History (General) and history of Europe
DOAJ:History and Archaeology
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AbstractThis article offers a kind of map of intellectual fields that are more or less close to cultural history. It is difficult to separate cultural history from intellectual, social and political history, from archaeology and from the histories of such activities as art, literature, language and religion, whether these histories are studied in departments of history or under the umbrella of “visual studies”, “religious studies” or “cultural studies”. All these neighbours form an “inner circle”, discussed in relative detail. Beyond it lies a “middle circle” of disciplines that are separate from cultural history but have made considerable impact on it: anthropology, ethnology, sociology, politics and geography. Still further away, and discovered by cultural historians only recently, comes an “outer circle”, comprising psychology, cognitive studies, neuroscience and biology. The effect of the outer circle of disciplines on the practice of cultural history remains uncertain.&lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt;Este artículo ofrece un cierto mapa de campos intelectuales más o menos cercano a la historia cultural. Es difícil separar la historia cultural de la intelectual, social o política, de la arqueología y de historias de actividades como arte, literatura, lenguaje y religión, tanto si estas historias se estudian en departamentos de historia como si caen bajo el paraguas de "estudios visuales", "estudios religiosos" o "estudios culturales". Todos estos vecinos constituyen un "círculo interior" que se discute con cierto detalle. Mas allá se sitúa un "círculo medio" de disciplinas que están separadas de la historia cultural, pero han tenido considerable impacto sobre ella: antropología, etnología, sociología, politología y geografía. Y un paso más allá, según han descubierto solo de manera reciente los historiadores culturales, existe un “círculo exterior”, que comprende psicología, estudios cognitivos, neurociencia y biología. El efecto de estas disciplinas exteriores sobre la práctica de la historia cultural nos es desconocido.
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Byzantine war against Christians – an "emphylios polemos"?Ioannis STOURAITIS (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)The Byzantine civil wars have been the subject of studies which aimed to analyze and interpret the political and military dimension of the phenomenon of armed conflicts inside the Byzantine society. The ideological aspect of civil war in Byzantium has received less attention. During my study on Byzantine war ideology, I noticed that there are some cases of Byzantine authors of the period after the 9th century that present Byzantine war against another Christian people as a civil one. Beginning with a short overview of the Byzantines’ understanding of the term emphylios polemos which modern researchers interpret usually with the modern term civil war, this study will concentrate on the ideological and political similarities or differences between Byzantine civil war and Byzantine war against Christian enemies.
"Judges of the Velum" and "Judges of the Hippodrome" in Thessalonike (11th c.)Andreas GKOUTZIOUKOSTAS; Λέκτορας Βυζαντινής Ιστορίας ΑΠΘ (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)The present study focuses on judicial officers coming from Constantinople to Thessalonike in the 11th century. The judge of the theme of Thessalonike was in charge of trying cases in the region. From the second fifth of the 11th century, however, his jurisdiction was extended to the greater financial and judicial unit of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike as well. Lead seals and documents from the archives of the monasteries of Athos prove that many of the krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike had been previously krites of the velum and judges of the hippodrome who performed their duties in the capital and belonged to the ranks of the “small judges”. These judicial officers tried cases that were referred to them, while they could also function as assessors of the “great” or superior judges of Constantinople, i.e. the droungarios of the vigla, the dikaiodotes, the protoasecretis, the eparchos of the city, the koiaistor and the epi ton kriseon. The latter could delegate the authority to try cases to the “small” or inferior judges. Consequently, the judges of the velum and the judges of the hippodrome could also be sent from Constantinople to the themes by the emperor or other officials, in order to examine some cases and then return to the capital. This is confirmed by the primary sources, which mention for example the case of judge of the hippodrome Michael Rhodios, who was sent by Alexios I Komnenos in 1084 from Constantinople to the region of Thessalonike, in order to examine a dispute between the Lavra monastery and the brother of the emperor, Adrian. Some years later Michael Rhodios was sent again to try cases in Thessalonike, but this time as krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike. Consequently, apart from the judge of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike, other judges delegated by the emperor or by high officers could also examine cases there, as happened in other themes. From the 14th century on, as Macedonia developed its own law schools, a person who had acquired legal training and judicial experience in Thessalonike could continue his judicial career in Constantinople.
Οι "Κατηχήσεις" του Μιχαήλ Χωνιάτη. Χρονολόγηση και ιστορική προσέγγισηΕργαστήριο Ψηφιακής Αποτύπωσης του Δημοσίου και Ιδιωτικού Βίου των Βυζαντινών/Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών; Καλλιόπη ΜΑΥΡΟΜΜΑΤΗ; Υποψήφιος Διδάκτορας (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)THE CATECHISMS OF MICHAEL CHONIATES. DATING AND HISTORICAL APPROACH The Catechisms of Michael Choniates, archbishop of Athens, are included in Spyridon Lampros’ Archive, who first studied the sources in 1906 and transcribed the texts from the manuscript Mosquensis Synodalis 218 (olim 230) and 219 (olim 262). Although he prepared a critical edition, he did not proceed with publishing. Eventually, his work has been digitized and the researcher can visit the Archive online through the website of the Laboratory of Digital Recording of the Public and Private Life of the Byzantines of the University of Athens (http://lamprosarcheio.arch.uoa.gr). The Catechisms are mainly, yet not exclusively, works of religious ethics; they also address the socioeconomic issues of the city of Athens at the end of the 12th century, and thus can be used as a supplementary source for this period. Indeed, the Catechisms offer a comprehensive account of the burdens endured by the Athenians, caused by the exploitative activities of state tax officers, usurers and pirates. On a different perspective, Choniates argues how adverse social conditions, such as poverty, immigration, and land tresspassing, modulate the social fabric and interpersonal relations. Although many of these issues are omitted or very briefly mentioned in other texts, they are clarified in the Catechisms.