Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics
Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics is an open access philosophical journal, being published only in an electronic format. The journal aims at promoting research and reflection, both historically and theoretically, in the field of moral and political philosophy, with no cultural preclusion or adhesion to any cultural current.
The Globethics.net library contains articles of Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics as of vol. 1(1999) to current.
L’eredità inespressa. Una nota sul “fantasma” di LeibnizThis essay investigates whether there is the possibility of finding in a passage of modern philoso-phy a Leibnizian perspective, i.e. a Leibnizian “sign” able to connote it. This would be almost a prognostic trace, which could reveal at least part of the path that led to the development of a fundamental text for the narrative of modern-contemporary (political, legal, moral) philosophy, comparable to the Kantian Project for Perpetual Peace.
Logica e storia: l’attualismo giuridico di Arnaldo VolpicelliThe essay discusses the relationship between philosophy of law and legal science in the writings of Arnaldo Volpicelli. According to his thought, the search for an ontological dimension of phi-losophy passes through a critique of Benedetto Croce’s and Giorgio Del Vecchio’s scholarships. The definition of gnoseological function of science, on the other hand, takes place through a comparison with Vittorio Emanuele Orlando’s and Santi Romano’s works.
Di alcuni motivi nel canone minore di Rocco RonchiThe essay collects few of the reflections about Rocco Ronchi’s book, Il canone minore. Verso
una filosofia della natura. Having identified some common points, my paper focuses on Ronchi’s
theoretical proposal and it attempts to extend the application of the minor canon to authors not
directly considered by Ronchi in his perspective. The comparison with the text mostly concerns
Ronchi’s references to Husserl’s phenomenology and, going through his criticisms, the article
proposes the hypothesis of a “minor Husserl”, beyond Husserl’s intentions (and Ronchi’s as
A proposito del Canone minore. Risposte agli amiciIn this essay I respond to the objections that some philosophical and psychoanalyst friends have formulated about the hypothesis developed in my book. In particular I want to clarify what I mean by "pure experience". I then show how such experience does not reduce the dimension of singularity to a "hologram", but rather funds it. Finally, I return to the metaphysics of the process to answer the objection of those who read a masked eleatism and to show the basic congruence of my "megarism" with scientific experience and a possible reformulation of ethics.
Afferenze. Plessner, Weizsäcker e il canone minoreRocco Ronchi’s book Il canone minore talks about some lines, operative in Western thought, that are in contrast with the mainly followed theoretical canon, especially by mention to Bergson, Whitehead, Gentile, Deleuze. This essay aims to support this proposal showing how other authors, also in the German area, can be affiliated to the “minor canon”; in particular, I refer to the philosopher Helmuth Plessner, with his “positional theory” and the idea of living subject; and to the scientist Viktor von Weizsäcker, for his idea of Gestaltkreis and the concept of “biological act”.
Qualche nota critica sul Lacan “minore” di RonchiIn his book Il canone minore Rocco Ronchi excludes the perspective of finitude, contingency and transcendence that would manifest themselves in the anthropological figure of desire. Howe-ver, if the field of immanence related to the dimension of transcendence (Other, subject, contin-gency, desire) is cut off, the risk is that of a drift towards a realism. More precisely, it is a realism ending up in a coincidence with a vitalism or a philosophy of nature which denies relief to the ethical dimension.
Beni comuni e ragione economica. Sulla proprietà e sull’abusoMany authors, although they express very different positions on the use of public property in defending common goods, in any case consider juridical rationality to be a fundamental tool in pursuing this aim. Therefore, they undervalue the supremacy that economic rationality is exer-cising today both on juridical rationality and the predominant ways of dwelling in the world. In this regard, it is not simply a question of replacing common goods as things with the common as
a political principle. Indeed, the movements that claim the collective or public ownership of certain “things” also shed light on the crucial crisis of our dwelling relationship with the common world, first of all as a material world.
Main reference authors: Settis, Marella, Ostrom, Dardot, Laval, Arendt, Mattei.
