THE SCEPTICISM IN DIDEROT OF MATURITY O CETICISMO NO DIDEROT DA MATURIDADE
Author(s)Paulo Jonas Lima Piva
Keywordsceticismo, pirronismo, Enciclopédia, Luzes Francesas.
Philosophy. Psychology. Religion
DOAJ:Philosophy and Religion
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AbstractThis paper completes a triad developed around the issue of scepticism in the enlightened thinking of Denis Diderot. The first one, entitled "The young Diderot and the scepticism of &lt;em&gt;Thoughts&lt;/em&gt;", was published in the journal &lt;em&gt;Two Points&lt;/em&gt;, in its edition devoted to the subject of scepticism (cf. PIVA, 2007), and was limited to an analysis of the problem of attitude sceptical on &lt;em&gt;Thoughts philosophical&lt;/em&gt;, in 1746. The second, "The clearing of Diderot with scepticism", published in the journal &lt;em&gt;Transformation&lt;/em&gt; (cf. PIVA, 2009), deals with two fundamental questions, this time on &lt;em&gt;The tour of the sceptic or The boulevards&lt;/em&gt;, of 1747, latest book in that the scepticism is raised to prominence by encyclopedist, since two years later he finally surrenders to the atheistic materialism. They are: 1) the interpretation that develops Diderot's scepticism and 2) its position before him. In this paper we will examine the presence of scepticism in thought diderotiano of maturity, namely the period beginning in 1749 with the drafting of the &lt;em&gt;Charter for the blind&lt;/em&gt;, considering how they and where it is addressed records in some of the most significant texts its philosophical maturity.<br>Este artigo completa uma tríade elaborada em torno da questão do ceticismo no pensamento iluminista de Denis Diderot. O primeiro deles, intitulado “O jovem Diderot e o ceticismo dos &lt;em&gt;Pensamentos&lt;/em&gt;”, foi publicado na revista &lt;em&gt;Dois Pontos&lt;/em&gt;, em sua edição dedicada ao tema do ceticismo (cf. PIVA, 2007), e limitou-se a uma análise detida do problema da postura cética nos &lt;em&gt;Pensamentos filosóficos&lt;/em&gt;, de 1746. O segundo, “O acerto de contas de Diderot com o ceticismo”, publicado na revista &lt;em&gt;Transformação&lt;/em&gt; (cf. PIVA, 2009), trata de duas questões fundamentais, desta vez em &lt;em&gt;O passeio do cético ou As alamedas&lt;/em&gt;, de 1747, último livro em que o ceticismo é evocado com destaque pelo enciclopedista, posto que dois anos depois ele se rende definitivamente ao materialismo ateu. São elas: 1) a interpretação que Diderot desenvolve do ceticismo e 2) a sua posição diante dele. Neste artigo será examinada a presença do ceticismo no pensamento diderotiano da maturidade, ou seja, no período que se inicia em 1749 com a redação da &lt;em&gt;Carta sobre os cegos&lt;/em&gt;, considerando de que modo e em que registros ele é abordado em alguns dos textos mais significativos da sua maturidade filosófica.
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Sexuated Topology and the Suspension of Meaning: A Non-Hermeneutical Phenomenological Approach to Textual AnalysisBailey, Steven (2014-07-31)This study assumes the subject's pursuit of meaning is generally incapacitating and should be suspended. It aims to demonstrate how such a suspension is theoretically accomplished by utilizing Lacan's formulae of sexuation integrated with his work in discourse theory and topology. Part I places this study into context by examining scholarship from the established fields of hermeneutics, phenomenology, (post)structuralism, aesthetic theory and psychoanalysis in order to extract out their respective theory of meaning. These theories reveal that an historical struggle with meaning has been underway since the Reformation and reaches near crisis proportions in the 20th century. On the one hand this crisis is mollified by the rise of Heideggerian-Gadamerian hermeneutical phenomenology which questions traditional epistemological approaches to the text using a new ontological conceptualization of meaning and a conscious rejection of methodology. On the other hand this crisis is exacerbated when the ubiquitous nature of meaning is itself challenged by (post)structuralism's discovery of the signifier which inscribes a limit to meaning, and by the domains of sense and nonsense newly opened up by aesthetic theory. These historical developments culminate in the field of psychoanalysis which most consequentially delimits a cause of meaning said to be closely linked to the core of subjectivity. Part II extends these findings by rigorously constructing out of the Lacanian sexuated formulae a decidedly non-hermeneutical phenomenological approach useful in demonstrating the sexual nature of meaning. Explicated in their static state by way of an account of their original derivation from the Aristotelian logical square, it is argued that these four formulae are relevant to basic concerns of textual theory inclusive of the hermeneutical circle of meaning. These formulae are then set into motion by integrating them with Lacan's four discourses to demonstrate the breakdown of meaning. Finally, the cuts and sutures of two-dimensional space that is topology as set down in L'étourdit are performed to confirm how the very field of meaning is ultimately suspended from a nonsensical singular point known in Lacanian psychoanalysis as objet a. The contention is that by occupying this point the subject frees himself from the debilitating grip of meaning.
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