Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies has the perspectives of humanities and social sciences. This journal also has programs aimed at bridging the gap between the textual and contextual approaches to Islamic Studies; and solving the dichotomy between ‘orthodox' and ‘heterodox' Islam. The two were linked: the textual tradition showed that Islam was, as well as a set of religious tenets, a way of approaching the practical economic and social challenges of life. So, this journal invites the intersection of several disciplines and scholars. In other words, its contributors borrowed from a range of disciplines, including the humanities and social sciences.

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The Globethics.net library contains articles of Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies as of vol. 1(2011) to current.

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  • The dynamics and existence of Islamic party in 2019 general election: case study of Prosperous Justice Party (PKS)

    Haris, Muh; Yuwanto, Yuwanto; Yuwono, Teguh; Sardini, Nur Hidayat (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-23)
    The development of Islam in the political arena in Indonesia is interesting to be analyzed comprehensively. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existence of Islamic political parties after the 2019 simultaneous general elections. The main problem in political life in Indonesia is the decline of public trust in political parties. One of the main reasons is the corruption case that ensnared politicians. The presence of Islamic political parties is hopefully able to bring a change and alter the ugly stigma from the society towards the political parties. The method used in this paper is a qualitative method with a case study of PKS as a participant in the 2019 simultaneous general election, using an institutional assessment of the existence of political parties. The dynamics and existence of PKS before the 2019 general election were categorically high. It means that the PKS movement was active in society by offering strategic programs and policies for voters. PKS has a structured party system starting from the regeneration system to constituent treatment that can increase the number of voters in the 2019 elections. This research concludes that regeneration carried out through tarbiyah is able to instill party ideology in cadres, but fails to raise the party in a fast time. Based on the political dynamics of PKS during the Jokowi-JK administration period 2014-2019, identity politics was able to increase voter participation and increase PKS votes in the 2019 elections.
  • A progressive Islamic movement and its response to the issues of the ummah

    Qodir, Zuly; Jubba, Hasse; Hidayati, Mega; Abdullah, Irwan; Long, Ahmad Sunawari (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
    This article discusses the progressive Islamic movement developed by Muhammadiyah, a modernist Islamic organization established by Ahmad Dahlan on November 18, 1918. History has shown that Muhammadiyah, as a modernist Islamic organization, has instigated various social transformations that continue to affect Indonesian society by creating schools, hospitals, and orphanages that were inspired by modern, Westernized systems and modernist interpretations of the Qur'an. Even today, Muhammadiyah remains active in national activities and discourse, continuously responding to the ever-changing times. This article departs from the argument that the progressive movement developed by Muhammadiyah was translated from Ahmad Dahlan's desire to advance the ummah and to create a just and prosperous world, one that has been blessed by God. As such, it argues that Muhammadiyah's response to the problems of its ummah has been informed by the history of the movement and its founders.
  • Intertextuality manipulation in post-September-eleven American fiction to misinform readership

    Saraireh, Mohammad Atawi; Saraireh, Thanaa Mohammad (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
    Some novel writers in the wake of the September 11 events in the United States used a Micavillean approach to support their ideologies. Manipulation of intertextuality from Islamic resources is one strategy that is heavily employed in their publications for this purpose. In this paper, the researchers use Updike’s Terrorist, Miller’s Blindsided, and McBain’s Merely Hate to illustrate this kind of manipulation. They first cite an example, find the supposed Islamic reference material, then they discuss the issue showing how intertextuality is manipulated to misinform readership. The most employed strategies are mistranslated, partly quoted, and out of context Quranic verses; fake information; distorted ideas about women and the concept of jihad.
  • Post-truth and Islamophobia narration in the contemporary Indonesian political constellation

    MANDIRI; Syarif, Zainuddin; A. Mughni, Syafiq; Hannan, Abd (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
    This article discusses the phenomenon of post-truth politics, role, and its influence on the return of Islamophobic narratives in the dynamics of Indonesian political constellation. There are three main issues discussed in this study: post-truth, Islamophobia in Indonesia, and contemporary Indonesian political constellation. Using qualitative research and analysis of critical theory perspectives, this study found that the development of post-truth political practices indirectly evokes the narrative of Islamophobia in contemporary Indonesian political constellation. The return of the Islamophobia can be seen in three ways. First, the practice of post-truth politics which is rooted in the politicization of religion and ethnicity, it gives negative impact not only because of unhealthy process of leadership circulation in Indonesia, but has also faltered the reality of Indonesia's plurality as a pluralist state, both in terms of ethnicity and religion. Second, post-truth political practices in which contain propaganda, intimidation, lies and hate speech have stimulated the rise of sentiment towards religious social groups, as happened in the “212 Movement”. Third, the return of Islamophobic narratives due to political Post-truth appears to be increasing clashes and practices of religious intolerance in Indonesia, where intolerance is practiced by the majority against minority groups. Artikel ini mengkaji fenomena politik post-truth, peran dan pengaruhnya terhadap kembalinya narasi Islamophobia dalam dinamika konstelasi politik Indonesia kontemporer. Terdapat tiga permasalahan pokok yang dibahas dalam kajian ini: post-truth, Islamophobia, dan konstelasi politik Indonesia kontemporer. Dengan menggunakan jenis penelitian kualitatif dan analisis perspektif teori kritis, studi ini mendapati temuan bahwa berkembangnya praktik politik post-truth, secara tidak langsung telah membangkitkan kembali narasi Islamophobia dalam konstelasi politik Indonesia kontemporer. Kembalinya narasi Islamophobia tersebut terlihat dalam tiga hal. Pertama, praktik politik post-truth yang berakar pada politisasi agama dan etnisitas, telah menimbulkan dampak negatif bukan saja pada tidak sehatnya proses sirkulasi kepemimpinan di Indonesia, namun juga telah membuat goyah realitas kemajemukan Indonesia sebagai negara pluralis, baik dari segi etnisitas maupun agama. Kedua, praktik politik post-truth yang di dalamnya berisikan propaganda, intimidasi, dan kebohongan, telah menstimulus bangkitnya sentimen terhadap kelompok-kelompok sosial keagamaan, seperti yang terjadi dalam gerakan Aksi Bela Islam 212. Ketiga, kembalinya narasi Islamophobia akibat politik post-truth nampak pada semakin meningkatnya benturan dan praktik intoleransi keagamaan di Indonesia, di mana intoleransi dilakukan oleh kelompok mayoritas terhadap kelompok minoritas.
  • Islamophobia in education: perceptions on the use of veil/niqab in higher education

