Romėnų teatras ir Senekos tragedijos: Pamišęs Herkulis, Edipas. The Roman theatre and Seneca’s tragedies Hercules Furens, Oedipus
Language and Literature
DOAJ:Languages and Literatures
Slavic languages. Baltic languages. Albanian languages
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AbstractThe article analyses the feelings of characters in Seneca’s tragedies prior and after recognising their guilt. Expression of the feelings of the characters in Seneca’s two tragedies Hercules Furens and Oedipus is compared, features characteristic of tragedies of recognition and the main feelings of their characters are revealed: disintegration and social fear, guilt and shame. The latest studies on Seneca’s dramas are reviewed, as well as historical knowledge about the Roman theatre in Seneca’s time, the impact of the pantomime on tragedies is presented.In the opinion of the present-day scholars (George W. M. Harrison, A. J. Boyle, Denis and Elisabeth Henry, Bernhard Zimmermann, Alessandra Zanobi) Seneca’s tragedies were devoted to being played in the theatre rather than to be recited. Pantomime that was popular in Rome in the first century exerted great influence on the structure of Seneca’s dramas. Descriptive scenes, stopping the time of the play, remarks made aside, long introductory monologues are seen today as the specificity of fabula saltata rather than a lack of Seneca’s theatre experience. The chorus or an actor in these tragedies relates of what the character is doing on the stage so that the spectators should understand what the only pantomime dancer performing all the roles without words is doing on the stage.The distinguishing feature of Seneca’s tragedies is representation of the characters’ feelings. The poet, when creating scenes of chaos, the horror of the world to come, the pending world catastrophe of the Earth in his tragedies, seeks to frighten the spectators. Seneca, with the help of adynata, a figure of speech, portrays the characters’ anger and their fear of disintegration. The idea, which was popular in the first century, that man’ sin would cause a world catastrophe is used in Seneca’s tragedies to strengthen the culmination moments and social fear of the characters.Having recognised their crime, Seneca’s characters feel shame. They express this feeling by the desire to hide from people, to kill themselves, to leave the town, to prick out their eyes. A feeling of shame causes anger in Seneca’s characters; however, later the shame makes them control their aggression.In his tragedies Seneca treats the crime as a mistake, shows lots of pangs that the characters suffer so that we should feel pity for them rather than feel horrified by the characters’ cruelty. Nonetheless, Seneca’s characters understand that fate might send a misfortune, however, guilt is born in man’s heart and it is an individual himself that chooses evil. Therefore main characters of tragedies feel guilt after recognising their crime. Oedipus and Hercules express their guilt through a sense of dirtiness, soiling themselves. It seems to them that they would never wash their hands; they feel indebted to their town and their own people. Having experienced a feeling of guilt Hercules chooses a greater suffering than death – to live in shame because he wants his father to be happy having his son alive. Atoning for his guilt Oedipus also chooses a greater suffering than death – tearing out his eyes and going into exile so that he should clear the town of plague by his suffering. Being consumed with guilt the characters behave in an altruistic way. Hercules does not lay blame on his stepmother Juno, and Oedipus blames neither Apollo nor his parents.Seneca expects from us – readers and spectators – the moral progress so that having learned a lesson from his characters’ misfortunes we should apprehend our haughtiness, anger, a desire to rule others and the world. We can guess that the moralist – philosopher and poet Seneca expects that spectators, having experienced bitter feelings of fear, guilt and shame that hard to overcome, together with the characters, will feel the desire to become honest because it is the feeling of shame and guilt that is the driving force of the moral progress.
