• 1 & 2 Kronieke as ’n magsteks

      A. B. Geyser (AOSIS, 2006-09-01)
      <strong>1 & 2 Chronicles – a discourse of power</strong><p>This study compares Chronicles with its source documents. It is obvious that the authors of Chronicles omitted certain parts of the source documents on the other hand on the other emphasized certain aspects with a specific purpose. The result is that the Southern kingdom receives a positive evaluation, while the Northern kingdom is described in a negative light. David is presented as the ideal king and in contrast to Exodus is credited as the founder of the religious cult. The cult in Jerusalem is legitimized and proclaimed as the only true religion. In so doing the books of Chronicles without a doubt secured and legitimized the position and actions of the temple personnel. As long as the temple existed it functioned as a discourse of power within this community. As a discourse of power, it set boundaries and excluded different groups that were traditionally part of the people of YHWH. The destruction of the temple though, disempowered this text and opened up the way for it to become part of the Hebrew canon.</p>
    • 1 & 2 Kronieke as ’n magsteks

      A. B. Geyser (AOSIS, 2006-09-01)
      <strong>1 & 2 Chronicles – a discourse of power</strong><p>This study compares Chronicles with its source documents. It is obvious that the authors of Chronicles omitted certain parts of the source documents on the other hand on the other emphasized certain aspects with a specific purpose. The result is that the Southern kingdom receives a positive evaluation, while the Northern kingdom is described in a negative light. David is presented as the ideal king and in contrast to Exodus is credited as the founder of the religious cult. The cult in Jerusalem is legitimized and proclaimed as the only true religion. In so doing the books of Chronicles without a doubt secured and legitimized the position and actions of the temple personnel. As long as the temple existed it functioned as a discourse of power within this community. As a discourse of power, it set boundaries and excluded different groups that were traditionally part of the people of YHWH. The destruction of the temple though, disempowered this text and opened up the way for it to become part of the Hebrew canon.</p>
    • 1 Korintiërs 15:49b: ’n Hortatief- of futurumlesing?

      S. P. Botha (AOSIS, 1993-01-01)
      <strong>1 Corinthians 15;49b: A hortative or future reading?</strong><br /> The didactical context within chapter 15 of 1 Corinthians furnishes the reason why the publishers of the Greek New Testament and the majority of exegetes preferred the future textual variant (jopéaojiei/ in 1 Corinthians 15:49b instead of the hortative reading (jiopéaa)- which enjoys stronger textual support. In addition to convincing text-critical arguments, discourse analytical and exegetical arguments can be put forward to show that even writhin the textual context the hortative reading makes good sense.
    • 1 Thessalonians 4:1-8: The Thessalonians should live a holy life

      Eduard Verhoef (AOSIS, 2007-05-01)
      The author argues that 1 Thessalonians 4:1-8 should be considered as one coherent pericope. It shows that the term “holiest” does not refer to the god “Kabeiros”, neither that the Greek word “skeuos” means either “spouse” or referring to the male sexual organ. It rather means “body”. The article aims to argue that 1 Thessalonians 4:1-8 is a passage in which Paul urges the Thessalonians to be always pure in body and mind. Thus explained, the pericope fits in with the preceding text about the Thessalonians’ holiness at the parousia (3:13) and it prepares for the next paragraph in which the parousia of the Lord with the holy people (3:13) is discussed more thoroughly (1 Th 4:13-5:11).
    • 1, 2 en 3 Johannes: ‘n Oorsig van die huidige stand van navorsing oor die inleidingsvraagstukke

      Jan Van der Watt (AOSIS, 2011-06-01)
      <strong>1, 2 and 3 John: An overview of the current state of research on the introductory questions</strong><br /> This article has presented an overview of the most important positions taken on certain introductory issues related to 1, 2 and 3 John. The article has not focussed on the detailed discussion of problems, but has rather provided a broad overview of the most important current positions. A typical characteristic of the introductory questions is their interrelatedness. The research <em>inter alia</em> examined the way in which decisions about the relation between the Gospel and Letters of John influence the question of authorship or the place and date of the Letters and how decisions about the level of conflict in the Letters influence their sequence.
    • 2 Corinthians 11:22: Historical context, rhetoric, and ethnicity

      Dennis Duling (AOSIS, 2008-01-01)
      In this article historical criticism, rhetorical criticism and ethnicity theory are combined to interpret Paul’s boasting about his ethnicity in 2 Corinthians 11:22. Partition theory helps to establish the historical/social context that 2 Corinthians 10-13 is a fragment of the “tearful letter,” which represented the low point (high conflict) of Paul’s relations with the Corinthians. Rhetoric – the theatrical “Fool’s Speech,” which contains irony, self-praise, and comparison – helps to understand Paul’s boastful argumentation in his selfdefence; and ethnicity theory helps to interpret Paul’s construction of his ethnic identity. Paul boasted of his ethnicity by taking up rhetorical comparison and self-praise. But he did so in the so-called “Fool’s Speech”, which is full of irony: his ethnic heritage was part of his argument that he was equal to that of his opponents, but – here is the chief irony – his ethnicity “in the flesh” ultimately meant nothing to him.
    • 2 Konings 9-10: ’n Beoordeling van die Jehuvertelling as historiese bron

