Now showing items 21-40 of 451

    • The theory of God and the challenge of niilism: Hans Jonas about Nietzsche

      Bolsa de pós-doutorado CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal do Ensino Superior), processo BEX 6115/15-2; Oliveira, Jelson Roberto (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2017-08-30)
      Pretende-se, nesse artigo, analisar a interpretação de Hans Jonas do aforismo 125 de A Gaia Ciência, de Nietzsche, tal como ela se apresenta na reflexão desenvolvida nas aulas ministradas por Jonas no Carleton College, de Ottawa, no semestre de inverno de 1952-1953 e guardadas nas anotações (inéditas) intituladas The theory of God, conservadas no Philosophisches Archiv de Hans Jonas, na Universität Konstanz. Para tanto, partimos da análise jonasiana do medo do desconhecido como elemento central nas filosofias de Epicuro e, especialmente, Pascal, para mostrar como Nietzsche aprofunda a reflexão iniciada pelo filósofo de Port-Royal, a fim de demostrar como a intensificação do medo e do sentimento de solidão se apresentariam como possibilidade de enfrentamento do niilismo. Do ponto de vista dos interesses próprios de Jonas, não só estaríamos diante de uma teoria sobre Deus, em sentido estrito, mas de uma reflexão sobre a tecnologia como “vontade de ilimitado poder”, ou seja, como exercício do homem que, sozinho e sem Deus, busca o domínio sobre o mundo.
    • Ethics after intervention: should warlords be empowered as statesmen?

      Carvalho, Daniel Duarte Flora (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2017-08-30)
      Since the end of the Cold War, when the number of peacekeeping and peacebuilding interventions considerably increased, the debate about their ethics raised as an important aspect regarding both its ends and its means. Literature was roughly divided between those who advocated for an approach centred on global actors, liberal peace and cosmopolitanism and those who stood for the role of local actors and indigenous solutions for the problems in question. In this regard, the relationship that the International Community usually held with warring parties in civil conflict came to the fore. This essay looks forward to providing insights about the role that warlords can play in facilitating and hindering internationally-led peace process. Using Burundi and Somalia as case-studies, it is argued that warlords can only commit to liberal and cosmopolitan ethics after the state institutions have been built and solidified.
    • The Schopenhauer's ethical-metaphysical approach os "sympathy”: between Hume and Plotinus

      CAPES; da Silva, Luan Corrêa (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2017-08-30)
      This article aims to establish the basis for understanding "sympathy" in Arthur Schopenhauer's philosophy. In an undeveloped passage, Schopenhauer defines the concept of sympathy as the empirical irruption of the metaphysical identity of the will through the physical plurality of its appearances, which shows a connection completely different from that known we through the principle of reason. In characterizing sympathy, Schopenhauer seems to indicate both a conception of sympathy from the moral feeling, and a cosmological-metaphysical conception of this concept. Following the clue left by the philosopher of the will, these conceptions seem to find an adequate clarification in the thoughts of Hume and Plotinus. Both develop, in their own way, two conceptions of sympathy, which aid and enrich Schopenhauer's approach. While from Hume the conception of the communication of feelings and affections is extracted, Plotinus develops a conception of the sympathy from the primordial unit of the cosmos. In the face of the two positions, which exert mutual and indirect influence on Schopenhauer, a connection between ethics and metaphysics, between the stricto sensu morality of the individual and the lato sensu morality of the cosmos, becomes possible.
    • Violência e processo democrático em Hannah Arendt

      IFCH/Unicamp; FAPESP; Brito, Renata Romolo (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2016-07-04)
      http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n3p429Pretendo mostrar, neste artigo, que a mentalidade alargada arendtiana significa um processo de generalização que não prescinde do contexto, gerando validade sem com isso abrir mão da pluralidade e da particularidade dos participantes, e que é nesse processo que se evidenciam e se realizam os critérios que legitimam as opiniões e a prática política. Em segundo lugar, pretendo mostrar ainda que, a partir dos processos da mentalidade alargada e da definição de normas e critérios legítimos que regulam o espaço público, a filosofia arendtiana contempla a questão da violência justamente ao buscar regras e instituições que visam conter a violência e a dominação nas relações humanas. A violência, no espaço público arendtiano, tem de ser contida por leis e instituições (quer dizer, pelo Direito), porque ela é um fenômeno desse espaço, e não “externo à polis” e sem relação com o poder. Pretendo, com isso, analisar os estatutos da violência e da opinião em Arendt a fim de compreender o seu conceito de poder como base legitimadora da ação política. A reflexão que aqui desenvolvo tem como fundamento que a política arendtiana se baseia em princípios democráticos de participação ativa que apenas podem se realizar dentro de um quadro institucional organizado juridicamente e que promove a pluralidade humana.
    • Contemporary commentators on J.S. MILL’S account of women's socio-political issues

