O ensino da filosofia segundo Hegel: contribuições para a atualidade The teaching of philosophy according to Hegel
Author(s)Pedro Geraldo Aparecido Novelli
Philosophy. Psychology. Religion
DOAJ:Philosophy and Religion
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AbstractÉ possível ensinar filosofia? O filósofo alemão G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831) não somente responde afirmativamente à questão posta, como também indica o que deve ser ensinado e como em filosofia. A resposta hegeliana tem como fonte sua atividade como diretor do ginásio de Nürnberg, onde ele procura estabelecer diretrizes e procedimentos para que a filosofia seja ensinada aos jovens. Segundo Hegel, a filosofia sempre é pertinente na medida em que se manifesta sobre o que é fundamental para o homem, isto é, sobre sua vida com as questões que lhe dizem respeito. Para tanto, a filosofia deve assumir o homem como seu objeto de consideração. Isto deve resultar na apreciação da realidade humana para que a partir dela sejam levados e elevados à sua maior e melhor compreensão pela reflexão e pela especulação. Tais habilidades não são adquiridas senão pelo contato direto com a filosofia em sua especificidade na sua produção histórica, ou seja, nos textos. Conhecer a história da filosofia já é aprender filosofia, mas tal aprendizagem necessita da mediação do professor. A mediação se faz necessária, pois a aprendizagem não é natural e, portanto, não se dá espontaneamente. Aprender é sempre aprender com alguém.<br>Is it possible to teach philosophy? The German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831) not only answers positively to such question but also indicates what has to be taught in philosophy and how. Hegel's answer has as its source his activity in the High School of Nürnberg where he searches to establish the aims and the procedures so that philosophy may be taught to the young people. According to Hegel philosophy is always meaningful when it considers what is basic for men, i.e., their life with all the questions related to it. In this way philosophy has to assume the man as its object. This ends up in the consideration of the human reality as it is so that it may be better and deeper understood through reflection and speculation. These abilities can only be obtained by the direct contact with philosophy itself in what is its specifications in its historical production or in other words, its texts. To know the history of philosophy is already to learn philosophy but such learning process needs the mediation of a teacher because one does not learn naturally nor spontaneously . To learn is to learn together with someone else.
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Sexuated Topology and the Suspension of Meaning: A Non-Hermeneutical Phenomenological Approach to Textual AnalysisBailey, Steven (2014-07-31)This study assumes the subject's pursuit of meaning is generally incapacitating and should be suspended. It aims to demonstrate how such a suspension is theoretically accomplished by utilizing Lacan's formulae of sexuation integrated with his work in discourse theory and topology. Part I places this study into context by examining scholarship from the established fields of hermeneutics, phenomenology, (post)structuralism, aesthetic theory and psychoanalysis in order to extract out their respective theory of meaning. These theories reveal that an historical struggle with meaning has been underway since the Reformation and reaches near crisis proportions in the 20th century. On the one hand this crisis is mollified by the rise of Heideggerian-Gadamerian hermeneutical phenomenology which questions traditional epistemological approaches to the text using a new ontological conceptualization of meaning and a conscious rejection of methodology. On the other hand this crisis is exacerbated when the ubiquitous nature of meaning is itself challenged by (post)structuralism's discovery of the signifier which inscribes a limit to meaning, and by the domains of sense and nonsense newly opened up by aesthetic theory. These historical developments culminate in the field of psychoanalysis which most consequentially delimits a cause of meaning said to be closely linked to the core of subjectivity. Part II extends these findings by rigorously constructing out of the Lacanian sexuated formulae a decidedly non-hermeneutical phenomenological approach useful in demonstrating the sexual nature of meaning. Explicated in their static state by way of an account of their original derivation from the Aristotelian logical square, it is argued that these four formulae are relevant to basic concerns of textual theory inclusive of the hermeneutical circle of meaning. These formulae are then set into motion by integrating them with Lacan's four discourses to demonstrate the breakdown of meaning. Finally, the cuts and sutures of two-dimensional space that is topology as set down in L'étourdit are performed to confirm how the very field of meaning is ultimately suspended from a nonsensical singular point known in Lacanian psychoanalysis as objet a. The contention is that by occupying this point the subject frees himself from the debilitating grip of meaning.
El acceso racional a Dios en la Institución de la Religión Cristiana de Juan Calvino Rational access to God in John Calvin’s «Institutes of the Christian Religion»Manfres Svensson (Pontificio Seminario Mayor San Rafael Valparaíso, 2012-09-01)El presente artículo analiza los primeros cinco capítulos de Institución de la Religión Cristiana, discutiendo algunas de las principales interpretaciones que se ha ofrecido de la doctrina del sensus divinitatis ahí presentada por Calvino, y preguntando por su general pertenencia a una tradición de fe en búsqueda de comprensión.<br>The present article presents an analysis of the first five chapters of John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion, and discusses some of the main interpretations that have been advanced concerning the doctrine of the sensus divinitatis that Calvin espouses in this work.