• A political ideology of the Indonesian Islamic philanthropy institution: a case study of Suryakarta Beramal foundation

      Sebelas Maret University; Triatmo, Agus Wahyu; Karsidi, Ravik; Kartono, Drajat Tri; Suwarto, Suwarto (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
      This present research studies the ideologization practices of the Islamic philanthropy institution managed by the civil society in Indonesia: a case study of Suryakarta Beramal Foundation. A qualitative method with a case study approach was employed. Data was collected using in-depth interviews, observations and documentation techniques and then inductively analyzed. The results show that Suryakarta Beramal is a philanthropy institution ideologically affiliated withthe Tarbiyah movement. Most of the collected Islamic philanthropy funds: zakat, (alms-giving), infak (infaq), sadaqah (donation) and wakaf (religious endowment) were provided to finance the educational institution possessed by Suryakarta Beramal, except for poverty alleviation; the educational institution also functions as an ideologization medium. Ideologization was conducted through curriculum engineering, holding various events such as smart recharging, liqa, mabit, rihlah and halaqah and students’ habituation, starting from using uniforms for religious activities either at school or in the dormitory. The result of the ideologization is that the alumni of the school of Suryakarta Beramal became the loyalists of the Tarbiyah ideology and are affiliated with Partai Adil Makmur (PAM) (Just and Affluent Party) as the political wing of the Tarbiyah movement in Indonesia.
    • A progressive Islamic movement and its response to the issues of the ummah

      Qodir, Zuly; Jubba, Hasse; Hidayati, Mega; Abdullah, Irwan; Long, Ahmad Sunawari (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-12-21)
      This article discusses the progressive Islamic movement developed by Muhammadiyah, a modernist Islamic organization established by Ahmad Dahlan on November 18, 1918. History has shown that Muhammadiyah, as a modernist Islamic organization, has instigated various social transformations that continue to affect Indonesian society by creating schools, hospitals, and orphanages that were inspired by modern, Westernized systems and modernist interpretations of the Qur'an. Even today, Muhammadiyah remains active in national activities and discourse, continuously responding to the ever-changing times. This article departs from the argument that the progressive movement developed by Muhammadiyah was translated from Ahmad Dahlan's desire to advance the ummah and to create a just and prosperous world, one that has been blessed by God. As such, it argues that Muhammadiyah's response to the problems of its ummah has been informed by the history of the movement and its founders.
    • A suggestion that Europe is also a Muslim: a study from historical and contemporary perspectives

