understand the effects of the coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) on the human central nervous system (CNS) and (ii) to discuss how neuroethics can, considering these studies, contribute to the proper dealing with the impacts of the COVID-19. To reach these aims, in the first part, it will be scrutinized the current neuroscientific findings on how the human brain is affected by the new coronavirus: from stroke, encephalitis, loss of memory etc. to mental disorders given rise to anxiety and depression. In the second part, it presents a neuroethical framework to deal with these problems. Despite the prevalence of utilitarianism in neuroethics, the paper argues that classical bioethical principles, namely respect for persons, beneficence and justice are better qualified to guide (neuro) scientific practices. Applying these principles leads to recognize that it is necessary to intensify care in order to overcome the pandemic, which remains out of control in our country.
  • The neuroethics of agency: the problem of attributing mental states to people with disorders of consciousness

    Azevedo, Marco; Andrade, Bianca (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    How can we be certain that another creature is a conscious being? One path is to rely on introspective reports we can grasp in communication or observation of their behavior. Another path is to infer mentality and consciousness by means of markers tied to their intentional behavior, that is, agency. In this paper we will argue that even if agency is a marker of consciousness in several normal instances (paradigmatically, for mature and healthy human beings), it is not a good marker in several pathological instances, such as the blindsight case, the vegetative state, the akinetic mutism and the locked-in syndrome. If we are right, this can be of great utility in neuroethics; for those kinds of disorders of consciousness are not, after all, instances of complete absence of consciousness.
  • Ethics of researches involving person with major mental disorders

    Bonella, Alcino Eduardo; Almeida, Gabriela Franco de; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    This paper aims to examine in a conceptual and reasonably well-informed manner from a scientific point of view, the interrelationship between mental vulnerability and rational and autonomous decision-making capacity, presenting relevant bioethical aspects, based on this examination, but also, based on consolidated ethical principles, to reflect and deliberate on the relevance of research with people affected by major mental disorders in psychiatry, psychology and neuroscience in general. After highlighting general ethical aspects of ethics in research with human beings, the paper examines whether individuals with major mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder, can be considered effectively rational, autonomous and responsible, if they are endowed with rational responsible autonomy. Finally, we highlight bioethical aspects related to vulnerability and practical rationality related to the theme. The various theoretical and practical aspects highlighted here seem crucial, and suggest the outline of questions and concepts that need to be further explored by the neuroscience of ethics and the ethics of neuroscience.
  • For an immanent critique of a neoliberal form of life

    Buril, Bárbara; Pinzani, Alessandro (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    This paper departs from the assumption that the critique of neoliberalism should not restrict itself to a criticism of an economic project. Another possible criticism of neoliberalism consists of a critique of how this specific form of life forms subjects. In this paper, we argue that a critique of a form of life is only justified in a reasonable way if it starts from the experiences of suffering produced by this form of life. As we will show, we must criticise neoliberalism not because it is inadequate for solving problems, since for a specific portion of the world population it has been extremely effective, but because it causes suffering. Suffering, unlike mere unsolved problems, represents sufficient grounds for highlighting the existence of a normative problem in a form of life. According to Max Horkheimer, the first step of a critical project committed to the transformation of a form of life are the crises of the present, which are not fully understood through the theoretical tools of â problem solvingâ or â learning processesâ , as Rahel Jaeggi resorts to in her critical theory of society.
  • The transhumanist philosophy underlying neurocognitive enhancements and the risk of common good fragmentation

    Vianna, Lucas; Borges, Luiz Adriano Gonçalves (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    In this article, we address the transhumanist philosophy underlying neurocognitive enhancements. We will outline an ethical-social critique of the movement, based on a bibliographic review of works by C. S. Lewis, Michael Polanyi, Jürgen Habermas, Francis Fukuyama, Leon Kaas, Michael Sandel, John Finnis and Jacques Maritain. We also address the issue of the common good in the face of the transhuman and the consequences that could arise from not thinking ethically about the implications of cognitive enhancement. We concluded that the â common goodâ foreseen in the transhumanist philosophy lacks an adequate completion of the term. The Aristotelian common good is, above all, a virtuous coordination of private goods. Considering, however, that these goods are linked to human nature, which can be substantially altered by transhumanist transformations, there are two risks that present themselves: or that one seeks to modify the human status of all in a hegemonic claim that violates individual freedom; or, in a liberal perspective, that the transformation of only those who so choose will jeopardize human ontology itself. Thus, it could become impossible to speak of the common good, since it derives from the coordination of private goods that, ultimately, depend on the sharing of a common ontological status.
  • The role of nature in the self-ownership proviso