      Brilhante, Átila Amaral; Rocha, Francisco José Sales (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2015-08-31)
      http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n1p128This article is purported to show that most of J.S. Mill’s contemporary commentators failed to situate his account of women’s issues in the broder context of his political thought. In view of this, they did not see the fact that Mill supported institutional changes in order to enfranchise women and allow married women to own property and benefit from higher education, on the grounds that such changes were important in transforming marriage into a relationship between equals based on friendship and cooperation. This would cause families to become the main locus of education for citizenship and renew societies by maximizing the poll of intelectual resources available with women in public life and render them directly resposible for their choice before society. Thus, accountability is at the haert of Mill’s account of women’s socio-political  issues.
    • Theodor W. Adorno: imagens do feminino nas Minima Moralia

      Petry, Franciele Bete (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2014-12-17)
      http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n2p339O texto pretende explorar a temática das imagens do feminino nas Minima Moralia: reflexões a partir da vida danificada de Theodor W. Adorno. Nesta obra, está presente uma crítica à forma como a racionalidade instrumental desenvolveu-se na sociedade, tendo como conseqüência a danificação da subjetividade. Também a esfera particular da vida foi afetada, sendo marcada pela violência, dominação e falsidade. Nesse sentido, a crítica feita por Adorno mostra-se instigante para se pensar as imagens associadas às mulheres na sociedade, à identidade e subjetividade femininas, construídas dentro de uma sociedade patriarcal. Contudo, a reflexão adorniana não pode ser reduzida a uma questão de gênero, pois a violência não é marca exclusiva da repressão feminina, antes, uma qualidade inerente à sociedade capitalista dentro da qual a emancipação, seja ela feminina ou não, encontra obstáculos para sua realização. 
    • A ética do cuidado como alternativa à ética de princípios: divergências entre Carol Gilligan e Nel Noddings

      Kuhnen, Tânia Aparecida (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2012-05-02)
      http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n3p155Este artigo apresenta uma análise crítica acerca da concepção de “ética do cuidado” proposta por Nel Noddings. O objetivo é averiguar os pontos nos quais Noddings distancia-se da abordagem teórica sobre o desenvolvimento moral de Carol Gilligan. O ponto central da divergência entre ambas situa-se no fato de que Noddings defende a proposta de uma ética do cuidado em detrimento de uma ética de princípios, ao contrário do que é sugerido por Gilligan por meio da noção de complementaridade entre as duas vozes distintas da moral por ela identificadas, a saber, a masculina e a feminina. A partir da discussão realizada, tem-se que não é possível conceber uma ética do cuidado como uma alternativa à ética de princípios com base nas pesquisas desenvolvidas por Gilligan.
    • Beauvoir and the Women’s Situation: Between Subjectivity And Facticity

      de Souza, Thana Mara (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2018-12-31)
      In this article, we will show that the notion of situation - understood as a tension between subjectivity and facticity - allows Beauvoir to get out from conceptualism and its essentialization of what is historical, and at the same time to get out of nominalism, which refuses the notion of gender, adopting abstract and universal expressions. Against these two aspects, the French philosopher points out the need to think about the gender issue by concrete situations of the formation of children and young people, in order to find the difficulties that women encounter in affirming themselves as "we", but, as well, to seek there the possibilities of struggle and modification of the historical conditions, without to negate the role of these subjectivities in the world. Based mainly on the Introduction of the First Volume and the last part of the Second Volume of the book The second sex, we will try to understand that the affirmation that "there are women", present in the text, does not result from a thought that essentialises the situations, but on the contrary, results from an adoption of existentialist ethics, which presupposes as a starting point the description of human concreteness.
    • Some Remarks On Woman’s Nature In The Family And Political Community According To Plato, Aristotle And Hegel

      Dos Santos, Marina (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2018-12-31)
      The aim of this paper is to examine, comparatively, women’s place within the political systems of Plato, Aristotle and Hegel from a brief sketch of their conceptions about human nature and feminine nature. It will be intended to indicate to what extent there is a relation, sometimes of tension, sometimes of complementarity, in the way descriptive and prescriptive elements function to circumscribe the space of women from the household private sphere, from Aristotelian and Hegelian perspectives, and how the subordination of descriptive elements to prescriptive elements allow woman to ascend in the public sphere under the Platonic perspective. After tracing this sketch, it will be suggested how this tension, in the political philosophy of Hegel, will result, in a way, in an explicit denial of women's political rights and, in another way, in the possibility of envisioning civil and political equality between men and women from an internal and inherent device of the Hegelian system, the notion of “second nature” as ethical reposition of the natural.
    • Martha Nussbaum’s Universalist Feminism

