• A Brief Abductive Argument for Theistic Ethics

      Schönecker, Dieter (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2019-05-31)
      I shall develop an abductive argument for the claim that the best explanation for moral facts such as One ought not to rape and kill innocent children for sexual pleasureis that moral norms and values are grounded in God’s will. I will first explain (1) the Moral Question, i. e., the question of why one should be moral at all. I will provide a brief outline of the possible answers to this question and show why most answers fail; here, I will have a closer look at moral naturalism. I will then, secondly (2), contend that the only answer to the Moral Question is theistic: Only God can provide or rather: can be the foundation of morality. Furthermore, I shall argue that only on the basis of a personal God that has a will who sets ends the very idea of moral normativity makes sense. I will conclude with some brief remarks on moral epistemology.
    • A Conversation Between Andrea Staiti and Christine Korsgaard on The Sources of Normativity

      Korsgaard, Christine M.; Staiti, Andrea (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2021-09-06)
      In this short exchange, Christine Korsgaard and Andrea Staiti address some of the salient theses and issues raised by Korsgaard's seminal book The Sources of Normativity.
    • A Critical Perspective on Moral Neuroscience

      Yokum, David V.; Rossi, Filippo (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2011-08-31)
      In this paper, we highlight several historical developments in the neuroscience of ethics as well as recent advances that forecast the experimental research to come. We argue, in particular, that our understanding of the moral brain will benefit from the further use of a formal, mathematical approach to the construction and testing of alternative theories, such as that found in the field of neuroeconomics. The use of economic modeling to understand the psychological processes underlying distributional preferences and charitable giving is reviewed to illustrate this potential. We also consider some obstacles to such an approach, notably the challenge of capturing substantive moral values within a mathematical model.
    • A Crypto-Liberalism of Collective Self-Restraint?

      Ferrara, Alessandro (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2020-02-01)
      The author argues that in Lindahl’s Authority and the Globalisation of Inclusion and Exclusion,
 and also in his Julius Stone Address “Inside and Outside Global Law”, one can find a) a
 great rebuttal to the once fashionable deconstructionist fantasies about “multitudes” (Hardt and
 Negri) and to a variously termed “community of difference” (Nancy, Blanchot, Esposito,
 Agamben) that excludes nothing and no one; b) an interesting concept of law as linked with collective
 action; c) an ingenious questioning of the vexed binary of representative and direct democracy.
 At the same time, Lindahl’s theory is argued to be susceptible of significant improvement
 if the central notion of a-legality were to be defined in a non-ambiguous way, if the presently
 unclear relation of his guiding principle of the “dutiful restraint of majorities” to political
 liberalism were to be spelled out, and if his counterintuitive blessing of a-legal conduct with the
 insignia of constituent power were to be backed up by a stronger justification.

      Biasetti, Pierfrancesco; De Mori, Barbara (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2017-01-13)
      The idea that «natural» environments should be protected is a relatively recent one. This new attitude is reflected in the activities of preservation and restoration of natural environments, ecosystems, flora and wildlife that, when scientifically based, can be defined as conservation. In this paper, we would like to examine the framework of values behind these activities. More specifically, we would like to show that there is no single specific reason that can justify conservation in each of its manifestations It is therefore necessary to adopt a complex framework of values, which must be composed carefully, since many of the canonical arguments used to justify conservation provide, when combined together, an incoherent or, at least, incomplete set of reasons. One way to avoid these inconsistencies or incompleteness is, in our view, to adopt, in conjunction with the classic economic and ecological arguments for conservation, a set of arguments appealing to the importance of nature for human flourishing.
    • A Hermeneutic Account of Normativity of Law

      Satokhina, Natalia (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2021-09-03)
      The essay addresses the problem of normativity of law from the point of view of phenomenological hermeneutics. First, the author briefly reconstructs the theory of hermeneutic experience as an experience of understanding or an experience of meaning, highlights the inherent normative dimension in the structure of hermeneutic experience and describes its aspects. Then, the essay traces the connection between this initial normativity and the formalized normative systems that largely mediate our lives in the modern world. In particular, using the concept of human dignity as an example, the author shows that hermeneutic optics enables us to see the foundations of legal norms in the very mode of our being in the world. Finally, the essay explains the modern crisis of law as an integral part of the general crisis of meaning, which is associated with the destruction of public realm and a radical transformation of our fundamental experience.
    • A lei de Levinas. Para além das tentações idolátricas

      Timm De Souza, Ricardo (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2021-04-28)
      The text aims to investigate the thesis that E. Levinas’ thinking as a whole constitutes essentially a vast anti-idolatric project, not only in terms of theology and culture, but also in a strict philosophical meaning. This would be the “law” of Levinas’ thinking.
    • A Levinasian Reconceptalization of Supererogation