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North Syrian Mortaria and Other Late Roman Personal and Utility Objects Bearing Inscriptions of Good LuckAnastasia G. YANGAKI; Institute for Byzantine Research, Athens (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2009-08-28)ΠΗΛΙΝΑ ΙΓΔΙΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΗ ΒΟΡΕΙΟ ΣΥΡΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΑΛΛΑ ΑΝΤΙΚΕΙΜΕΝΑ ΠΡΟΣΩΠΙΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΘΗΜΕΡΙΝΗΣ ΧΡΗΣΗΣ ΠΟΥ ΦΕΡΟΥΝ ΕΠΙΓΡΑΦΕΣ ΓΙΑ ΚΑΛΗ ΤΥΧΗ Ορισμένα από τα σφραγίσματα που εντοπίζονται σε ιγδία από τη Βόρειο Συρία, μία ιδιαίτερα διαδεδομένη ομάδα πήλινων ιγδίων που χρονολογούνται στο τέλος του 3ου και στο πρώτο μισό του 4ου αι. μ.Χ., φέρουν επιγραφές όπου κυρίως γίνεται χρήση του επιρρήματος εὐτυχῶς ή του ρήματος εὐτυχῶ σε συνδυασμό με ένα κύριο όνομα. Η μελέτη συγκεντρώνει τα πολυάριθμα ιγδία που φέρουν σχετικές επιγραφές (Παράρτημα Α), καθώς και πολλά αντικείμενα καθημερινής και προσωπικής χρήσης (δακτυλίδια, σφραγίδες, πυξίδες, γυάλινα αγγεία, πήλινα λυχνάρια, πήλινες οινοχόες) με επιγραφές παρόμοιου περιεχομένου. Τα περισσότερα από τα αντικείμενα αυτά είναι σύγχρονα με τα ιγδία, ενώ ορισμένα χρονολογούνται στην περίοδο από τον 5ο μέχρι και τον 7ο αι. μ.Χ. Αναλύεται η μορφή και το περιεχόμενο αυτών των επιγραφών, μέσω των οποίων εκφράζονται ευχές για καλή τύχη. Σχολιάζεται κατά πόσον αυτές, στην περίπτωση των πήλινων ιγδίων, αναφέρονται παράλληλα και στο εργαστήριο κατασκευής αυτών των αγγείων. Αυτού του είδους οι επιγραφές που εντοπίζονται στα ιγδία από τη Βόρειο Συρία αποτελούν μέρος μίας μακράς επιγραφικής παράδοσης και, βάσει της χρονολόγησης των λοιπών αντικειμένων στα οποία αυτές απαντούν, συνέχισαν να είναι αρκετά κοινές για μεγάλο χρονικό διάστημα, προφανώς δεδομένου του περιεχομένου του μηνύματός τους.
Οι "Κατηχήσεις" του Μιχαήλ Χωνιάτη. Χρονολόγηση και ιστορική προσέγγισηΕργαστήριο Ψηφιακής Αποτύπωσης του Δημοσίου και Ιδιωτικού Βίου των Βυζαντινών/Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών; Καλλιόπη ΜΑΥΡΟΜΜΑΤΗ; Υποψήφιος Διδάκτορας (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)THE CATECHISMS OF MICHAEL CHONIATES. DATING AND HISTORICAL APPROACH The Catechisms of Michael Choniates, archbishop of Athens, are included in Spyridon Lampros’ Archive, who first studied the sources in 1906 and transcribed the texts from the manuscript Mosquensis Synodalis 218 (olim 230) and 219 (olim 262). Although he prepared a critical edition, he did not proceed with publishing. Eventually, his work has been digitized and the researcher can visit the Archive online through the website of the Laboratory of Digital Recording of the Public and Private Life of the Byzantines of the University of Athens (http://lamprosarcheio.arch.uoa.gr). The Catechisms are mainly, yet not exclusively, works of religious ethics; they also address the socioeconomic issues of the city of Athens at the end of the 12th century, and thus can be used as a supplementary source for this period. Indeed, the Catechisms offer a comprehensive account of the burdens endured by the Athenians, caused by the exploitative activities of state tax officers, usurers and pirates. On a different perspective, Choniates argues how adverse social conditions, such as poverty, immigration, and land tresspassing, modulate the social fabric and interpersonal relations. Although many of these issues are omitted or very briefly mentioned in other texts, they are clarified in the Catechisms.