      J. H. Breytenbach; J. P. Oberholzer (AOSIS, 1992-01-01)
      <strong>2 Kings 9-10: An assessment of the Jehu narrative as a source of history</strong><br /> A document’s value as a source of history is determined neither by the details it provides, nor by a contemporary date of origin, but by its nature. It is argued that 2 Kings 9-10 is a deuteronomistically edited version of an original Jehu narrative. The propagandistic nature of the original narrative as a legitimizing legend for the Jehu dynasty puts it out of contention as a reliable source of history.
    • 3 Maccabees as a monomyth

      Nicholas P.L. Allen (AOSIS, 2019-11-01)
      The story of the hero, as a rite of passage, is often seen as a narratological quest, which because of the work of Campbell is now referred to as the monomyth. The basic pattern of all monomyths is an account of how a hero commences a journey, encounters a major crisis and then returns back home transformed in some way. Most importantly, this transformation not only advantages the hero but also significantly benefits the community that he or she originally hails from. Regardless of the authority concerned, the basic structure of a monomyth is tripartite, embracing the hero’s journey in three phases: departure, initiation and return. A surface reading of 3 Maccabees (cf. Charles 1913:155–173; Amir 1972:660–661) gives the impression that if one views the Jewish people as a single entity, one can infer that they too appear to play a role similar to the character of the hero in a typical monomyth or the rite of passage (initiation). This article attempts to examine this possibility in more detail. The author concludes that the narrative in 3 Maccabees, which deals with the transformation of the Jewish population in Egypt, largely conforms to the monomyth archetype but with some intriguing subtle differences.
    • 350 Years Reformed in South Africa: The contribution of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa

      Graham A. Duncan (AOSIS, 2003-11-01)
      This paper traces the development in terms of its heritage and legacy of a Reformed Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa, from its beginnings in the Scottish Mission, to the present. It notes the oppressive role of missionary dominated Mission Councils throughout most of its history as well as the formative events of the formation of the PCSA and the Mzimba Secession. This led to the establishment of an independent, albeit not autonomous church in 1923. The RPCSA had a proud record of participation in the ecumenical movement and in socio-political issues, in particular in education.
    • 4000 Jaar van soeke na God

      Frances Klopper (AOSIS, 2005-10-01)
      <strong>The 4000-year quest for God</strong><p>South Africans live in a time of growing unease amongst Afrikaansspeaking Christians about the traditional God-image of their childhood. As a con-sequence, churches are losing members – which is of concern to the church’s leaders. By referring to Karen Armstrong’s book, A History of God (1999), this article shows that rethinking the idea of God is not new and that healthy iconoclasm is part and parcel of religions as evolving and changing organisms. Over the past 4000 years, each generation created an image of God that worked for them. The article reflects on the God of Judaism, the Christian God, the God of Islam, the God of the philosophers, the mystics, the reformers and the thinkers of the Enlightenment to the eventual eclipse of God in twentieth-century Europe. The purpose of the exercise is to encourage Christians to engage with the process and create a sense of God for themselves by taking heed of the negative and positive moments in God’s long history.</p>
    • A (South) African voice on youth ministry research: Powerful or powerless?

      Shantelle Weber (AOSIS, 2015-02-01)
      Research on youth ministry in Africa and specifically South Africa traces its origin to much research conducted in America and Europe. Many African scholars also draw on research and practices within these international spheres. Empirical research on youth ministry in Africa is however of great importance. For this purpose, comparative analysis research provides a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across different countries or cultures. A major problem in comparative research is that the data sets in different countries may not use the same categories, or define categories differently. This article makes use of a faith formation case study conducted in South Africa to highlight the value of this methodology when reflecting on international research from an African perspective. The main argument of this article is that international research on youth ministry is valuable in an African context but this research needs to be culturally contextualised through using comparative analysis as a research tool. This will reflect that there are many similarities between international youth ministry and the African context but there are also many cross-cultural disparities. After comparison, differences that are unique to the African context are noted. The article focuses on South Africa as a reflection of youth ministry within the broader African context.
    • ‘A Barricade across the High Road’: C.S. Lewis on the theology of his time