      Awaluddin, Muhammad Aiman; Maznorbalia, Anisa Safiah (IAIN Salatiga, 2019-05-24)
      In the past century European has associated themselves as a Christian domain until now. The proclaimation of Edict of Thessalonica in 380 AD made the Nicene Christianity as the state in Roman Empire and saw a transition from paganism to a Christian domain or Christendom. Since its inception, several edict has been enacted and several peace treaties have been broken to diminish an idea of multiculturalism within theirs faith land. The establishment of Muslim rules in Iberian Peninsula has changed the dominion of Christian. Muslims in Spain introduced convivencia, which saw that Abrahamic religions, Islam, Judaism and Christianity co-exist together, removing racial, cultural and religious barriers to embrace each other that nurture spirit of inclusion. The Golden Age of Muslim Civilization evidence that Cordova has become a center of Europe, perhaps the world for scientific knowledge advancement. Subsequently, contribute for Renaissance Age in Europe. Additionally, fall of Constantinople in 1453 under Ottomans reshaping the geographcial of Europe and permanently marked the term of European Islam. Through tedious analysis on medias, reports and past journals, this article adopted critical analysis in understanding the complexity of history of Europe, at the same time positioning Islam as part of Europe culture. The contribution of Islam in Europe seems negligible and less attention has been given. Past researchers tend to overlooked and belittled impacts of Islam in Europe continent, thus diminish any legitimacy of Islam in Europe. Critical analysis methodology assist researcher to understand the main issues, reviewing past and present evidence from reliable sources to establish concrete arguments in providing critical evaluation on the discussed issues. It is also a form of method involve investigating topics more deeply, by going beneath the surface of reality to explore the truth of a particular issue. The article established it arguments through historical analysis in Europe starting from ancient time to present situation to give a clear analogy and legitimacy on the presence of Islam in Europe. The finding shows that Islam indeed part of Europe since establishment of Umayyad Caliphate and presence of Islam in Sicily. Moreover, contemporarily, the rising of Muslims, issues of atheism and secularism proof that Europe is no longer center of Christianity but already become multiculturalism society. Pada abad lalu, Eropa mengasosiasikan diri mereka sebagai sebuah domain Kristen sampai sekarang. Maklumat Edict of Thessalonica pada 380 AD menjadikan Kekristenan Nicene sebagai negara di dalam Imperium Romawi dan melihat peralihan dari paganisme kepada suatu domain Kristen atau Kekristenan. Sejak didirikan, beberapa dekrit telah diberlakukan dan beberapa perjanjian damai telah dipatahkan untuk mengurangi gagasan multikulturalisme di dalam tanah kepercayaan mereka. Pendirian aturan Muslim di Semenanjung Iberia telah mengubah kekuasaan Kristen. Muslim di Spanyol memperkenalkan convivencia, yang melihat bahwa agama Abrahamik, Islam, Yudaisme dan Kristen hidup berdampingan bersama-sama, menghilangkan hambatan rasial,budaya dan agama untuk merangkul satu sama lain yang memupuk semangat inklusi. Zaman keemasan peradaban Muslim membuktikan bahwa Cordova telah menjadi pusat Eropa dan mungkin dunia untuk kemajuan pengetahuan ilmiah. Selanjutnya, berkontribusi untuk Renaissance Age di Eropa. Selain itu,jatuhnya Konstantinopel pada tahun 1453 di bawah Ottomans membentuk kembali geografi Eropa dan secara permanen menandai istilah Islam Eropa. Melalui analisa yang membosankan tentang media, laporan dan jurnal masa lalu, artikel ini mengadopsi analisa kritis dalam memahami kompleksitas sejarah Eropa, pada saat yang sama memposisikan Islam sebagai bagian dari budaya Eropa. Kontribusi Islam di Eropa tampaknya diabaikan dan kurang mendapatkan perhatian. Peneliti masa lalu cenderung mengabaikan dan meremehkan dampak Islam di benua Eropa, sehingga mengurangi legitimasi Islam di Eropa. Metodologi analisis kritis membantu peneliti untuk memahami isu utama, meninjau bukti-bukti masa lalu dan sekarang dari sumber terpercaya untuk membangun argumen konkret dalam memberikan evaluasi kritis pada masalah yang dibahas. Ini juga merupakan bentuk metode yang melibatkan penyelidikan topik lebih dalam, dengan menjangkau bagian bawah dari permukaan realitas untuk mengeksplorasi kebenaran dari masalah tertentu. Artikel itu menetapkan argumen melalui analisis sejarah di Eropa mulai dari zaman kuno untuk menyajikan situasi dan memberikan analogi yang jelas dan legitimasi di hadapan Islam di Eropa. Temuan ini menunjukkan bahwa Islam memang bagian dari Eropa sejak berdirinya kekhalifahan Umayyah dan kehadiran Islam di Sisilia. Selain itu, bersamaan dengan meningkatnya umat Islam, isu ateisme dan sekularisme merupakan bukti bahwa Eropa tidak lagi menjadi pusat Kekristenan tetapi sudah menjadi masyarakat multikulturalisme.
    • A survey on the development of Islamic higher education in Indonesia: an epistemological review