    Department of Educational Research and Evaluation, Graduate School, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta; Cahyo Adi Kistoro, Hanif; Kartowagiran, Badrun; Latipah, Eva; Naim, Ngainun; Putranta, Himawan; Minggele, Darmanto (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
    The phenomenon of the development of the veil in Indonesia, especially among higher education has become a concern lately. This is due to the view of the public about the relationship between the use of the veil with the influence of certain ideologies. This research aims to determine the reasons and motivations for the use of the veil among female students, perceptions received in the surrounding environment, and obstacles encountered. This research uses a phenomenological approach as part of qualitative research. Participants in this research were 12 female students from private universities in Yogyakarta. The method of in-depth interviews using interview guide instruments becomes a technique in collecting data. Data analysis using semantic reduction is done by identifying important statements from the results of the interview, determining the theme of the discussion, and describing the significance of the whole experience of veiled students. The results showed that there were five main themes in the use of the veil in higher education, namely the average age of female students who used veil, motivation and reasons for using a veil, perceptions from within themselves and their environment, constraints encountered, and consistency in wearing a veil. Some of the findings obtained are certainly new references that need to be further developed. Therefore, knowledge about Islamophobia especially the perception of the phenomenon of the veil is important for educational institutions in determining policy and for the community to be a reference in dealing with the phenomenon.
  • Ideology deconstruction of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) returnees in Indonesia

    Rahmanto, Didik Novi; Meliala, Adrianus Eliasta; Lolo, Ferdinand Andi (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
    This paper discusses the problem of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) foreign terrorist fighters who return to Indonesia, or called returnees. The establishment of ISIS in Syria and its propaganda related to the Khilafah attracted many Muslims in the world to emigrate, jihad, and settle in Syria. After the defeat suffered by ISIS in various regions in Syria, finally many of these foreign terrorist fighters returned to their respective countries of origin. So far, there has been a lot of literature and research that explains the potential threats related to the return of foreign terrorist fighters to their home countries. However, by studying Indonesian returnees, this research found that returnees returned and decided not to be part of a terrorist group network in Indonesia anymore. This change of understanding becomes interesting to be analysed further so that things get changed in their understanding so that they no longer want to be affiliated with ISIS or terrorist groups who are committed to ISIS. This research is basic research that aims to explore new issues. Changes in the understanding of Muslim groups that initially supported ISIS can change. This phenomenon examined using Just World Theory and Deconstruction to find out what factors influence the change in understanding. The results found several factors such as family, feeling uncomfortable, the cruelty of ISIS, experiencing sexual violence, expectations, and teachings in the Quran and Hadits.
  • Understanding the delivery of Islamophobic hate speech via social media in Indonesia

    Kastolani, Kastolani (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
    Various prior studies on Islamophobia had largely utilized Western perspectives.This occurred on account of Islam and Muslims being a minority group that is considered as a threat to the majority. This article discusses the delivery of Islamophobic hate speech via social media in the context of Indonesia, where the majority of the population are Muslims. This study found that the delivery of hate speech concerning via social media in the Indonesian context can be understood in three different manners, namely: First, Islamophobia is a reaction to religious sermons delivered by Muslim pundits discrediting other religions, particularly the Christian faith. Second, Islamophobia is a form of freedom of expression for netizens in Indonesia’s current democratic climate. Third, Islamophobia is a form of identity politics for netizens on social media due to the impact of religious based political polarization. Subsequently, this study contributes a new understanding of Islamophobia within the context of Muslims as the majority and of netizens’ activities on social media in Indonesia. The research data were obtained by observing Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and Twitter timelines containing Islamophobic hate speech that had gone viral on social media. Berbagai penelitian sebelumnya tentang Islamophobia sebagian besar telah memanfaatkan perspektif Barat. Artikel ini mendiskusikan penyampaian ujaran kebencian Islamophobia melalui media sosial dalam konteks Indonesia sebagai negara yang mayoritas penduduknya penganut agama Islam (muslim). Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa penyampaian ujaran kebencian tentang Islamophobia melalui media sosial dalam konteks Indonesia dapat dibaca sebagai tiga hal, yaitu: Pertama, Islamophobia merupakan reaksi terhadap ceramah keagamaan dari kalangan agamawan muslim yang mendiskreditkan agama lain, terutama keyakinan agama Kristen. Kedua, Islamophobia merupakan bentuk kebebasan berekspresi bagi netizen dalam iklim demokrasi di Indonesia saat ini. Ketiga, Islamophobia merupakan bentuk politik identitas netizen di media sosial karena dampak polarisasi politik berbasis keagamaan. Sehingga, penelitian ini berkontribusi terhadap pemahaman baru tentang Islamophobia dalam konteks muslim sebagai mayoritas dan aktivitas netizen di media sosial di Indonesia. Data penelitian diperoleh dari pengamatan terhadap media social seperti facebook, Instagram, YouTube dan Twitter yang memuat ujaran kebencian tentang Islamophobia yang viral di media social.
  • Orientation of religiosity and radicalism: the dynamic of an ex-terrorist’s religiosity

    UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta Post-Doctoral Program; Aryani, Sekar Ayu (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
    Recognition of the religious motives and orientations of acts of radicalism and terrorism is often preached by mass media. The religious motive in the context of Islamic radicalism is often referred to the term of jihad, it is the act of seeking Allah's blessings or Lillahi ta'ala. The motive or religious orientation in the view of Religious Psychology is called an intrinsic religious orientation, turning religion a goal of action because of religion itself. This is distinguished from the extrinsic religious orientation that makes religion as a tool for obtaining subjective goals. We aim to understand to what extent the consistency of recognition is viewed from the perspective of religious orientation theory. This is because there is often an inconsistency between claimed motives with attitude. To examine more deeply on this issue, we raised the case of the dynamics of the religious orientation of a former terrorist, Yusuf Adirama, who experienced the dynamics and religious orientation changes of a radical and terrorist into a moderate one. This research reveals that in the case of Yusuf Adirama, the meaning of jihad could change over time following his life experience. Jihad, originally interpreted as taking up arms against the enemies of God, has turned into opposing various acts of violence and helping the needy (Dhuafa) who need help, including those caused by terrorism, both for the perpetrator and victim.
  • A political ideology of the Indonesian Islamic philanthropy institution: a case study of Suryakarta Beramal foundation

    Sebelas Maret University; Triatmo, Agus Wahyu; Karsidi, Ravik; Kartono, Drajat Tri; Suwarto, Suwarto (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
    This present research studies the ideologization practices of the Islamic philanthropy institution managed by the civil society in Indonesia: a case study of Suryakarta Beramal Foundation. A qualitative method with a case study approach was employed. Data was collected using in-depth interviews, observations and documentation techniques and then inductively analyzed. The results show that Suryakarta Beramal is a philanthropy institution ideologically affiliated withthe Tarbiyah movement. Most of the collected Islamic philanthropy funds: zakat, (alms-giving), infak (infaq), sadaqah (donation) and wakaf (religious endowment) were provided to finance the educational institution possessed by Suryakarta Beramal, except for poverty alleviation; the educational institution also functions as an ideologization medium. Ideologization was conducted through curriculum engineering, holding various events such as smart recharging, liqa, mabit, rihlah and halaqah and students’ habituation, starting from using uniforms for religious activities either at school or in the dormitory. The result of the ideologization is that the alumni of the school of Suryakarta Beramal became the loyalists of the Tarbiyah ideology and are affiliated with Partai Adil Makmur (PAM) (Just and Affluent Party) as the political wing of the Tarbiyah movement in Indonesia.
  • Representation of Indonesian women workers: a critical discourse analysis on the newspapers of nationalist-secular and Islamic ideological perspectives

    Badara, Aris; Jamiludin, Jamiludin (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
    The purpose of this study is to reveal the representation of women workers in newspaper news discourse that follows the nationalist-secular ideology and the Islamic ideology perspectives. The method of this research is a qualitative content analysis that views the text as a symbolic message and it requires interpretation according to the context. Complementing the research method, a critical discourse analysis approach is also used. The subjects of this research are female workers found in newspaper news discourse that carries the values of Islamic ideology and newspapers that carry nationalist-secular ideology. Data were analyzed through critical discourse analysis techniques in the following steps: (a) description; (b) interpretation; and (c) explanation. This research still considers checking the reliability and the validity. Data analysis is also complemented by confirmation of linguists and peers (triangulation of sources). The main findings of this study show that the practice of discourse in the RM newspaper which follows the nationalist-secular ideology perspective represents marginal women. By the RM newspaper, the representation is used as a plea for the actions and trait of male actors or employers. The motive revealed from this phenomenon is to follow the demand of the market. On the other hand, the newspaper R, which tends to follow Islamic ideology perspective, represents the motive of advocacy for women workers. This is the implication of the values of Islamic ideology carried out by the R newspaper as mentioned in its vision and mission. The findings are also the antithesis of the view that Islam isolates women in the social sphere of society.Tujuan penelitian ini ialah mengungkap representasi pekerja perempuan pada wacana berita surat kabar yang berpresfektif ideologi nasionalis-sekuler dan surat kabar yang berpersfektif ideologi Islam. Metode penelitian ini ialah analisis isi kualitatif yang memandang teks sebagai suatu pesan simbolik yang perlu diinterpretasi sesuai dengan konteks. Melengkapi metode penelitian tersebut, digunakan pendekatan analisis wacana kritis. Latar penelitian ini ialah pekerja perempuan yang terdapat pada wacana berita surat kabar yang megusung nilainilai ideologi Islam dan surat kabar yang mengusung ideologi nasionalis-sekuler. Data dianalisis melalui teknik analisis wacana kritis dengan langkah: deskripsi, interpretasi, dan eksplanasi. Penelitian ini tetap mempertimbangkan checking the reliability dan checking the validity. Analisis data dilengkapi comfirmability melalui pakar bahasa dan sejawat (trianggulasi sumber). Temuan utama penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa praktik wacana pada berita Surat kabar Rakyat Merdeka yang berideologi nasionalis-sekuler merepresentasi perempuan secara marjinal. Representasi tersebut dijadikan pleidoi atas perlakuan majikan. Motif yang diungkap ialah mengikuti permintaan ‘pasar’. Adapun Surat Kabar Republika, cenderung ke ideologi Islam, merepresentasi pekerja perempuan secara apa adanya dengan motif untuk melakukan advokasi. Hal tersebut merupakan implikasi dari nilai-nilai ideologi Islam yang diemban oleh surat Kabar tersebut. Temuan tersebut juga menjadi antitesis dari pandangan yang menyatakan Islam melakukan pengucilan terhadap perempuan dalam sosial-kemasyarakatan.
  • Misinterpretation of patience: an analytical study of nerimo concept within Indonesian Muslim society