Is It All a Matter of Selfishness? Towards the Formulation of Moral Blame for Anti- Environmental BehaviorThe moral evaluation of actions that disregard climate change, in individual as well as public ethics, is complex. A clear moral judgment itself is difficult to reach in both contexts, as we are far from paradigm moral cases where specific people provoke harm to easily identifiable others. However, for people to seriously engage in climate change mitigation, it has to be clear why it is wrong not to do so. There is therefore a need to frame moral responsibility for anti-environmen-tal behavior using language and concepts that are understandable to a broad public. This paper will argue that the concept of selfishness, properly construed, is the most appropriate tool for describing and morally evaluating human behavior that disregards climate change. A specific consequentialist definition of selfishness will be provided to this purpose. Some objections to framing the environmental decision in this way will be raised in public as well as individual ethics. In the public sphere, moral deliberations are complicated by the conflict between the rights of the present generation and those of future ones. In individual ethics, the inconsequentiality of individual emissions calls into question the very existence of a moral imperative to act pro-envi-ronmentally. The paper will thus investigate the grounds on which we can hold accountable pol-icy makers who refuse to take action on climate change, focusing on the concept of future dis-counting. With regard to the individual dimension, a proposal will be advanced on the basis of a non-superfluous causal contribution to collective-impact cases. In both contexts, the paper will eventually argue that anti-environmental actions can be defined as selfish according to the defini-tion provided.
On the Normative Relevance of Systemic RiskThe social world is permeated by risk exposure, and especially systemic risk, that is, risk we cannot really hedge against or protect ourselves from. Systemic risk is determined by the basic structure of a social system and affects the kind of choices we are able to make in our lives. We argue that when systemic risk is ‘too low’ society becomes stagnant as it does not allow for pro-cesses of creative destruction that, according to a long tradition of economic thinking, are at the core of what allows for growth, and thus progress. In the same way, when levels of systemic risk are too low, the range of option risks that individuals can decide to bear is itself too low and thus hampers their self-respect. At the same time, we will argue that when levels of systemic risk are too high, society runs the risk of marginalizing the potential contributions to innovation and growth of a large part of its members, for when there is too much systemic risk, too much of one’s life is uncertain, and thus investing in one’s future becomes less important. Excessive levels of systemic risk entail a lesser ability to pursue one’s conception of the good.
Vulnerabilità. Premesse fenomenologiche delle categorie giuridiche nel pensiero di LevinasThe article aims at analysing the relevant presence of juridical categories in Levinas’s Philosophy and at reconducting them to their phenomenological premises. The essay is divided in four parts: 1. justice, right and law; 2. the collapse of the law; 3. explanation thanks to the biblical figure of Ritzpa Bath Ajà; 4. conclusions about the levinasian contribution to the studies on vulnerability. For Levinas, vulnerability represents the phenomenological premise to think the collapse of the law, when right is exposed to what it cannot contain, to the significance of the justice.
Teorie dei vizi. Un’analisi criticaThis paper offers a critical analysis of the current debate in vice theory. Its main aim is to pro-vide the reader with the conceptual and methodological tools to navigate the discussion among reliabilist, responsibilist, and obstructivist approaches to moral and epistemic vices. After a brief exploration of the reasons underlying the recent flourishing of vice theories (§2), the re-sponsibilist account is introduced (§3) and several critical remarks are offered to ensure that this view can accommodate the cases of malevolent and indifferent individuals (§4). The two following sections are devoted to a critical discussion of vice-reliabilism (§5) and Quassim Cas-sam’s obstructivism (§6). The conclusive section (§7) provides reasons to favor vice-responsibilism over vice-reliabilism and Heather Battaly’s pluralist approach, and sheds light on the innovative features of an obstructivist reading.
Una dictadura invisible. Genealogía e impacto del sufrimiento psíquico en la sociedad de mercadoFar from establishing as the kingdom of absolute freedom, capitalism (in its neoliberal version)
includes the sujectivity in all its activity and life areas. The rules for consumption increases its
influence in a proportional way to the vagueness it determines our way of life and our expectatives,
producing a paradoxical freedom which turns into an inescapable psychic suffering due to
the compulsory structures inherent to it. The objective of the current article is, in fact, to show
the pathological manifestations of such paradoxical freedom in the formation of a personal identity,
taking into account the new technologies of the Power to impose its dominium and perpetuate
ad infinitum, a modus operandi without any comparison in history.