    Rodgers, Lamont (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    Eric Mack defends a version of John Lockeâ s proviso. Mack applies his proviso to original appropriations, uses, and systems of private property. His proviso precludes severely disabling the world-interactive powers of others. Mack specifically warns against using concrete features of the natural world as a baseline for determine whether the proviso has been violated. While his proviso is plausible, I argue that he cannot. eschew employing the receptivity of the natural, unowned world to the extent that he suggests. We cannot determine whether oneâ s powers are disabled or diminished without knowing how receptive the world would be to those powers had a system of private property not arisen. The upshot of this paper is that the requirements of a well-formulated proviso is an empirical matter.
  • Review of Darlei Dallâ Agnol, "Towards Neurobioethics"

    Silva, Fernando Maurício da (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    This work does not present a abstract.
  • Cognitive enhancement: techniques and controversies

    Pompermayer, Fabiana Cunha Leão; Vilaça, Murilo Mariano; Dias, Maria Clara (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art of scientific research on cognitive enhancement, aiming to provide subsidies for a less speculative discussion on the subject. To this end, we conducted an integrative review of literature on the current biotechnological cognitive enhancement devices. The result points to the inconclusive character of the research, so that there are no significant answers that certify the effectiveness of cognitive enhancement practices, at least in the way that it has been idealized and discussed. We will therefore defend that investments in the area need to be analyzed from the point of view of justice, taking into account other available and proven forms of cognitive enhancement. We aim to indicate as an alternative a substantial investment in the oldest form of human enhancement, education, so that new methodologies can be thought out and adapted to the demands of contemporary society and to an ideal of more just and egalitarian society.
  • Foreword

    Dall'Agnol, Darlei; Debona, Vilmar (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    Foreword of Neuroethics Dossier and Continuous Flow of Vol. 20, N. 1 (2021).
  • Von der Notwendigkeit, menschlich zu sein, bis zur Möglichkeit, ein gutes Leben zu führen

    Lopes, Giovana; Stancioli, Brunello (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    Während der gesamten Geschichte der Menschheit war die Verbesserung der Kognition nicht nur eine Konstante, sondern auch ein Muss für die Evolution und das Wohlbefinden unserer Spezies. Philosophische Annahmen, dass die Verbesserung der Kognition durch biomedizinische Mittel gegen eine unveränderliche menschliche Natur verstöà t, können in Verbindung mit dem Mangel an schlüssigen Daten über ihre Verwendung bei gesunden Personen und Langzeiteffekten manchmal zu unzulässigen Ansätzen führen. In diesem Zusammenhang wollen die Autoren zeigen, dass die Verbesserung der Kognition, sei es auf â natürlicheâ oder biotechnologische Weise, für die Entstehung der Persönlichkeit und für die Existenz eines autonomen Lebens, das sich an der eigenen Vorstellung des Menschen vom Guten orientiert, von wesentlicher Bedeutung ist. Zu diesem Zweck werden die wichtigsten Möglichkeiten zur Verbesserung der Kognition durch Biotechnologien sowie ihre Vorteile und Möglichkeiten sowie ihre Risiken und Grenzen vorgestellt. Es wird auch argumentiert, dass kognitive Verbesserung sowohl ein Konsumgut ist, das wünschenswert und glücksfördernd ist, um eine gut funktionierende Kognition zu haben, als auch ein Kapitalgut, das Risiken reduziert, die Erwerbsfähigkeit erhöht und einen Schlüsselbestandteil des Humankapitals bildet. In Anbetracht der Tatsache, dass Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Biotechnologie, die auf die Verbesserung der Kognition abzielen, das Wohlbefinden einer Person (und der Gesellschaft) verbessern können, werden die Autoren schlieà lich argumentieren, dass weitere Forschung auf diesem Gebiet erforderlich ist, insbesondere Studien, die Dimensionen wie berücksichtigen Dosis, individuelle Merkmale und Aufgabenmerkmale.
  • Minds in the pocket: neuroethical considerations about the incorporation of smartphone applications In the configuration of the Self

