Keywordsend - rhyme
Language and Literature
Indo-Iranian languages and literature
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AbstractÂ AbstractÂ Elegy in word is derived from Rasa-Yarso means weeping on dead people. It is also defined as enumerating deceased benefits and composing the poem about. Elegy is categorized into different parts as follows: 1. Courtier 2. Personal 3. Religious 4. Philosophical 5. Social 6. Fictional. Â Not only did Khaghani prove himself at composing praise and commendation, lampoon and imprisoned poems, but also he proved himself at composing elegy. Commentators of khaghaniâs poems know him as an exclusive poet regarding elegy- making. Also Khaghani composed some odes in loyalty mourning and the world transience as well as personal, courtier and religious elegies which are sub- categories of philosophical elegies. Khaghaniâs âIvane Madayenâ ode is considered as a social elegy. In this article, one just analyzes the elegies that Khaghani composed about people. This type of elegies in Khaghaniâs Divan are categorized in three parts: a) Personal and family elegies which are about Khaghaniâs son, wives, girl, son-in-law, uncle and his cousin, b) Courtier or ceremonial elegies which are about Nosrat od-Din Espahbud Leyalvashir, Fakhr od-Din Manuchehr Shervanshah, Shervanshahâs children (Azed od-Din Fariborz and aljijak) and other courtier men, c) Religious elegies composed about Imam Mohammad Yahya, Sheikh ol-Islam Abu Mansoor Hafade, Azed od-Din bu Emran and other religious characters. Â There have not been any comprehensive research projects conducted about Khaghaniâs elegies. Nasrollah Imami had presented summarized explanations in âComposing elegyâ book at Persian courtesy, in the part about Khaghani that were valuable, and he used them as the reference in this article. Two valuable articles were written about comparative literature: comparison of Khaghaniâs and Hogoâs elegies about sorrow of their sons by Reza Irandust Tabrizi and âElegy composing in Persian and Arabic courtesy with the help of comparing Khaghani Shervani and Abolhasan Tahamiâs elegy by Naser Mohseniniya and Arezu Yazdanpanah Kermani. In Persian courtesy, elegy is often versified and it may have different genres, but the most frequently used genre up to the end of 8th century is the ode, and fragment genre, Refrain and compounding are next ranks. Among Khaghaniâs elegies, twenty-one elegies are composed in ode genre, sixteen of which have row and five others do not have any row. Â After ode, Fragment genre has more applicability in Khaghaniâs Divan in elegies. Generally, he composed nineteen Fragments about the courtier and religious men. Khaghani also composed four composite-tie about his son mourning and governmentâs personnel. One thing to be noticed by poet about elegy is the proportion of verse with subject. Most of prosodic verses couldnât be used in elegy. From the beginning of Persian poetry to the end of 8th century, Ramal poetical meter (faelaton foot) is the most usable and Gharib poetical metre (faoulon foot) is less usable one among others. In Khaghaniâs Divan Ramal poetical meter with fifteen cases, the most usable poetical meter is elegy. After future, Mozare octagonal poetical meter (mafoulo faelato mafailo faelon) and khafif poetical meter (faelaton mafaelon faelon) are placed next with six cases. Mojtas poetical meter (mafaelon faalaton mafaelon faelon) monsareh poetical meter (moftaelon faelato moftaelon fa) and gharib poetical meter (faoulon faoulon faoulon faal) are less usable poetric matre in Khaghaniâs Divan about composing elegy. Â In Khaghaniâs elegies like other poetâs elegies, imagination has been shown differently. Although Khaghani couldnât hide his influence from the coming event, he also does not give up imagology. According to the conducted studies, one should say that Khaghani made nice images in elegy; images followed by formality, but its amount is less than Khaghaniâs other odes. Simile is presented more than other imaginations in Khaghaniâs elegies. Next step belongs to the metaphor. In addition to simile and metaphor among literary verses, hyperbole is of high frequency. This craft was so effective in making and activating marvelous tone. In courtier elegies, the poet tires to compensate lack of emotional burden by the help of exaggeration and where there is high emotional, aspect of exaggeration has no space or it is not suitable. After hyperbole, allegory is of high frequency among Khaghaniâs elegies. Khaghani had basically used allegory in his uncleâs elegy and Imam Mohammad Yahya, Abu Mansoor hafade and Naser od-Din Ibrahim. In most of elegies, Khaghani starts his ode with an introduction on world transience and disloyalty of the day. Khaghani basically gives speech about universe transience and disloyalty at the beginning of menâs courtier and religious elegies. Â Some of Khaghaniâs elegies starts with poetâs mournful mood and the beaten poem. Khaghani started composing all his elegies about her wifeâs mourning with description of his unpleasant mood. The beginning of Khaghaniâs odes which he had composed, was followed by the addresseeâs invitation to unanimity. All the factors are at the service of content in Khaghaniâs elegies and they are used to activate the meaning of mourning and sorrowful space. One of these factors is row. Row is at the service of elegy content in accordance with the aspect of proportion in long vowel as well as semantic proportion. Of other factors used in relation with elegy one can name the adjectival proportion and similes for the deceased. For example, Khaghani used items like garden sight, cypress- figure and brilliant sun and in mourning of his wife, and in the morning of prophetâs names as well as religious men in making-image.