      Sa'adi, Sa'adi (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2011-06-01)
      Social changes, development and advancement of humans’ culture influence educationas inseparable aspect of human life. In line with Islamic higher educationmany thinkers proposed their ideas of how to formulate its appropriate epistemologicalbackground in different views. There are some notable persons forthis field, such as Iqbal, Fazlur Rahman, Afzalur Rahman, Al-Faruqi which tosome extent parallel or influence Indonesian thinkers’ such as Mukti Ali, HarunNasution, Cak Nur, Amin Abdullah, etc. Some are still at the level of speculativethought, while others have applied their ideas in educational institutions, likeAmin Abdullah and Imam Suprayoga.Perubahan sosial, perkembangan dan kemajuan kebudayaan umat manusiamemengaruhi pendidikan yang merupakan bidang yang tak terpisahkan darikehidupan manusia itu sendiri. Dalam hal pendidikan tinggi Islam, para pemikirmengajukan berbagai gagasan mereka tentang bagaimana merumuskan dasardasarepistemologinya yang paling tepat. Ada beberapa tokoh pemikir pentingyang perlu dicatat (dari luar negeri) dalam hal ini seperti Iqbal, Fazlur Rahman, Afzalur Rahman, al-Faruqi, yang dalam batas tertentu secara paralel ataumemengaruhi para pemikir Indonesia seperti Mukti Ali, Harun Nasution, Cak Nur,Amin Abdullah dan Imam Suprayoga. Sebagian dari pemikir tersebut masih padadataran pemikiran spekulatif, sementara yang lain sudah mengaktualisasikannyadalam implementasi kelembagaan pendidikan tinggi Islam, seperti Amin Abdullahdan Imam Suprayoga.
    • Ahmadiyah, conflicts, and violence in contemporary Indonesia

      Mariani, Nina (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2013-06-01)
      This article examines conflicts and violence experienced by Ahmadiyah commu-nity in Indonesia after reformasi era. In spite of diversities among Muslims inIndonesia, Ahmadiyah (Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia) has been experiencing someforms of violence both from other Muslims and government. The number ofviolence has risen dramatically after the issuing second fatwa from Majelis UlamaIndonesia in 2005 and the Joint Ministerial Decree (SKB) on Ahmadiyah. Thoseforms of violence are issuing decree on banning Ahmadiyah, sealing the mosquesand banning of doing religious activities, and mobbing the mosques and houses,including killing. Furthermore, this paper argues that Indonesia’s goverment doesnot take its responsibility to protect its people particularly from minorities groups,even some local governments also do violence towards Ahmadiyah community.Artikel  ini  membahas  konflik  dan  kekerasan  yang  dialami  oleh  komunitasAhmadiyah di Indonesia setelah masa reformasi. Walaupun Muslim di Indonesiasangat beragam, Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia mengalami beberapa bentukkekerasn baik dari Muslim yang lain maupun dari pemerintah. Jumlah kekerasnayang menimpa mereka meningkat tajam setelah dikeluarkannya fatwa sesat keduadari MUI pada tahun 2005 dan Surat Keputusan Bersama (SKB) tiga menteri mengenai Ahmadiyah. Berbagai bentuk kekerasan yang menimpa mereka yaitupengeluaran peraturan pelarangan keberadaan Jemaat Ahmadiyah di berbagaiprovinsi, penyegelan masjid dan pelarangan melakukan aktifitas keagamaan,penyerangan  masjid-  masjid  dan  rumah-rumah  warga  Ahmadiyah,  bahkanpembunuhan.  Selain  itu,  pemerintah  pusat  sepertinya  tidak  melaksanakankewajibannya untuk melindungi warganya, terutama dari kalangan minoritasbahkan beberapa pemerintah lokal justru melakukan kekerasan terhadap wargaAhmadiyah di daerahnya.
    • Al-jamiat al-islamiyah wa dawruha al-raid fi al-Tarbiyah wa Tanmiyah al-Thaqafah

      Maesur, Sidqon (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2011-12-01)
      Islamic University has become a pioneer in the field of education and cultural development for years. The material taught includes Humanities, sociology and various applied science. Some earlier Islamic universities in the past are the University of al-Azhar, Fusthat, Qurawiyin, Mustanshiriyah, Nidhamiyah, and Qordoba. The former Islamic scholars actively created new theories which have not been existed before. Similarly Islamic Univiersities in any level have important role in the development of culture through a variety of programs, by preparing cadres who have scientific competence so that they are ready in the dissemination of Islamic culture that aims to build an ideal and realistic Islamic society and realistic       
    • Al-Muqarabah al-manhajiyyah bayn al-mi'yariyyah wa al-tarikhiyyah wa atsaruhuma fi al-fkir al-diny: ru'yah naqdiyah