      CNPq; CNPq; de Lourdes Borges, Maria (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2018-12-31)
      In this article, I present philosopher Martha Nussbaum’s defense of political liberalism, understood as the liberal Enlightenment tradition that goes from Kant to Rawls. Many feminists have objected that the liberal conception of human nature and political philosophy cannot constitute an adequate foundation for women liberation. Nussbaum objects to this view by showing that liberalism offers universal concepts, which are essential values for the feminist movement and women's struggle, such as the notion of person, self-respect, capacity for choice, and equal consideration of the value and dignity of human beings. In addition, feminist movements currently use these concepts to grond their claims. In the end, I present the notion of capability, showing how this concept responds to criticism of universalist feminism.
    • Musonius Rufus’ “Feminism”

      Aggio, Juliana Ortegosa (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2018-12-31)
      The objective of this essay is to analyze two diatribes in which the Stoic philosopher Musônio Rufo defends the teaching of philosophy for women in order to verify if such a defense would allow to assign to his work a kind of “feminism”. On the one hand, it will be seen that there is a bold vision for the period that proposes equality between men and women based on humanist arguments, on the other hand, it should be noted that, in general terms, there is an unrestricted concession to the male dominion over women, as dictated by the Roman custom of the first century of our era. From this essay follow the translations of the two diatribes: Diatribe III: That women should also philosophize and Diatribe IV: From ‘If the daughters should be educated similarly to the sons’.
    • Philosophy, Gender and Feminism: Hangout on the Occasion of the Unesco World Philosophy Day 2017

      Oliveira, Fabio Alves Gomes; Cornelli, Gabriele; Coelho, Maria Cecília de Miranda Nogueira; Secco, Gisele Dalva; Pugliese, Nastassja; Brandão, Renato Matoso (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2018-12-31)
      In November 2017, on the occasion of the UNESCO World Philosophy Day, the UNESCO Archai Chair of the Postgraduate Program in Metaphysics of the University of Brasilia organized a Unesco hangout around the theme of Philosophy, Gender and Feminism. Several Brazilian teachers, specialists in these subjects, have signed up. The full Hangout Recording is available at https://youtu.be/LH5LwTegGG4. Below is a transcript, revised and adapted by the authors.
    • Domination and Power Relations in Brazilian Agriculture: A Gender Analysis of the Concept of Adequate Food

      Kuhnen, Tânia Aparecida; Rosendo, Daniela (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2018-12-31)
      The main subject of this work is the concept of adequate food defined by the Brazilian Law No 11.346/06, whose implications are here discussed through a gender – especially ecofeminist – lens. The Law defines the right to food that is also considered a fundamental right in the Brazilian Constitution. At the same time, Brazilian economical politics is centered on crops production for exportation in a large-scale agricultural system. Based on that, the following question is addressed in this paper: is the concept of adequate food compatible with the economical privilege attributed to the massive and monoculture agricultural system and factory farms? The aim is to show that they are incompatible and the alternative is a defense of organic family farming and a plant-based diet, as it is presented in the government’s document “Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population” (2014). Another problem that arises from this issue is that agriculture in this large-scale dimension reflects structures of power and domination (Karen J. Warren) and animals used for corpse eating disappears, becoming absent referents (Carol J. Adams). It reflects the structure of a patriarchal society, where men have power over women, animals and plants. The hypothesis is that in family farming women can participate more in the decision making process, reflecting equality and justice in the private sphere. We will analyze the Special Reports on adequate food, mainly the one related to the mission of the Special Rapporteur to Brazil, whose analysis brings information on the gender category. This analysis draws attention on the situation of women in their struggles to fulfill the right to adequate food.
    • Morality of Ambiguity, Freedom and Liberation: Philosophy and Feminism in Simone De Beauvoir

      Johanson, Izilda (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2018-12-31)
      The present study recognizes and aims to highlight the place of Simone de Beauvoir in the 20th Century History of Philosophy. From the understanding about the existence designed as freedom, as it is conceived by this author Existentialism. We will seek to address the relationship between thought and action, between philosophy and feminist engagement which unfold, in turn, in our understanding, in the opening for a possible Ethic in Simone de Beauvoir's Work.
    • Feminismo é humanismo: a questão das mulheres na Filosofia