    IAIN Salatiga; Kuswaya, Adang; Ma'mun, Sukron (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
    This research aims to deeply explore the nerimo concept in Javanese Muslim society. Nerimo as the philosophy of Javanese culture is often associated with the concept of patience in Islamic doctrine. This research shows that there are a misconception understanding and practice among the Javanese Muslims regarding the concept of nerimo and patience. They tend to express nerimo and patience as a practice of passivity, static, and blind submission to all problems of life. This causes the values contained those concepts to be reduced and lose the spirit of liberation for the life of mankind. By employing a liberation hermeneutic approach and sociological analysis, this research concludes that the nerimo concept in Javanese Muslim could be reconstructed into a Javanese idea that implies human endurance in every period of life. The concepts of nerimo and patience alternately are a form of psychological, spiritual, and intellectual awareness that every life has a periodic motion where every person will surely experience life fluctuations. Then the principle of patience and nerimo become a catalyst for the position of life to turn it back into motion. Patience and nerimo, therefore, are not placed as results but are situated as the power of a continuity life process which can drive people surpassing one stage of their lives.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi konsep nerimo dalam masyarakat Muslim Jawa. Nerimo sebagai filosofi budaya Jawa sering dikaitkan dengan konsep kesabaran dalam doktrin Islam. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ada pemahaman dan praktik miskonsepsi di kalangan Muslim Jawa tentang konsep nerimo dan kesabaran. Mereka cenderung mengekspresikan nerimo dan kesabaran sebagai praktik kepasifan, statis, dan kepatuhan buta terhadap semua masalah kehidupan. Ini menyebabkan nilai-nilai yang terkandung dalam konsep-konsep tersebut menjadi berkurang dan kehilangan semangat pembebasan bagi kehidupan umat manusia. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan hermeneutika pembebasan dan analisis sosiologis, penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa konsep nerimo dalam Muslim Jawa sebenarnya dapat direkonstruksi menjadi gagasan Jawa yang menyiratkan ketahanan manusia dalam setiap periode kehidupan. Konsep nerimo dan kesabaran secara bergantian adalah bentuk kesadaran psikologis, spiritual, dan intelektual bahwa setiap kehidupan memiliki gerakan periodik di mana setiap orang pasti akan mengalami fluktuasi kehidupan. Maka prinsip kesabaran dan nerimo menjadi katalisator bagi posisi hidup untuk mengubahnya kembali menjadi gerak. Kesabaran dan nerimo, oleh karena itu, tidak ditempatkan sebagai hasil tetapi ditempatkan sebagai kekuatan dari proses kehidupan berkelanjutan yang mampu mendorong orang melampaui satu tahap kehidupan mereka.
  • Inter-subjectivity of khalwat (suluk) members in the tarekat Naqsyabandiyah Khalidiyah Ponorogo

    Yusuf, S Maryam (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
    Naqshbandiyah is one of the names of tarekat that still exist in the Islamic world for 8 centuries (12-20 AD) because it has successfully carried out Islamization using cultural approach. Khalwat dar anjuman or ‘seclusion from the crowd’ is the main method of training and spiritual discipline to defend Islamic beliefs and values from the various crises of modern human life, which leads to spiritual emptiness.Assumption on khalwat causing someone to behave exclusively towards his/her environment is very interesting to study. Phenomenological research using Max Weber’s sociology of religion approach is used to find motives and symbolic meanings of student behavior (salik) that follow khalwat (suluk) in Tarekat Naqshbandiyah of Durisawo Ponorogo. The results of research show that, first,belief in kharisma murshid of Tarekat Naqsyabandiyah Khalidiyah is a gift from Allah SWT that is able to assist students in enhancing their spiritual experience (religious motives) and overcoming various problem that interfere both physical and psychological states, making them be more socially and morally intelligent in their lives (individual motives). Second, khalwat (suluk) has a subjective meaning for a student during his way to reach maqamat (station) until he is given the highest spiritual experience in the degree of ma’rifatullah by doing dhikr, muraqabah, kwayani, tawajuh, uzlah. Khalwat (suluk) also means intersubjective for salik during the interaction with murshid teacher through rabithah murshid, talqin, bai'at, sungkem tradition, and pilgrimage of murshid teacher’s grave. Third, the implication of students’ behavior after attending khalwat is they have calm and happy heart to be involved in social life in their environment according to their respective professions manifested in the form of social care in overcoming poverty and giving attention to orphans through daily social charity activities and donation. Khalwat participants have become intersubjective humans because they have been able to find their qualities in understanding reality.Naqsyabandiyah sebagai salah satu nama tarekat yang terbukti tetap eksis di dunia Islam selama 8 abad (12-20 M) karena berhasil melakukan Islamisasi dengan pendekatan kultural. Khalwat dar anjuman atau ‘menyepi di tengah keramaian’ sebagai metode utama pelatihan dan disiplin spiritual untuk mempertahankan keyakinan dan nilai-nilai Islam dari berbagai krisis kehidupan manusia modern yang menyebabkan kehampaan spiritual. Anggapan bahwa khalwat menyebabkan sesorang berikap ekskusif terhadap lingkungannya sangat menarik untuk diteliti.  Penelitian fenomenologis dengan pendekatan sosiologi agama Max Weber ini untuk menemukan motif dan makna simbolik dari perilaku murid (salik) yang mengikuti khalwat  (suluk) dalam tarekat Naqsyabandiyah Khalidiyah Durisawo Ponorogo. Hasil penelitian menemukan: pertama, kepercayaan pada kharisma mursyid tarekat Naqsyabandiyah Khalidiyah sebagai anugerah Allah SWT yang mampu membantu murid dalam meningkatkan pengalaman spiritualnya (motif agama) dan menyelesaikan beragam ujian, cobaan fisik dan psikis agar semakin cerdas secara social dan moral dalam kehidupannya (motif individu). Kedua, khalwat (suluk) memiliki makna subyektif bagi seorang murid dalam usahanya mencapai maqamat (station) hingga diberikan pengalaman ruhaniah tertinggi derajat ma’rifatullah dengan memperbanyak dzikir, muraqabah, kwajikan, tawajuh, uzlah,; dan khalwat (suluk) juga bermakna intersubyektif bagi salik melalui interaksinya dengan guru mursyid melalui rabithah mursyid, talqin, bai’at, tradisi sungkem, ziarah kubur guru mursyid. Ketiga, Implikasi perilaku murid setelah mengikuti khalwat adalah dengan hati yang tenang dan bahagia bisa terlibat dalam kehidupan sosial kemasyarakatan di lingkungannya sesuai profesi masing-masing diwujudkan dalam bentuk kepedulian sosial dalam mengentaskan kemiskinan dan perhatiannya kepada anak yatim melalui kegiatan amal sosial harian dan santunan. Peserta khalwat telah menjadi manusia yang intersubyektif, karena telah mampu mencari kualitas dirinya dalam memahami realitas.
  • The demise of moderate Islam: new media, contestation, and reclaiming religious authorities