      Tamam, Abas Mansur (IAIN Salatiga, 2012-06-01)
      Dalam diskursus pemikiran modern, pendekatan dan metode menempati posisi problematik karena mampu melahirkan ragam pemikiran akibat ragam pendekatan. Aspek ini juga merupakan dasar bagi orientasi-orientasi pemikran dalam diskursus pemikiran Islam modern. Pendekatan normativisme menjadikan teks-teks al-Qur'an dan hadis pijakan dasar keberagamaan, sementara itu pendekatan historisisme menjadikan realitas sebagai titik tolak bagi keberagamaan. Dalam pandangan penganut pendekatan historisisme, perubahan realitas merupakan pintu masuk bagi relativitas   pemikiran-pemikiran   agama   dan  skeptisisme   bagi   keberadaan sesuatu  yang  mapan seputar  agama.  Sementara  itu,  penganut  pendekatan normativisme,   seiring   dengan  fokus   perhatian   mereka  terhadap   realitas, menolak  kecenderungan pendekatan  historisisme mengingat adanya  prinsip- prinsip mapan dalam agama yang  tidak akan  berubah mengikuti  perubahan waktu dan tempat.  Di samping  itu, ada juga aspek-aspek yang selalu berubah dan tunduk kepada  perubahan waktu dan tempat.
    • al-Shahaba wa Muwaqif al-Shi`a al-Ithna `Ash`ariya al-Salbiya Tujahuhum:`Ard wa Rudud

      Muslih, Muhammad Kholid (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2012-12-01)
      Dalam pandangan Ahli Sunnah para sahabat memiliki tempat yang pentingdan strategis dalam Islam; karena melalui mereka seluruh ajaran Islam yangdibawa oleh Rasulullah sampai kepada umatnya, Para Sahabat yangmenyaksikan secara langsung turunnya waktyu dengan penjelasan danpenjabaran serta penerapannya, juga menjadi bagian terpenting dari matarantai tranmisi ilmu dan wahyu dalam Islam. Karena itulah para Sahabatmenempati posisi penting di hati Ahli Sunnah. Hal ini berbeda secara totaldengan sikap Syi’ah 12 Imam; karena pengaruh doktrin Imamah yangdiyakini sebagai salah satu rukun Islam, Syi’ah 12 Imam memiliki sikapnegatif terhadap sahabat. Dengan metodolog diskriptif analisis kritismakalah ini mencoba untuk mengurai sikap Syi’ah 12 terhadap Imam
    • Ali Shari’ati’s revolutionary Islamic thought and its relevance to the contemporary socio-political transformation

      Nugroho, Anjar; Surwandano, Tulus Warsito (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2017-12-01)
      Ali Shari’ati emerged as an enlightened intellectual figure in the phenomenonof the authoritarian and oppressive power of the Syah Pahlavi regime. Shari’atiappeared as a pioneer of radical ideas about Islam and the revolution whichstemmed from the Shi’a teachings that had been grafted into the revolutionary tradition of the Third World and Marxism. Shari’ati succeeded in establishing a revolutionary Islamic ideology that became the basis of the mass collective consciousness against the regime of the Syah. In Shari’ati’s thought, Islam is an emancipatory ideology and liberation. The progressive and revolutionary view of Shari’ati’s Islam derives from a belief system of tauhid. While tauhid in Shari’ati’s view is the unity among God, man and the universe, the society which is full of social discrimination, injustice, and arbitrariness can be categorized as Shirk, the opponent of tauhid. In the context of the Iranian revolution, the Shari’ati’s Islamic thought and ideology became the fourth  t-text-stroke-width: 0px; "> bridge or road from the ideological stalemate of the pre-revolutionary opposition movement, which is between secularist-nationalist, Marxist-Communistand Islamic Fundamentalism. Further, Shari’ati’s ideology paved the way forthe acceptance of Imam Khomeini as a revolutionary leader. This paper aimsto contextualize Ali Shari’ti’s views on socio-political change in Indonesia.Ali Shari’ati muncul menjadi sosok intelektual tercerahkan dalam fenomenakekuasaan rezim Syah Pahlevi yang otoriter dan menindas. Shari’ati lalu tampilsebagai pelopor gagasan-gagasan radikal tentang Islam dan revolusi yang bersumberdari ajaran Syi’ah yang sudah dicangkokkan dengan tradisi revolusioner DuniaKetiga dan Marxisme. Ali Shari’ati berhasil membangun ideologi Islam revolusioneryang kemudian menjadi basis kesadaran kolektif massa menentang kekuasaan rezimSyah. Dalam pemikiran Shari’ati, Islam adalah sebuah ideologi emansipasi danpembebasan. Pandangan Islam Ali Shari’ati yang progresif dan revolusionerbersumber pada satu sistem keyakinan yaitu tauhid. Jika tauhid dalam pandanganShari’ati adalah kesatuan antara Tuhan, manusia dan alam semesta, maka kondisimasyarakat yang penuh diskriminasi sosial, ketidakadilan, dan kesewenang-wenangandapat dikategorikan sebagai syirk, lawan dari tauhid. Dalam konteks revolusi Iran,tawaran pemikiran dan ideologi Islam Syari’ati menjadi jembatan atau jalan keempatdari kebuntuan ideologi gerakan oposisi pra-revolusi, yaitu antara nasionalis-sekuler,Marxis-Komunis dan Fundamentalisme Islam. Ideologi Shari’ati melapangkanjalan bagi diterimanya Imam Khomeini sebagai pemimpin revolusioner. Tulisanini hendak mengkontekstualisasikan pemikiran Ali Shari’ati dalam perubahan sosialpolitik di Indonesia.
    • Anti-Shia mass mobilization in Indonesia’s democracy: godly alliance, militant groups and the politics of exclusion