    Mochcovitch, Diogo Gonçalves Vianna; Dias, Maria Clara (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    Neuroscience and Human-Computer Interaction studies are growing exponentially. It is argued that the realization of cognitive processes does not depend only on the brain, but also on the interaction between the cognitive agent and various artifacts and, therefore, human beings can be considered natural-born cyborgs. The symbiotic relationship we have with our gadgets, especially the smartphone, sheds new light on neuroethical problems that have arisen with the use of information and communication technologies, ICT. Our aim in this article is (1) to contextualize the use of digital technologies as extensions of the mind, in particular smarthphones, and (2) to discuss the neuroethical issues arising from this use. We argue that the suggestions of applications, through their algorithms, as well as the use of our information, can be considered changes in our minds and, consequently, in our self. For this reason, we seek, (3) to offer some guidelines so that the debate can take on a more preventive character for emerging problems.
  • Problems in the use of empathy in investigations on moral behavior

    Silveira, Matheus de Mesquita (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    The past few years have seen a great deal of conceptual and empirical research on empathy, in addition to a growing public interest in the topic. In this context, the academic and public spheres often use empathy and morality interchangeably. In this article, it will be argued that there is a relationship between both, but with different levels of overlap. The problem lies in the contemporary breadth of the concept of empathy and its consequent polysemy. In the presented argument, it will be relevant to distinguish different characteristics of emotional attachment, especially, emotional resonance, empathic concern, and perspective-taking. The conceptual distinction will follow an empirical-materialist line: different embodied phenomena need specific conceptual definitions. After all, each of these psychobiological processes influences normative judgments in a particular way that incurs different forms of social behavior. The plurality of discoveries in cognitive sciences will illustrate the complex and ambiguous relationship regarding the definition of empathy. The central point to understand this relationship will be the defense of greater conceptual precision about the phenomena of emotional attachment associated with morality.
  • Non-natural natural law: bridging the gap between Aristotle and Ross

    Playford, Richard (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    Aristotelianism is often considered to be a version of naturalism. As a result, non-naturalism is often considered to be incompatible with Aristotelianism. In this paper, I will show that the Aristotelian can actually accept much of what the non-naturalist wants to say. I will show that the Aristotelian can accept a non-natural account of the good, need not be concerned by G. E. Mooreâ s Open Question Argument and that, as long as we carefully consider and define our terms, they can accept much of non-naturalism in abstract. This then paves the way for the possibility of a non-natural natural law and should go some way to challenging the prevailing orthodoxy that Aristotelianism is a version of naturalism. I do not go so far as to label Aristotelianism a form of non-naturalism as there are some important areas of disagreement. Instead, I think that Aristotelianism should count as its own label and that it will resist any attempts to label it a form of naturalism, non-naturalism or, indeed, supernaturalism.
  • The role of affects in human life

    Braga, Viviane Zarembski (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2021-04-30)
    The aim of this article is to present some of the philosophical positions that dialogue with different areas of knowledge and that help us take a step further in the understanding of the relationship between reason and emotion. First, we present Damasio's idea of somatic-markers, which elucidates the role of affections in the development of rational thought. Second, we observe that these exhibit a reduced capacity in different spheres of life, with a decreased ability to connect negative components to moral norms, resulting in inappropriate moral behavior and interfering with deliberative capacities. Finally, we present Shaun Nichols' theory on Affective Resonance, the norms that comprise affective support (mainly negative) exhibit cultural transmission advantages to the detriment of affectively neutral norms. These studies prove the importance of affections inrational thinking and in the maintenance and propagation of moral norms and rules. The main idea defended herein is that a close relationship between reason and emotion takes place. By elucidating this relationship, we are able to deepen studies concerning the human condition, especially with regard to reason and morality.
  • Kant e o sumo bem comunitário

    Spinelli, Letícia Machado (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2012-08-21)
    O que aqui nos propomos fazer é explicitar o conceito de sumo bem enquanto bem comunitário, em que se evidencia um desdobramento da formulação do conceito de sumo bem sob a perspectiva de um bem coletivo. Esse conceito foi apresentado por Kant na terceira parte de A religião nos limites da simples razão, contexto no qual se dedicou a tratar da noção de um progresso moral nos termos de uma comunidade ética.

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