    Akmaliah, Wahyudi (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
    The landscape of the Indonesian public sphere amidst the rise of new media has opened both opportunities and threats dealing with Islamic teaching. This condition shapes a danger for the two largest of moderate Muslim Organisations (Muhammadiyah and Nahdatul Ulama/NU), in which they do not engage a lot of this development of the digital platform. Consequently, dealing with religious issues, their voices become voiceless. By employing desk research through some relevant references and collecting information from social media, specifically Instagram and Youtube, this article examines the role of the Islamic organization of moderate Islam in the rapid of the digital platform as the new of the public sphere. The article finds that they have difference respond to dealing with the presence of the new religious authorities. In comparison, while Muhammadiyah is more accepting of them calmly, NU is more reactively in responding.Lanskap ruang publik Indonesia di tengah muncunya media sosial membuka kesempatan sekaligus ancaman terkait dengan dakwah Islam. Hal itu merupakan ancaman bagi dua organisasi besar Moderat Islam di Indonesia (Muhammadiyah dan NU), di mana mereka menjadi kelompok minoritas dalam aktivitas dakwah online. Akibatnya, berkaitan dengan issu-isu keagamaan, suara mereka menjadi tidak terdengar/didengarkan. Dengan melakukan riset studi literatur yang relevan dan informasi yang didapatkan dari akun media sosial, khususnya Instagram dan Youtube, artikel ini menjelaskan peranan organisasi Islam moderat di tengah cepatnya platform digital di ruang publik. Artikel ini menemukan bahwa Muhammadiyah dan NU memiliki respon yang berbeda terkait dengan kehadiran otoritas keagamaan baru. Sebagai perbandingan, penerimaan Muhammadiyah terhadap kehadiran mereka terlebih lebih biasa ketimbang dengan NU yang reaktif.
  • Islamism and nationalism among niqabis women in Egypt and Indonesia

    DIKTIS MORA; Dzuhayatin, Siti Ruhaini (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
    The phenomenon of the increasing number of niqabis in Indonesia and Egypt has become concern to the government, academics and also civil society. This is due to the involvement of the niqabis or women with the niqab in terrorist networks. The piece of clothing covering the face is not merely a manifestation of faith but it apparently entails a certain ideological doctrine of the so-called Islam kaffah (ultimate Islam) through the establishemnt of Islamic khilafah (Islamic caliphate) as opposed to democracy and modern state. This study aims at observing the extent to which the niqabis negotiate Islam and their nationalism in their respective countries in Indonesia and Egypt where Muslims constitute the majority of the population. This study employed a mix of methods, qualitative and quantitative, involving 205 Niqabis from Indonesia and 87 niqabis from Egypt. The quantitative data were obtained from 292 respondents, while the qualitiative data were collected from 27 niqabis using in-depth interviews through life story technique—6 Egyptians and 21 Indonesians. A number of 12 prominent figures in Egypt and Indonesia were interviewed and two focus group discussions were conducted in both countries involving women activists, academics, government employees, and religious leaders. The framework of this study is the contestation between Islamism and nationalism. This study indicated that there is a significant difference between the niqabis of Indonesia and Egypt in terms of their perception of national pride. Around 30 percent of Indonesian niqabis are not proud of being Indonesian citizens while in Egypt only about 3 percent. Bank interest is used to measure their Islamic refinement through which Niqabis in both countries share a similar view, where almost 90% of them believe that the practice is not Islamic. Moreover, more than 50% support the Caliphate system, which means that one in four niqabis considers that the existing government is thoghut (non Islamic) and nearly 15% agree to defend Islam by means of violence.Fenomena berkembangnya niqabis di Indonesia dan Mesir menjadi perhatian seksama pemerintah, akademisi dan juga masyarakat sipil. Hal ini disebabkan keterlibatan perempuan dalam jaringan teroris yang umumnya menggunakan niqab, sehingga diduga bahwa selembar kain penutup wajah ini tidak semata simbul ketaqwaan tetapi ada bagian dari doktrin ideologi yang melawan sistem yang ada. Pada umumnya, ideologi ini bermaksud mendirikan sistem caliphate yang dilawankan dengan demokrasi dan bentuk negara republik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejauhmana tingkat Islamisme dan nasionalisme para niqabis di Indonesia dan Mesir, sebagai negara dengan mayoritas Muslim. Penelitian ini menggunakan mix-methode, kualitatif dan kuantitatif yang melibatkan 205 Niqabis dari Indonesia dan 87 niqabis dari Mesir. Data kuantitatif diperoleh dari 209 responden melalui kuesioner sedangkan data kualitatif diperoleh melalui wawancara mendalam dengan teknis kisah hidup sebanyak 27, 6 Niqabis Mesir dan 21 Niqabis Indonesia. Disamping itu, dilakukan wawancara dengan 12 tokoh dan dilaksanakan dua diskusi terfokus dengan politisi, aktivis perempuan, akademisi, pegawai pemerintah, dan pemimpin agama. Penelitian ini menggunakan kerangka kerja kontestasi Islamisme dan nasionalisme yang menunjukan hasil sebagai berikut: ada perbedaan signifikan antara niqabis kedua negara pada aspek kebanggaan sebagai warga negara. Hampir 30 persen niqabis Indonesia tidak bangga menjadi WNI sedangkan di Mesir hanya sekitar 3 persen. Jasa Bank digunakan untuk mengukur kehidupan Islami yang menunjukkan kecenderungan sama, meski dengan prosentase yang sedikit berbeda, yaitu lebih dari 90% tidak setuju dengan bunga bank. Terkait dengan politik, lebih dari 50% setuju dengan sistem caliphate dan 1 dari 4 niqabis setuju bahwa pemerintah saat ini thoghut dan sekitar 15 orang setuju menggunakan kekerasan dalam membela negara.
  • The Influence of Ottoman Empire on the conservation of the architectural heritage in Jerusalem