      IAIN Jember; Amal, M Khusna (IAIN Salatiga, 2020-05-29)
      This article examines violence against religious minorities, especially Shia groups in the democracy of Indonesia, focusing particularly on the case of the 2016 anti-Milad Fatimah (Fatimah Birth Commemoration) mass mobilization performed by IJABI (The all-Indonesia Assembly of Ahlul Bait Associations) in Bondowoso, East Java, Indonesia. This article finds that the anti-Milad Fatimah mass mobilization involved alliances and conspiracy between Godly Muslim groups with a varied agenda. Sunni militant groups from the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), FPI (Islamic Defenders Front), Wahabi/Salafi, and Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI) groups, which merged into FOKUS (Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama'ah Communication Forum), were the main protagonists who played a key role in driving mass mobilization. Unlike previous studies that understood the anti-Shia movement merely as a form of affirming Islamic orthodoxy, this study finds evidence that there were wider agendas than the theological ones. Excluding the Shia from capturing Islamic public space, and challenging religious authority and local power which was dominated by moderate Muslim groups, were the socio-political agendas which contributed to the anti-Milad Fatimah mass mobilization. The involvement of radical Islamist groups such as the activists of the Tarbiyah and HTI is a sign that there is a strong political agenda behind mass mobilization. However, the ultimate goal of applying Islamic Sharia will never fade from the religious movements of Islamist groups.Studi ini mengkaji kekerasan terhadap minoritas agama khususnya kelompok Shia di Indonesia era demokrasi. Tulisan memilih kasus aksi mobilisasi massa anti-Milad Fatimah yang dilaksanakan oleh IJABI (Ikatan Jama’ah Ahlul Bait Indonesia), Bondowoso, Jawa Timur pada 2016. Tulisan ini memeroleh temuan yang menarik bahwa aksi mobilisasi massa anti-Milad Fatimah, melibatkan aliansi longgar di antara kelompok-kelompok Godly Muslim dengan agendanya yang tidak tunggal. Kelompok-kelompok militant Sunni dari kalangan NU, FPI, Wahabi/Salafi dan HTI, yang menggabungkan diri ke dalam FOKUS (Forum Komunikasi Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah), merupakan aktor-aktor utama yang berperan penting dalam memobilisir aksi massa tersebut. Berbeda dari kajiankajian yang umumnya memahami gerakan anti-Shi’ah sebagai bentuk peneguhan ortodoksi Islam atupun homogenisasi Islam Indonesia, studi ini mendapati temuan yang jauh lebih besar dan kompleks dari sekedar agenda teologis itu. Mengekslusi Shi’ah dari ruang public Islam dan menantang otoritas keagamaan dan kekuasaan local yang didominasi oleh kelompok-kelompok Muslim moderat merupakan sejumlah agenda sosio-politik yang turut mewarnai aksi massa itu. Keterlibatan kelompok-kelompok Islamisme radikal seperti aktivis Gerakan Tarbiyah dan Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), menjadi sinyalemen cukup kuat adanya agenda politis di balik aksi massa. Bagaimanapun, imaginasi dan citacita penerapan syari’at Islam tidak akan pernah pudar dari gerakan keagamaan kelompok-kelompok Islamis.
    • Arab political reasoning: Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri’s contribution for understanding crisis of politics in the Arab world

