Biomarcadores moleculares em câncer: implicações para a pesquisa epidemiológica e a saúde pública Molecular biomarkers in cancer: implications for epidemiological research and public health
Public aspects of medicine
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AbstractO desenvolvimento das áreas de genética e biologia molecular tem sido admirável nas últimas décadas e isso tem repercutido intensamente na epidemiologia. Neste artigo, discute-se a ampliação das fronteiras da pesquisa epidemiológica em câncer com a incorporação das técnicas da genética e da biologia molecular. Examina-se o conhecimento atual dos biomarcadores de exposição e de suscetibilidade, o papel das mutações genéticas na carcinogênese, a aplicação destas nos estudos epidemiológicos e implicações para a prevenção. Perscrutando o meio interno dos indivíduos, a epidemiologia molecular e a genética representam um avanço tanto para a avaliação da exposição, quanto para a detecção de indivíduos suscetíveis, e possuem imenso potencial para ampliar a compreensão dos mecanismos da carcinogênese e dos efeitos de fatores de risco no câncer. Entretanto, por serem necessariamente mais invasivas, essas abordagens remetem a importantes questões no campo da ética. A comunidade científica de saúde pública e a sociedade devem guardar vigilância sobre os usos e aplicações deste novo conhecimento, avaliando seus desdobramentos à luz da bioética<br>Identification of molecular biomarkers is a common result of current cancer epidemiological research. Both genetic and molecular epidemiology have enjoyed impressive developments in recent decades, with important repercussions on traditional epidemiological approaches. In this paper we evaluate the new frontiers of cancer epidemiology, incorporating both genetic and molecular biology approaches. We examine the current knowledge of molecular biomarkers for exposure and susceptibility to cancer, the role of gene mutations in carcinogenesis, and their application to epidemiological studies. By exploring the status of relevant biomarkers, these approaches become effective in evaluating exposure and susceptibility and show enormous potential for elucidating mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the effect of risk factors in cancer. However, these approaches are necessarily more invasive and raise several ethical issues for consideration by both researchers in public health and society as a whole.
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First-principle study of geometries, electronic structures and vibrational spectra of neutral and anionic onion-like [As@Ni/sub 12/@As/sub 20/]Liu Hai-Tao; Li Jia-Ming (Chinese Phys. SocChina, 2010-05-06)We present results of first-principle study for both neutral and anionic onion-like [As@Ni/sub 12/@As/sub 20/]. The ground-states of singly-charged and doubly-charged anions deviate from ideal I/sub h/ symmetrical geometry because of Jahn-Teller effect, whereas the triply-charged singlet and neutral quartet have similar stable geometries of I/sub h/ symmetry. The infrared and Raman spectra may provide a way to determine various charge states of this molecule with the same symmetry. Based on our systematical calculations, we suggest additional experimental measurements in order to determine the appropriate functional with great confidence, which should be important in the research for future quantum dot devices.
Microwave Spectra of Molecules of Astrophysical Interest. XII. Hydroxyl Radical,NATIONAL STANDARD REFERENCE DATA SYSTEM; Beaudet, Robert A; Poynter, Robert L (1978-01)The available data on the microwave spectrum of the hydroxyl radical are critically reviewed for information applicable to radio astronomy. Molecular properties such as the rotational constants, spin-orbit, spin-spin and hyperfine coupling constants and centrifugal distortion parameters employed in or derived from the analysis are tabulated. All the observed and predicted transitions of 16OH, 16OD, and 18OH below 300 GHz and lower state energy levels less than 4000/cm-1 are presented for the ground vibrational state. The laboratory data on 17OH is included, but no predicted transitions are presented due to the limited data available. In addition to the transition frequencies the table contains the calculated line strengths and energies of the levels involved in the transition. An extensive bibliography of laboratory and astronomical studies of the hydroxyl radical is presented as an aid to workers in both fields. (Author)
Benchmark Dyson orbital study of the ionization spectrum and electron momentum distributions of ethanol in conformational equilibriumMorini, F.; Hajgato, B.; Deleuze, M.S.; Ning, C.G.; Deng, J.K. (American Chemical SocietyUSA, 2010-10-12)An extensive study, throughout the valence region, of the electronic structure, ionization spectrum, and electron momentum distributions of ethanol is presented, on the ground of a model that focuses on a mixture of the gauche and anti conformers in their energy minimum form, using weight coefficients obtained from thermostatistical calculations that account for the influence of hindered rotations. The analysis is based on accurate calculations of valence one-electron and shakeup ionization energies and of the related Dyson orbitals, using one-particle Green's Function (lp-GF) theory in conjunction with the so-called third-order Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction scheme [ADC(3)]. The confrontation against available UPS (Hel) measurements indicates the presence in the spectral bands of significant conformational fingerprints at outer-valence ionization energies ranging from ~14 to ~18 eV. The shakeup onset is located at ~24 eV, and a shoulder at ~14.5 eV in the He I spectrum can be specifically ascribed to the minor anti (C/sub s/) conformer fraction. Thermally and spherically averaged Dyson orbital momentum distributions are computed for seven resolvable bands in model (e, 2e) ionization spectra at an electron impact energy of 1.2 keV. A comparison is made with results obtained from standard (B3LYP) Kohn-Sham orbitals and EMS measurements employing a high-resolution spectrometer of the third generation. The analysis is qualitatively in line with experiment and reveals a tremendously strong influence of the molecular conformation on the outermost electron momentum distributions. Quantitatively significant discrepancies with experiment can nonetheless be tentatively ascribed to strong dynamical disorder in the gas phase molecular structure.