      Andrade, Julio A. (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2019-10-04)
      Supererogatory acts, as moral acts that go beyond duty, problematise the notions of obligation and autonomy within such impartialist ethical accounts such as Kantianism and utilitarianism which opt to reduce and assimilate supererogation as a result. Bernard Williams’s conception of a moral incapacity challenges the claim that cost to the moral agent, and consequently, autonomy, are necessary to conceptualise supererogation. I extend this finding by adapting Craig Taylor’s idea of a primitive moral response as an attitude that can ground supererogation. However, because such a primitive response is too self-regarding, I argue for a reinscription of such an attitude in terms of a Levinasian moral response. Such a response relies on a reconsidered autonomy that is grounded in the alterity of the Other, but which is incessantly corrected by the presence of the third party to the face to face encounter. I argue for an understanding of such an incessant correction in terms of a Levinasian normativity which as a provisional imperative, can also be thought of as an attitude. I claim that Levinasian normativity is supererogatory and that supererogation can also be reconceptualised as the possibility of sacrifice rather than actual sacrifice.
    • A Mathematised Archeology of Ontology. Agamben’s Modal Ontology Mapped onto Badiou’s Mathematised Ontology

      Watkin, William (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2021-02-01)
      This paper looks at the central portion of The Use of Bodies called An Archaeology of Ontology. Specifically, it concerns itself with Agamben’s historiographic approach to ontology as regards the construction of ontology via the concepts of presupposition, relation and mode. Placing these comments within the frame of the whole book, the study of use of bodies in part I and form-of-life in part III, the paper suggests that, contrary to Agamben’s own assertions, it is possible for an ontology to escape the historical destiny mapped out for it by First philosophy and foreclosed by Kant. This possibility makes itself known if one accepts that Agamben’s definition of the ontology to come as a modality of the use of bodies as a habitual form-of-life, is indeed another way of stating that said ontology is directly mappable onto Badiou’s work on existence as categorical functional relations between objects in Logics of Worlds. For use of bodies read functions be-tween objects, and Agamben’s modal and Badiou’s mathematised ontologies suddenly fall into a powerful if restless alignment.
    • A Neo-Republican Critique of Hard Libertarianism

      Donoghue, Robert (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2021-02-08)
      This paper argues that hard libertarianism is not a social philosophy guided by the ‘presumption of liberty’. Instead, hard libertarianism is more appropriately conceived of as a ‘property-rights-based theory of justice’. Moreover, libertarians maintain that institutionalizing their avowed theory of justice will sufficiently secure individual liberty. This too is inaccurate: for it will be shown that libertarian theory overlooks relevant social threats to the freedom of persons. The classical understanding of liberty holds that one’s freedom is compromised when their will is subordinated to the will of an arbitrary power. As we will see, libertarianism shows concern for only one mechanism by which arbitrary powers can subordinate the will of others to their own: aggression. However, I will show that there exist other significant mechanisms beyond aggression by which people can see their will subordinated to an arbitrary power. In what follows, I offer the mechanism of ‘dependency exploita-tion’ as one such example. Thus, a theory of justice focused exclusively on preventing aggression – as libertarianism does – fails to adequately address other meaningful mechanisms of will-subordination. Alternative political theories committed to the presumption of liberty – such as neo-republicanism – takes seriously the problem of dependency exploitation (in addition to aggression), and therefore offer a more compelling social philosophy for freedom lovers.
    • A New Book by Hans Lindahl

      ZANETTI, Gianfrancesco (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2020-02-03)
      Hans Lindahl’s new book is an extremely valuable contribution. It offers a fresh notion of globalization
 processes, grounded in a sound social ontology. Lindahl’s theory is described on the background
 of most of the contemporary debate, painstakingly scrutinized in the book. The sobering conclusion
 is that no Great Emancipation is truly possible: the only contingency-burden solutions are those normative
 practices that Lindahl calls “restrained collective self-assertion”.
    • A Painted Republic: the Constitutional Innovations of Cicero’s De legibus

      Paulson, Lex (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2015-02-04)
      This article proposes three arguments concerning the constitutional innovations offered by Cicero in the De legibus. First, these innovations are much broader and deeper than commonly appreciated, none more so than the very attempt at a prescriptive written constitution for Rome. Second, Cicero’s amendments to traditional Roman practice follow a consistent set of four principles, principles encapsulated in his metaphor of the republic as a painting in need of fresh colors. Finally, the reframed institutions within the De legibus reveal Cicero to be neither the reflexive optimate his critics lament, nor the far-seeing political diagnostician he considered himself. The senate, for all its faults, remains the sole center of gravity in his constitutional system, and the legitimate grievances of Rome’s citizen majority remain unrecognized and unaddressed. Though a failure on its own terms, the De legibus represents antiquity’s last major attempt at original political thought, and an essential if unrecognized bridge to the modern idea of a constitution.
    • A Plea for Moral Deference