    shehada, Ziad M (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
    Jerusalem is one of the oldest cities in the world. It was built by the Canaanites in 3000 B.C., became the first Qiblaof Muslims and is the third holiest shrine after Mecca and Medina. It is believed to be the only sacred city in the world that is considered historically and spiritually significant to Muslims, Christians, and Jews alike. Since its establishment, the city had been subjected to a series of changes as the result of political, economic and social developments that affected the architectural formation through successive periods from the beginning leading up to the Ottoman Era, which then achieved relative stability. The research aims to examine and review the conservation mechanisms of the architectural buildings during the Ottomans rule in Jerusalem for more than 400 years, and how the Ottoman Sultans had contributed in revitalizing and protecting the city from loss and extinction. The researcher followed the historical interpretive method using descriptive analysis based on a literature review and preliminary study to determine Ottoman practices in conserving the historical and architectural heritage of Jerusalem. The research found that the Ottoman efforts towards conserving the architectural heritage in Jerusalem fell into four categories (Renovation, Restoration, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation). The Ottomans focused on the conservation of the existing buildings rather than new construction, because of their respect of local traditions and the holy places.Yerusalem adalah salah satu kota tertua di dunia. Dibangun oleh orang-orang Kanaan pada 3000 SM, kota ini menjadi kiblat pertama umat Islam dan merupakan tempat suci ketiga setelah Mekkah dan Madinah. Kota ini diyakini sebagai satu-satunya kota suci di dunia yang dianggap penting secara historis dan spiritual bagi umat Islam, Kristen, dan Yahudi. Sejak didirikan, kota ini telah mengalami serangkaian perubahan sebagai akibat dari perkembangan politik, ekonomi dan sosial yang memengaruhi pembentukan arsitektur melalui periode-periode berturut-turut dari awal menuju era Ottoman, yang kemudian mencapai stabilitas relatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji dan meninjau mekanisme konservasi bangunan arsitektur selama pemerintahan Ottoman di Yerusalem selama lebih dari 400 tahun, dan bagaimana Sultan Ottoman telah berkontribusi dalam merevitalisasi dan melindungi kota dari kehilangan dan kepunahan. Peneliti mengikuti metode interpretif historis dan analisis deskriptif berdasarkan tinjauan literatur dan studi pendahuluan untuk menentukan praktik Ottoman dalam melestarikan warisan sejarah dan arsitektur Yerusalem. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa upaya Ottoman ke arah pelestarian warisan arsitektur di Yerusalem jatuh ke dalam empat kategori (Renovasi, Restorasi, Rekonstruksi dan Rehabilitasi). Ottoman berfokus pada konservasi bangunan yang ada daripada konstruksi baru, karena rasa hormat mereka terhadap tradisi lokal dan tempat-tempat suci. 
  • Anti-Shia mass mobilization in Indonesia’s democracy: godly alliance, militant groups and the politics of exclusion