      Nunes da Costa, Marta Rios Alves (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2016-09-02)
      http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2016v15n1p110A presença das mulheres na Filosofia é raramente tópico de discussão acadêmica e produção científica. Como abordar este tema, e de que forma ele se torna problemático? Como e por que o tema das mulheres na Filosofia se torna questão? Neste artigo queremos explorar as várias linhas de pesquisa acerca do tema "mulheres na filosofia", conciliando leituras da psicologia, sociologia e teoria crítica. Defendemos que, em última análise, feminismo é humanismo e que por isso  deve passar necessariamente pela crítica social, pois visa a (re)construção do mundo de acordo com um ideal de emancipação, onde liberdade e igualdade se encontram.  
    • A nação e a arena internacional: desafios climáticos globais

      CAPES; Oliveira, Fabio Alves Gomes de (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2017-08-30)
      Discussões sobre moralidade e justiça no campo internacional frequentemente, quando rejeitam a teoria realista, acabam adotando duas posições gerais possíveis: comunitaristas ou cosmopolitas. Cada qual prioriza diferentes modos de interpretação de direitos e obrigações e possuem variantes. Para a discussão aqui proposta, perceber em que medida a soberania nacional se faz valer de alguns pressupostos importantes da perspectiva comunitarista que, aqui alocada, chamaremos de defensores do estado-nação, é fundamental para compreender o modo como o estado-nação vem sendo destacado como o ator primordial das discussões no âmbito internacional. Para tal, procuraremos situar essa perspectiva em dois momentos. Ambas terão como fio condutor a leitura de um dos maiores defensores dessa perspectiva nos debates atuais sobre o tema, David Miller. No primeiro momento será analisada a obra “On Nationality” e, posteriormente, “National Responsibility and Global Justice” de modo que seja possível identificarmos mais profundamente o conceito de nacionalidade defendido por Miller e como ele se apresenta diante dos desafios globais atuais, seus avanços e também limites.
    • The nation and the international arena: global climate challenges

      CAPES; Oliveira, Fabio Alves Gomes de (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2017-08-30)
      Discussions about morality and justice in the international arena often, when they reject the realistic theory, end up adopting two possible general positions: communitarian or cosmopolitan. Each one prioritizes different ways of interpreting rights and obligations and has variants. For the discussion proposed here, to understand to which extent national sovereignty makes use of some important assumptions from the communitarian perspective – that we call here defenders of the nation-state – is fundamental to comprehend how the nation-state has been highlighted as the primary actor in international discussions. To do this, we will try to situate this perspective in two moments. Both will have as a guiding line the reading of one of the greatest proponents of this perspective in the current debates on the subject, David Miller. At first, the work "On Nationality" and later "National Responsibility and Global Justice" will be analyzed so that we can identify more deeply the concept of nationality defended by Miller and how he presents himself in the face of current global challenges, his advances and also limits.  
    • La libertà di espressione e il rispetto dei sentimenti religios

      Suárez Villega, Juan Carlos (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2006-01-01)
      Freedom of speech ought to be interpreted as a value linked with different aims of a democratic society. It is not admissible to accept a freedom of speech which conceals harmful intentions against a single person or a social community. The historical defence of freedom of speech is based on the enlargement the debated of ideas, rather than on a subjective exercise of personal extravagance. To respect religious feelings and another personal aspects is an absolute limitation of freedom of speech. Because of that, we do not agree with the identification of Muslim religion with terrorism that has been published, trough Mahoma’s caricatures, in some European newspapers.
    • It is Possible Morality Based on Sympathy?

      Villegas, Juan Carlos Suárez (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2011-12-19)
      http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p85In accordance to Adam Smith’s moral view, “sympathy” could be understood as a process of psychological and emotional empathy by which we reach to comprehend the other’s position. That process is moving from a position of subjective criteria to the maturity of an impartial perspective, respectful of the values implicit in human relations and we know through our feelings. Adam Smith’s contribution is fundamental for a new proposal of ethics of sympathy.
    • Resenha de El azar de las fronteras: Políticas migratórias, justicia y ciudadanía de J. C. Velasco

      Bolsa Capes - Programa de Doutorado Sanduíche no Exterior (Número do Processo:88881.131577/2016-01); Bolsa Cnpq Doutorado.; Ventura, Raissa Wihby (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2017-08-30)
      Resenha de "El azar de las fronteras: Políticas migratórias, justicia y ciudadanía" de Juan Carlos Velasco.