      Rofiq, Muhamad (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2017-06-01)
      xt-stroke-width: 0px; "> This paper deals with the thoughts of MuhammadAbid al-Jabiri (d. 2010), a prominent philosopher from Morocco, on the crisis of politics in the Arab world, by examining one of his great books entitled al-‘Aql al- Siya>si al-‘Arabi (Arab Political Reasoning). This book is the third work from the sequence Naqd al-‘Aql al-‘Arabi (Critique of Arab Reasoning). The Arab political reasoning here refers to a collection of motives (muhaddida > t > ) in politics and their theoretical and practical manifestations (tajalliyat > ). This paper analyzes the sense of crisis that constitutes al-Jabiri’s thoughts on Arab political reasoning. This paper then describes the three theoretical frameworks he utilized, which were “aqidah >(doctrine)”, “ghanimah > (booty)” and “qabi>lah (tribe)”, and their application in the reading politics of the earliest period of Islamic history. Finally, this writing concludes with some points regarding al-Jabiri’s contribution to Islamic studies. 0px; "> Tulisan ini mengkaji pemikiran-pemikiran Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri (w. 2010), seorang filosof terkemuka dari Maroko, mengenai krisis politik di dunia Arab, melalui pengkajian terhadap salah satu buku terkenalnya yang berjudulnya al-‘Aql al- Siya>si al-‘Arabi (Nalar Politik Arab). Buku ini adalah karya ketiga dari rangkaian proyek Naqd al-‘Aql al-‘Arabi (Kritik Nalar Arab). Nalar politik arab dalam karyanya ini terdiri dari sekumpulan motif-motif politik bangsa Arabdan manifestasi teoretis dan praktis dari motif tersebut. Tulisan ini selanjutnya menganalisis tiga latar belakang pemikiran yang membentuk ide-ide al-Jabiri mengenai nalar politik Arab. Tulisan ini kemudian menggambarkan tiga kerangka teori yang ia gunakan, yaitu akidah, harta rampasan perang, dan suku, serta aplikasi dari tiga teori tersebut pada pembacaan terhadap periode paling awal dari sejarah Islam. Terakhir, tulisan ini menyimpulkan sejumlah hal yang menjadi kontribusi al-Jabiri pada pemikiran keislaman.
    • Common identity framework of cultural knowledge and practices of Javanese Islam

      Susilo, Sulistiyono; Syato, Ibnu (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2016-12-14)
      Previous literatures apparently argued that Javanese Islam is characterized by orthodox thought and practice which is still mixed with pre-Islamic traditions. By using approach of the sociology of religion, this article tries to explain contextualization of Islamic universal values in local space. The results showed that synthesis of orthodox thought and practice with pre-Islamic traditions is doubtless as a result of interaction between Islam and pre-Islamic traditions during the Islamization of Java. In addition, this study found the intersection of Islam and Javanese culture in the terms of genealogy of culture, Islamic mysticism, orientation of traditional Islamic teachings, and the conception of the power in Javanese kingdom. Since kejawen practices accordance with Islamic mysticism can be justified by the practice of the Muslims. Thus the typology of the relationship between Islam and Javanese culture are not contradictory but dialectical. Finally, a number of implications and suggestions are discussed Berbagai literatur sebelumnya mengenai studi Islam di Jawa umumnya berpendapat bahwa Islam Jawa ditandai dengan pemikiran dan praktek yang masih tercampur dengan tradisi pra-Islam. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan sosiologi agama, artikel ini mencoba untuk menjelaskan makna dari kontekstualisasi nilai-nilai universal Islam pada lingkup lokal. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintesis pemikiran dan praktek dengan tradisi pra-Islam merupakan hal yang lumrah sebagai hasil interaksi antara Islam dan tradisi praIslam selama periode Islamisasi. Penelitian ini menemukan persamaan identitas antara Islam dan budaya Jawa dalam hal genealogi budaya, mistisisme Islam, orientasi pengajaran Islam tradisional, dan konsepsi kekuasaan di keratonkeraton Jawa. Karena praktek kejawen dapat dijustifikasi sesuai dengan praktek mistisisme Islam, maka tipologi hubungan antara Islam dan budaya Jawa tidak bertentangan tetapi bersifat dialektis.
    • Coping with religious tolerance and gender equality: comparing Islam and good governance perspectives