Repliche ai miei criticiSome of the scholars who contributed papers to the Symposium scrutinized the relationship between “general” vulnerability and “situated” vulnerability; some others seem to validate the notion of situa-ted vulnerability itself, by directly offering an empathic comment to some sections of Philosophy of Vulnerability. While the status of the notion of vulnerability remains an open (and fascinating) que-stion, the challenge of situated vulnerabilities does shed light on interesting aspects of the problem.
Vulnerabilità situata e risposte alle vulnerazioniThis paper comments on some passages of the book by Gianfrancesco Zanetti with particular
reference to the notion of vulnerability that it assumes. There are multiple faces of vulnerability.
They deal with the present possibility of injury, harm, discrimination, oppression, marginalization.
Vulnerability is universal and, at the same time, particular. There are “inherent vulnerabilities”,
that are located in the fact that humans are embodied and relational beings; “situational
vulnerabilities”, regarding their context-specific dimension; “pathogenic vulnerabilities”, characterized
as socially created vulnerability-aggravating mechanisms. Vulnerability must be at the
heart of our ideas of social and institutional responsibilities. It may well lead to an update of the
interpretation of the principles of dignity and equality. Law can play an important role in compensating,
lessening and eliminating the situations that produce violations concerning the real-life
Una filosofia della vulnerabilità per stare con il problemaThe article discusses the relationship between vulnerability, sensory perceptions and law in light of the debates on critical legal studies and identity politics. The epistemological question raised by a philosophy of vulnerability calls for law to ‘stay with the trouble’ of discriminatory social practices rather than to search merely for a resolution.
Politica e mistica. Su Il canone minore di Rocco RonchiI will examine in this paper the concept of process proposed by R. Ronchi in his book Canone minore (Feltrinelli 2016). I will retrace a certain relationship between this idea of process and two major languages which historically strived to elaborate an idea of process: the language of classical metaphysics, and the writing of modern and contemporary mathematics. On this basis I will investigate which status and which effects could have Ronchi’s idea of process and the whole speculative itinerary proposed by Canone minore. A first hypothesis is formulated in the direc-tion of what I could call a politics of knowledges and technologies. A second one in the direction of a mystic of knowledges and technologies.
Pensare il mostruoso. Un dialogo con Rocco RonchiAt the base of Ronchi’s The Minor Canon, there are two fundamental theses: i) the experience is not attributable to the consciousness of the subject, but to an impersonal background (the monstrous); ii) the act precedes the potency and is accomplished in itself. I argue that in his theses two risks can be identified: a) once all the experience she has with the impersonal has been identified, the personal singularity becomes something similar to a hologram; b) if we conceive the act as something in itself already fully accomplished, then the concept of creation becomes problematic at least in the sense proposed by Bergson, that is, as a process in which everything is not given at once. The thesis that I argue in this contribution is twofold: 1) the personal singularity is distinct from the self-referential subject; 2) a double overcoming of the self-referential subject is possible: not only in the direction of the “monstrous” (as Ronchi pro-poses in the wake of Schopenhauer), but also in the direction of the level of experience that corresponds to personal singularity.
Come un respiroThe identification of two different lines of thought is a particularly convincing image in Rocco Ronchi’s book, Il canone minore. In this text a rigorous duality, perhaps unsurpassed, which in-habits thought, is represented. But this dualism does not necessarily have to be fought and over-come. And perhaps it is not even a problem to be solved, but rather it is the movement of philo-sophy itself.
Di un possibile equivoco, nella medesima direzioneThe essay first deepens the meaning of the Cartesian Cogito, starting from its performative reading,
with the aim of verifying the plausibility of the interpretation provided by Rocco Ronchi’s
Canone minore, in order to conduct a radical desubjectivization of the experience. Secondly, the
essay raises the question whether this operation, which must lead to an absolute immanentism,
should also mean abandoning the central category of identity, so decisive for the whole western
philosophical tradition. A very brief mention is reserved to the figure that would emerge in the
margins of this extreme exercise of thought.