Philanthropie, évergétisme ou philotimie. Les Lamsam et les Chearavanont, familles d’entrepreneurs sino-thaïlandais Philanthropy, Evergetism and Philotimia. On Two Thai-Chinese Business Families: the Lamsam and the Chearavanont
Social sciences (General)
History of Asia
History (General) and history of Europe
DOAJ:History and Archaeology
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AbstractLa philanthropie semble avoir en Asie suscité un net engouement ces dernières décennies. En Thaïlande toutefois, ces largesses financières à l’égard des œuvres du bouddhisme ou des fondations patronnées par la famille royale ne sont pas toujours l’illustration d’un total désintéressement. En effet, en contrepartie de cette générosité bien orientée, le donateur peut espérer recevoir – voire réclamer – une des multiples décorations officiellement attribuées par le souverain. Lorsque le donateur est une donatrice, certaines médailles donnent droit à des titres placés dorénavant devant le prénom qui ont pour effet de distinguer une nouvelle noblesse. Cette ferveur pour les décorations a pu entraîner dans le passé des phénomènes de corruption de la part de hauts responsables de monastères bouddhiques habilités à délivrer des certificats de donations. Au lieu de réelle philanthropie ou même d’évergétisme à la mode antique, c’est bien de course aux honneurs ou philotimie qu’il convient ici de parler.<br>We can at times talk of a craze for philanthropy in Asia. However, in Thailand, that financial liberality for Buddhism charitable works or the plethora of foundations patronized by members of the royal family are not always a proof a perfect unselfishness. Actually, in return for this well connected generosity, the donator expects to receive—or even ask for—one of numerous decorations officially bestowed by the king. Even, in the case of the donator being a woman, some of these medals of higher ranks have for effect that therefore a special title is positioned ahead of the personal name just like if it was to create a new kind of nobility. In the past, that enthusiasm for royal decorations has generated cases of corruption by some high-level monastery hierarchy empowered for the delivery of donation certificates. Instead of true philanthropy or even antic style evergetism, we should talk here of craze for honors or philotimia.
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Byzantine war against Christians – an "emphylios polemos"?Ioannis STOURAITIS (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)The Byzantine civil wars have been the subject of studies which aimed to analyze and interpret the political and military dimension of the phenomenon of armed conflicts inside the Byzantine society. The ideological aspect of civil war in Byzantium has received less attention. During my study on Byzantine war ideology, I noticed that there are some cases of Byzantine authors of the period after the 9th century that present Byzantine war against another Christian people as a civil one. Beginning with a short overview of the Byzantines’ understanding of the term emphylios polemos which modern researchers interpret usually with the modern term civil war, this study will concentrate on the ideological and political similarities or differences between Byzantine civil war and Byzantine war against Christian enemies.
"Judges of the Velum" and "Judges of the Hippodrome" in Thessalonike (11th c.)Andreas GKOUTZIOUKOSTAS; Λέκτορας Βυζαντινής Ιστορίας ΑΠΘ (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)The present study focuses on judicial officers coming from Constantinople to Thessalonike in the 11th century. The judge of the theme of Thessalonike was in charge of trying cases in the region. From the second fifth of the 11th century, however, his jurisdiction was extended to the greater financial and judicial unit of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike as well. Lead seals and documents from the archives of the monasteries of Athos prove that many of the krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike had been previously krites of the velum and judges of the hippodrome who performed their duties in the capital and belonged to the ranks of the “small judges”. These judicial officers tried cases that were referred to them, while they could also function as assessors of the “great” or superior judges of Constantinople, i.e. the droungarios of the vigla, the dikaiodotes, the protoasecretis, the eparchos of the city, the koiaistor and the epi ton kriseon. The latter could delegate the authority to try cases to the “small” or inferior judges. Consequently, the judges of the velum and the judges of the hippodrome could also be sent from Constantinople to the themes by the emperor or other officials, in order to examine some cases and then return to the capital. This is confirmed by the primary sources, which mention for example the case of judge of the hippodrome Michael Rhodios, who was sent by Alexios I Komnenos in 1084 from Constantinople to the region of Thessalonike, in order to examine a dispute between the Lavra monastery and the brother of the emperor, Adrian. Some years later Michael Rhodios was sent again to try cases in Thessalonike, but this time as krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike. Consequently, apart from the judge of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike, other judges delegated by the emperor or by high officers could also examine cases there, as happened in other themes. From the 14th century on, as Macedonia developed its own law schools, a person who had acquired legal training and judicial experience in Thessalonike could continue his judicial career in Constantinople.
Οι "Κατηχήσεις" του Μιχαήλ Χωνιάτη. Χρονολόγηση και ιστορική προσέγγισηΕργαστήριο Ψηφιακής Αποτύπωσης του Δημοσίου και Ιδιωτικού Βίου των Βυζαντινών/Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών; Καλλιόπη ΜΑΥΡΟΜΜΑΤΗ; Υποψήφιος Διδάκτορας (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)THE CATECHISMS OF MICHAEL CHONIATES. DATING AND HISTORICAL APPROACH The Catechisms of Michael Choniates, archbishop of Athens, are included in Spyridon Lampros’ Archive, who first studied the sources in 1906 and transcribed the texts from the manuscript Mosquensis Synodalis 218 (olim 230) and 219 (olim 262). Although he prepared a critical edition, he did not proceed with publishing. Eventually, his work has been digitized and the researcher can visit the Archive online through the website of the Laboratory of Digital Recording of the Public and Private Life of the Byzantines of the University of Athens (http://lamprosarcheio.arch.uoa.gr). The Catechisms are mainly, yet not exclusively, works of religious ethics; they also address the socioeconomic issues of the city of Athens at the end of the 12th century, and thus can be used as a supplementary source for this period. Indeed, the Catechisms offer a comprehensive account of the burdens endured by the Athenians, caused by the exploitative activities of state tax officers, usurers and pirates. On a different perspective, Choniates argues how adverse social conditions, such as poverty, immigration, and land tresspassing, modulate the social fabric and interpersonal relations. Although many of these issues are omitted or very briefly mentioned in other texts, they are clarified in the Catechisms.