    IAIN Jember; Amal, M Khusna (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
    This article examines violence against religious minorities, especially Shia groups in the democracy of Indonesia, focusing particularly on the case of the 2016 anti-Milad Fatimah (Fatimah Birth Commemoration) mass mobilization performed by IJABI (The all-Indonesia Assembly of Ahlul Bait Associations) in Bondowoso, East Java, Indonesia. This article finds that the anti-Milad Fatimah mass mobilization involved alliances and conspiracy between Godly Muslim groups with a varied agenda. Sunni militant groups from the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), FPI (Islamic Defenders Front), Wahabi/Salafi, and Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) groups, which merged into FOKUS (Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama'ah Communication Forum), were the main protagonists who played a key role in driving mass mobilization. Unlike previous studies that understood the anti-Shia movement merely as a form of affirming Islamic orthodoxy, this study finds evidence that there were wider agendas than the theological ones. Excluding the Shia from capturing Islamic public space, and challenging religious authority and local power which was dominated by moderate Muslim groups, were the socio-political agendas which contributed to the anti-Milad Fatimah mass mobilization. The involvement of radical Islamist groups such as the activists of the Tarbiyah and HTI is a sign that there is a strong political agenda behind mass mobilization. However, the ultimate goal of applying Islamic Sharia will never fade from the religious movements of Islamist groups.Studi ini mengkaji kekerasan terhadap minoritas agama khususnya kelompok Shia di Indonesia era demokrasi. Tulisan memilih kasus aksi mobilisasi massa anti-Milad Fatimah yang dilaksanakan oleh IJABI (Ikatan Jama’ah Ahlul Bait Indonesia), Bondowoso, Jawa Timur pada 2016. Tulisan ini memeroleh temuan yang menarik bahwa aksi mobilisasi massa anti-Milad Fatimah, melibatkan aliansi longgar di antara kelompok-kelompok Godly Muslim dengan agendanya yang tidak tunggal. Kelompok-kelompok militant Sunni dari kalangan NU, FPI, Wahabi/Salafi dan HTI, yang menggabungkan diri ke dalam FOKUS (Forum Komunikasi Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah), merupakan aktor-aktor utama yang berperan penting dalam memobilisir aksi massa tersebut. Berbeda dari kajiankajian yang umumnya memahami gerakan anti-Shi’ah sebagai bentuk peneguhan ortodoksi Islam atupun homogenisasi Islam Indonesia, studi ini mendapati temuan yang jauh lebih besar dan kompleks dari sekedar agenda teologis itu. Mengekslusi Shi’ah dari ruang public Islam dan menantang otoritas keagamaan dan kekuasaan local yang didominasi oleh kelompok-kelompok Muslim moderat merupakan sejumlah agenda sosio-politik yang turut mewarnai aksi massa itu. Keterlibatan kelompok-kelompok Islamisme radikal seperti aktivis Gerakan Tarbiyah dan Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), menjadi sinyalemen cukup kuat adanya agenda politis di balik aksi massa. Bagaimanapun, imaginasi dan citacita penerapan syari’at Islam tidak akan pernah pudar dari gerakan keagamaan kelompok-kelompok Islamis.
  • Violence in online media and its implication to Islamic education of Indonesia

    Aly, Abdullah; Thoyibi, Muhammad (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
    This article focused on two aspects. In aspect one we focused on the respond of online media to the issues of violence in Indonesia, especially Suara Muhammadiyah Online and Nahdhatul Ulama Online. In aspect two we recommend that the results of this study be the basis for developing Islamic education in Indonesia. Data collection was conducted by document study to texts of Suara Muhammadiyah Online as well as Nahdhatul Ulama Online, especially the issues of violence in Indonesia. The data were analyzed with discourse analysis used social semiotics model of Halliday, M.A.K. The study found that Muhammadiyah and NU had the same response to the issues of violence in Indonesia as social problems which should be denied. Both reject any form of violence, although they differ in detail the types of violence and the reasons for the rejection of violent cases in Indonesia. Furthermore, the results of the study recommended selecting both teaching materials and learning methods. Both were the opinions of Ibn Miskawayh and Naquib al-Attas and were further offered as a strategy to reduce the cases of violence that have occurred in Indonesia.Artikel ini fokus pada dua aspek: fokus pertama pada tanggapan media online terhadap isu-isu kekerasan di Indonesia, terutama Suara Muhammadiyah Online dan Nahdhatul Ulama Online; fokus kedua adalah pada rekomendasi bahwa hasil penelitian ini menjadi dasar untuk mengembangkan pendidikan Islam di Indonesia. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan studi dokumen teks-teks Suara Muhammadiyah Online serta Nahdhatul Ulama Online, terutama yang terkait dengan masalah kekerasan di Indonesia. Data dianalisis dengan analisis wacana yang menggunakan model semiotika sosial Halliday, M.A.K. Studi ini menemukan bahwa Muhammadiyah dan NU memiliki respons yang sama terhadap masalah kekerasan di Indonesia sebagai masalah sosial yang harus ditolak. Keduanya menolak segala bentuk kekerasan, meskipun mereka berbeda secara rinci mengenai jenis kekerasan dan alasan penolakan terhadap kasus kekerasan di Indonesia. Selanjutnya, hasil penelitian merekomendasikan memilih bahan ajar dan metode pembelajaran yang dikemukakan oleh Ibn Miskawayh dan Naquib al-Attas dan selanjutnya ditawarkan sebagai strategi untuk mengurangi kasus-kasus kekerasan yang terjadi di Indonesia.
  • Al-Muqarabah al-manhajiyyah bayn al-mi'yariyyah wa al-tarikhiyyah wa atsaruhuma fi al-fkir al-diny: ru'yah naqdiyah

    Tamam, Abas Mansur (IAIN Salatiga, 2012-06-01)
    Dalam diskursus pemikiran modern, pendekatan dan metode menempati posisi problematik karena mampu melahirkan ragam pemikiran akibat ragam pendekatan. Aspek ini juga merupakan dasar bagi orientasi-orientasi pemikran dalam diskursus pemikiran Islam modern. Pendekatan normativisme menjadikan teks-teks al-Qur'an dan hadis pijakan dasar keberagamaan, sementara itu pendekatan historisisme menjadikan realitas sebagai titik tolak bagi keberagamaan. Dalam pandangan penganut pendekatan historisisme, perubahan realitas merupakan pintu masuk bagi relativitas   pemikiran-pemikiran   agama   dan  skeptisisme   bagi   keberadaan sesuatu  yang  mapan seputar  agama.  Sementara  itu,  penganut  pendekatan normativisme,   seiring   dengan  fokus   perhatian   mereka  terhadap   realitas, menolak  kecenderungan pendekatan  historisisme mengingat adanya  prinsip- prinsip mapan dalam agama yang  tidak akan  berubah mengikuti  perubahan waktu dan tempat.  Di samping  itu, ada juga aspek-aspek yang selalu berubah dan tunduk kepada  perubahan waktu dan tempat.
  • Religious conflict and regional autonomy in church establishment and Islamic clothing in West Pasaman and Dharmasraya West Sumatera