      Sreenivasan, Gopal (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2016-02-25)
      It seems to be a commonplace of the philosophical literature that there is no such thing as moral expertise. Or perhaps, more narrowly, that there is no such thing as justified deference to moral expertise, when there is moral expertise. On the other hand, a warrant for moral deference seems to have a secure place in everyday moral experience. It is illustrated, for example, by the ubiquitous phenomenon of taking moral advice (this includes a role for exemplars of individual moral virtues, but is not limited to exemplars of virtue). In this paper, I shall defend moral deference against overblown philosophical skepticism. I hope to contribute to rehabilitating the notion for some role in moral theory.
    • A proposito del Canone minore. Risposte agli amici

      Ronchi, Rocco (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2020-06-01)
      In this essay I respond to the objections that some philosophical and psychoanalyst friends have formulated about the hypothesis developed in my book. In particular I want to clarify what I mean by "pure experience". I then show how such experience does not reduce the dimension of singularity to a "hologram", but rather funds it. Finally, I return to the metaphysics of the process to answer the objection of those who read a masked eleatism and to show the basic congruence of my "megarism" with scientific experience and a possible reformulation of ethics.

      De Pascale, Carla (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2016-05-10)
      The first part of the volume addresses the issue of speculative procedure in Hegel's philos-ophy and the role played by mediation and the negative within such a process. The volume proceeds by debating the reach of the influence of Greek thought in Hegel, as well as the legacy of Jusnaturalistic modern thought. In its final part, the volume provides a reflection on the issue of social classes.
    • A proposito di viventi umani e non umani

      Rasini, Vallori (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2019-10-04)
      The last book of Carmine Di Martino, Viventi umani e non umani, focuses on some important questions about relations between human being and animals, and it suggests some reflections about philosophy and “anthropological difference”. Furthermore, the reception of recent discoveries in paleontology and physical anthropology gives a special value to darwinian theories and supports the idea of a casual development of man; language, technical ability and culture are not a “special gift” expressly created for human being, but the result of a natural evolution.The last book of Carmine Di Martino, Viventi umani e non umani, focuses on some important questions about relations between human being and animals, and it suggests some reflections about philosophy and “anthropological difference”. Furthermore, the reception of recent discoveries in paleontology and physical anthropology gives a special value to darwinian theories and supports the idea of a casual development of man; language, technical ability and culture are not a “special gift” expressly created for human being, but the result of a natural evolution.
    • A qui s’adressent les requêtes qui nous touchent? Appel des choses et urgence écologique

      Vanni, Michel (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2011-11-24)
      In this paper, I would like to retrace the way in which Waldenfels works on the distinction between things and humans. Through the responsive point of view, this relation is marked by a radical ambivalence, and the attribution of identities can only happen during the responding process itself, not before. This leads to a practical kind of uncertainty that underlies every cultural categorization. In the second part of my paper, I would like to show the implications of this theory for ecological questions. I aim to suggest that the responsive point of view allows us to consider a form of community, not made of specified beings with different qualities, but of responding parts of the same responsive and “pathic” event. What we share with things and with nature is the necessity to respond to some emergencies that bind us together in the same practical situation.
    • A Refutation of Democratic Peace Assumptions in Liberal Projects for Global Order

      Piras, Elisa (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2016-02-24)
      From Kant’s plan for perpetual peace to Rawls’s proposal of a law of peoples, liberal projects for world order assume the homogeneity of states’ regimes as a determinant factor for bringing about peace and moral progress. Particularly, at the foundations of Rawlsian internationalism is the ‘fact’ of democratic peace, considered to be a sound and immutable feature of the international system. This article questions this oversimplified reading of Michael Doyle’s hypothesis about the apparent existence of a ‘separate peace’ among democratic states. It argues that liberal projects for global order should consider the ‘separate peace’ merely as a working hypothesis and they should address also the problematic aspects related to it, namely the unnecessary aggressiveness that democratic states show towards non-democracies and the coercive – and possibly illiberal – nature of the Society of Peoples.
    • A Simple Exposition of Gödel's Theorem

      Lucas, John R. (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2011-10-05)
      Lucas introduces this paper by an account of how he began to be interested to questions about Materialism and Mechanism. Then he suggests a simple version of the Incompleteness theorem of Gödel, showing how this theorem proposes a version of the Epimenides’ paradox able to avoid the circularity of this paradox by means of the possibility to express meta-mathematics in terms of arithmetical propositions and by substituting questions concerning truth by questions concerning provability.
    • A-legality or Jus Politicum? A Critical Appraisal of Lindahl’s Fault Lines of Globalization

      Loughlin, Martin (EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2015-02-19)
      This paper contends that, notwithstanding the impressive philosophical argument Lindahl presents in his book, his essential point does not extend to the plurality of normative orders that operate throughout the social world. Rather, his argument demonstrates precisely what is special about the political domain within which the modern idea of public law is situated. Lindahl’s novel concept of a-legality is therefore best grasped as a reformulation of the modern concept of jus politicum, droit politique, political jurisprudence.