      Marcel Sarot (AOSIS, 2019-10-01)
      In this article, I analyse C.S. Lewis’s attitude towards the theology and the theologians of his time. Lewis often emphasised that he was not a theologian. Sometimes he does so out of modesty, to excuse minor errors that a specialist in the field would not have made. More often than not, however, something else plays a role: Lewis’s dislike of the theology and the theologians of his time. Although he intended not to become a party in theological controversies, Lewis occasionally took sides. He expressed himself in extremely negative terms about the liberal ... movement, which in his experience... dominated the theology of his time. By assuming them to be in error, and showing how they had arrived there, he participates in the practice he elsewhere rejected as ‘Bulverism’. Moreover, he employed pejorative, sexually tinged metaphors. Only on one occasion did Lewis provide arguments for his rejection of liberal theology, and on that occasion he limited himself to New Testament exegesis. On another occasion, Lewis states that he allows only marginal, religiously irrelevant revisions of Christian doctrine. Ironically, his own revisions sometimes went beyond this – for example, in the case of the traditional doctrine of hell. In this article I suggested that for Lewis, the practice of faith implicitly is the ultimate criterion.
    • A biblical approach to the reduction of child poverty in Anambra state, Nigeria

      Uzonna F. Echeta (AOSIS, 2020-06-01)
      Child poverty reduction is one of the most important and urgent tasks that requires attention in most regions of the world, nations and Anambra state specifically. The population of impoverished children is progressively increasing in Nigeria because of economic recession and poor security situations that lead to displacement and death of their parents. Although children constitute half of the entire population, commensurate attention is not given to them to match the dimensions of poverty they face. This study argued that child poverty is multidimensional, evidenced in lack of safe drinking water, adequate nutrition, shelter, decent sanitation, medical advice or health services (immunisations) and education, to mention a few. The article highlighted the laudable efforts of the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and Anambra government and maintained that multiple strategies can help in solving this problem. To complement these efforts, the enforcement of biblical policies or principles about children’s rights would in no small measure reduce child poverty. It was concluded that a proper repositioning of children would be matched with implementation of biblical strategies. Biblical intervention could help children socially, mentally and psychologically and in their general well-being. Biblical principles would erase wrong socio-cultural notions about children.
    • A biotheology of God’s divine action in the present global ecological precipice

      Lisanne D. Winslow (AOSIS, 2022-04-01)
      Theological discourse surrounding the environmental crisis has rightly brought to the forefront human agency as a primary causal determinant. However, this article explores a theistic divine action position toward an account of the present global precipice that the earth and all its creatures teeter upon. The first section offers a preferred view of divine action theory, Divine Compositionalism, with explanatory power to account for an ever-changing planet. Furthermore, Divine Compositionalism is used to ground the role of God as Creator and sustainer of all things toward a constructive biotheology. The second section accounts for both human culpability and God’s divine action, retaining human free will and God’s sovereignty within a creation God owns and loves. The final section explores a possible remedy to the environmental precipice through the very elements of human cooperation that ensured the success of our prehistoric ancestors. A cooperative biotheology entails humanity re-claiming its inter-relation with all creatures in a world family while exercising the free will to partner with one another on a spiritual level in accomplishing God’s good and wonderful eternal ideas for the next step in human spiritual development toward earth’s physical evolution. Contribution: Drawing upon Divine Compositionalism as a new view of divine action, this article explores God’s action in the natural world as it is now and offers a biotheology that entails divine–human partnership toward an alternative future outcome.
    • A brave one-legged general: The story of Mau Mau General, Kassam Gichimu Njogu

      Julius M. Gathogo (AOSIS, 2020-12-01)
      This article sets out to demonstrate the role of the ‘one-legged devil’ (as the colonialists called Patrick Gichimu Njogu), also called General Kassam. Kassam was one of the pioneer generals of the Mau Mau, a guerrilla movement that operated from the central Kenya forests as they participated in the war of liberation from the early 1950s to the early 1960s. Was Kassam a one-legged general from the word go? Methodologically speaking, the article is partially based on interviews conducted with the general before his death at the age of 89 in 2011. Being an insider, Kassam helped to give an in-depth understanding of the Mau Mau war of independence by relating the role of the Kavirondo people of western Kenya in Mau Mau historiography. Were they enticed by the colonial government to abandon the idea of the armed struggle as a way of writing off colonialism? Or did the Kavirondo (western Kenya) embrace the theology of non-violence (and pacifism) and eventually left the central Kenya group to battle it alone? Or were the people of western Kenya dissuaded to take part in the struggle by the Christian ‘gospel of love’ that abhorred violence, leading to abandoning their colleagues from central Kenya at the last minute? Theoretically speaking, the article is largely informed by John Walton’s theory of reluctant rebels. Walton argues that rebels are always incited by the leading elites in a society that undergoes war or civil war at any given time in history. Contribution: The article contributes to growing knowledge by discussing the Mau-Mau Movement in Kenya’s quest for freedom, from the 1950s to early 1960s, to demonstrate the religious role of armed conflicts in Africa. In this case, General Kassam, a baptised Anglican Christian, whose loyalty to the ancestral pantheons drove him to the quasi-religious war of independence, is the key subject in this article. In this war of independence in Kenya, a seeming conflict between African religion and Christian religion appears as a key emerging issue. The article is relevant to the HTS Journal and the world of scholarship because it is a theo-anthropocentric piece of work which deals with God, creation, and inevitable human conflicts – all of which have answers before God.
    • A call for the restoration of orthodoxy in South African Christian theology