    Burhanuddin, Nunu; Nurdin, Ahmad Ali; Helmy, Muhammad Irfan (IAIN Salatiga, 2019-12-25)
    This paper analyses how religious minorities in West Pasaman and Dharmasraya have been disturbed by the implementation of regional autonomy policies. By examining the church establishment and Islamic clothing enactment in the region as case studies, the paper shows that the conflicts between Muslims and Christians were caused by the discriminatory regional regulations against minority groups. This study uses an ethnographic approach, consisting of interviews and extensive observational research in the research site to collect the data. The article argues that the implementation of local government policies such as the very strict requirement to establish church and Islamic clothing regulations for students have negative impacts on the harmonious relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in the region. Thus, local government officers should take into consideration minority and majority-group relationships in creating regional religious regulations.Penelitian ini menganalisa bagaimana kaum minoritas agama di Pasaman Barat dan Dharmasraya terusik dengan implementasi kebijakan otonomi daerah. Dengan mengkaji aturan pendirian gereja dan busana Islami sebagai kasusnya, artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa konflik yang terjadi antara Muslim dan Kristen di daerah tersebut disebabkan karena regulasi otonomi daerah yang bersipat diskriminatif bagi kalangan kaum minoritas. Studi ini menggunakan metode etnografi dengan menggunakan wawancara dan observasi yang ekstensif di lokasi penelitian sebagai teknik pengumpulan data. Peneliti berargumen bahwa penerapan kebijakan pemerintahan lokal seperti ketatnya persyaratan membangun rumah ibadah (gereja) dan aturan kewajiban memakai busana Islam bagi pelajar mempunyai implikasi negatif terhadap hubungan antara Muslim dan non-Muslim di daerah tersebut. Karenanya, pemerintah daerah harus berhati hati dan mempertimbangkan hubungan kelompok minoritas-mayoritas dalam membuat aturan daerah yang berhubungan dengan agama.
  • Moderate Islam and the Social Construction of Multi-Ethnic Communities

    Prasojo, Zaenuddin Hudi; Elmansyah, Elmansyah; Haji Masri, Muhammed Sahrin (IAIN Salatiga, 2019-12-25)
    This article discusses the social construction of culture and inter-ethnic relations within the daily lives of the people of West Kalimantan. Religion and ethnicity have played central roles in the identity dynamics of its multi-ethnic communities; they have also contributed to communal conflicts, with religious and cultural sentiments common throughout the region. Islam has become an important religion in West Kalimantan, as it is practiced by more than half of the province's population. This article explores the local potential of communities and the opportunity to promote better Islamic development in the region's hinterland after the collapse of the Islamic sultanates that had introduced Islam into this region. Data were obtained from ten different locations in Mempawah, Landak, and Sanggau Regencies, all of which are considered part of West Kalimantan's hinterland and are relatively homogenous in their demographics, religions, and customs. Over two years of research, we noted important local potentials and wisdoms in the region, finding that these complemented Islam within local communities' everyday lives. These local potentials and wisdoms included beliefsthat serving food strengthens brotherhood, friendliness is a key to success, lineage is a gift that should be appreciated, and serving guests brings happiness, as well as an ethos that promotes hard work and good manners. Artikel ini didasarkan pada hasil penelitian yang mendalam tentang konstruksi sosial yang meliputi persoalan budaya dan hubungan antar etnis yang menjadi isu penting pada masyarakat Kalimantan Barat. Agama dan etnisitas memiliki peran sentral dalam dinamika identitas kehidupan masyarakat yang multi-etnis ini, sehingga konflik yang didorong oleh sentimen agama dan budaya pun terjadi berulang kali di wilayah ini. Islam yang berkembang di Kalimantan Barat menjadi salah satu agama yang memiliki peran sentral, karena dipeluk oleh lebih dari separuh masyarakat Kalimantan Barat. Artikel ini mendiskusikan tentang bagaimana potensi lokal yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat dan peluang Islam untuk berkembang lebih baik dalam konteks bahwa Islam berkembang di wilayah pedalaman pasca runtuhnya beberapa kesultanan Islam yang berhasil membawa Islam ke pedalaman Kalimantan Barat. Potensi lokal tersebut terungkap dari berbagai kearifan lokal yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat yang ditemukan dalam penelitian selama kurun waktu dua tahun. Data diperoleh dari sepuluh titik lokasi yang berbeda di wilayah Kabupaten Mempawah, Kabupaten Landak, dan Kabupaten Sanggau yang dianggap sebagai pedalaman Kalimantan Barat. Daerah – daerah tersebut adalah wilayah pedesaan yang memiliki homogenitas penduduk, baik dari segi suku, agama, dan adat istiadat. Beberapa bentuk potensi lokal yang bersambut dengan Islam dari kalangan masyarakat lokal meliputi kepercayaan terhadap kulinari yang dapat mempererat persaudaraan, tradisi warisan budaya untuk persahabatan dengan alam sebagai kunci kesuksesan, keturunan sebagai anugerah yang tidak boleh ditolak, memuliakan tamu sebagai kunci kebahagiaan, bekerja keras, dan tata karma yang tinggi. 

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