      B. Engelbrecht (AOSIS, 1991-01-01)
      Liberation theology can only be understood as a pseudo-theology inspired by the spirit of Marx. It is not a bona fide or leg itimate theology, but the polar opposite thereof. Its destructive aims mirror those of Marxism, which can only be understood if the demonic spirit of Marx is seen as its real origin. The Kairos Document and the Road to Damascus replaced the biblical God with the anti-god of Marx, the deified proletariat and the deified revolution. The article calls for a reconversion to God who revealed himself in Jesus Christ of Scriptures. Orthodox theology is truly ‘thisworldly’ theology, since it offers real hope and salvation. The Marxist gospel can only offer a utopia, a ‘no-place’. It is self-alienating, world-aUenating and God-alienating.
    • A canonical-literary reading of Lamentations 5

      Shinman Kang; Pieter M. Venter (AOSIS, 2009-09-01)
      This article presents a canonical and literary reading of Lamentations 5 in the context of the book of Lamentations as a whole. Following the approach by Vanhoozer (1998, 2002) based on speech-act theory, the meaning of Scripture is sought at canonical level, supervening the basic literary level. In Lamentations, as polyphonic poetic text, the speaking voices form a very important key for the interpretation of the text. In the polyphonic text of Lamentations, the shifting of the speaking voices occurs between Lamentations 1 and 4. Lamentations 5 is monologic. The theories of Bakhtin (1984) are also used to understand the book of Lamentations. In this book, chapter 5 forms the climax where Jerusalem cries to God. We cannot, however, find God’s answer to this call in Lamentations; we can find it only within the broader text of the Christian canon.
    • A care deficit? The roles of families and faith-based organisations in the lives of youth at the margins in Pretoria Central

      Marlize Rabe (AOSIS, 2018-08-01)
      After completing or dropping out of school, many young people leave their family households and in some cases they move from rural or semi-rural areas to urban centres. Faith-based organisations (FBOs) in major cities in South Africa sometimes act as a safety net for marginalised youth, especially as government departments are overburdened and not addressing all the needs of youth at the margins. This qualitative research is based on an analysis of individual and focus group interviews undertaken with young people living in the central areas of Pretoria. It is shown how families and FBOs engage as separate, although at times not unrelated, entities in the lives of youth at the margins. In certain cases, the FBO became an institution of last resort and only in rare cases is a certain synergy achieved between FBOs and families.
    • A case for organic indigenous Christianity: African Ethiopia as derivate from Jewish Christianity

      Rugare Rukuni; Erna Oliver (AOSIS, 2019-05-01)
      From its inception to the 4th century CE, Christianity experienced a formative process composite of three catalytic phases characterised by distinctive events (i.e. Jewish-Christian Schism, Hellenism and imperial intervention). From the aforementioned era emerged an orthodoxy fostered by an imperial-ecclesiastical link. There appears to have been a parallel story with regard to certain elements of African Christianity, in particular, Ethiopian Christianity. What can be made of the gap regarding Jewish Christianity combined with the absence of African Christianity from Bauer’s modular theory on heresy and orthodoxy in the development of early Christianity? Despite the dominant story of the development of an imperial religious establishment at the turn of the 4th century, could there be an alternative narrative to Christianity in the African region derivate from Ethiopia? Reviewing the emergence of a religious political Christianity in this era as modular against Ethiopian Christianity in tangent with its links with Christianity in Roman Africa, establishment of the nature and development of Ethiopian Christianity was performed. This was performed through documentary analysis. Bauer’s (1971) theory of orthodoxy and heresy in early Christianity did not exhaustively account for Jewish Christianity and North African distinct intransigent tradition characteristic of Carthage. By extension to African Egyptian, Alexandria is Ethiopian Christianity that was characterised by Judaic tradition in contrast to anti-Judaism. This established a parallel history of Christianity in Africa inclusive of Ethiopia. A review of this perspective contains contemporary momentum in view of the focus on Ethiopian Jews, for example, as religious praxis was as important as ethnicity in determining the Jewishness of whole tribes.