      Al-Hamdi, Ridho (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2015-12-10)
      Using  literature  review  and  in-depth  analysis,  the  study  is  going  to  examinethe  comparative  perspective  between  Islam  and  the West  in  addressing  twomain public  issues,  i.e.  religious  tolerance  and  gender  equality. More  specifi-cally, this study will provide the policy, agenda and strategy of Islam and goodgovernance  in  coping with  those  two  issues. Therefore,  the  finding  of  thestudy is that Islam and good governance precisely have no distinctive concept,policies, agendas and  strategy.  In contrast, both of  them obviously agree  thatreligious  tolerance  and  gender  equality  is  important  for  human  lifesustainability. The  result, Muslim  communities have  to  disseminate  the no-tion of  the  compatibility between  Islam  and  good  governance  to  the world.Menggunakan  review  literatur  dan  analisis mendalam,  penelitian  ini  akanmenguji  perspektif  komparatif  antara  Islam  dan Barat  dalam menjawab  duamasalah umum utama , yaitu toleransi beragama dan kesetaraan gender . Lebihkhusus,  penelitian  ini  akan menyoroti  kebijakan,  agenda  dan  strategi  Islamdan pemerintahan yang baik dalam menjawab   dua masalah di atas. Temuan studi ini adalah bahwa Islam dan pemerintahan yang baik justru tidak memilikikonsep yang khas, kebijakan, agenda dan  strategi. Sebaliknya, keduanya  jelasmenyepakati bahwa toleransi beragama dan kesetaraan gender penting untukkeberlanjutan  kehidupan manusia. Hasilnya, masyarakat Muslim  harusmenyebarluaskan gagasan kompatibilitas antara Islam dan pemerintahan yangbaik kepada dunia.
    • Countering Islamophobia in Portugal: experience of Indonesian Muslim expatriates

      Sa'adi, Sa'adi (IAIN Salatiga, 2021-06-21)
      The main purpose of this research is to investigate the Indonesian Muslim expatriate experiences in countering Islamophobia in Portugal. There are 488 Indonesian expatriates in Portugal, of whom 384 (78%) are Muslims, working on diplomatic missions, students, traders, professionals, laborers, and others. To analyze the data, the researcher used triangulation techniques such as interviews through guided written questions, observation, and documentation, using factor analyses covering items of Portugal government policy on religious life, characters of Portuguese culture, the characters of Indonesian Muslim socio-culture, educational background of Indonesian Muslim expatriates, and normative Islamic teaching inspiring their socioreligious views and attitude. As the main findings, the research revealed that in countering the Islamophobia experience, the Indonesian Muslim expatriates in Portugal feel joy, safety, peace, a harmonious life. Also, they feel like in their home towns; they can access public services easily and practice private, and religious activities normally, although the number of mosques in public places is very few. None of them experienced extreme hatred, prejudice, harassment, hostility, bad words, bad attitudes and treatments, discrimination, and Islamophobia from local citizens or other groups.
    • Critique of radical religious paradigm: an epistemological analysis from principles of Islamic thought

      Rohayana, Ade Dedi; Sofi, Muhammad Jauhari (IAIN Salatiga, 2021-06-21)
      As one important factor enabling Islamophobia, radicalism has been a global issue endangering personal safety and public security. It is strongly associated with incorrect understanding of religious doctrines. This paper aims to present a critique of religious paradigm promoted by the radical groups from principles of Islamic thought (usul fiqh) perspective. Using epistemological analysis to uncover the nature of their religious understanding and its justification, this study argues that radical religious paradigm is characterized with monolithic, textual, and rigid interpretation of the sacred texts. According to the radical groups, the sources of Islamic laws or teachings are restricted to only the Quran and the hadith, leaving no space for alternative interpretations. They do not give a place for ra’yu (reason) in determining the laws or teachings. In the other hands, usul fiqh maintains that the sources of the Islamic laws or teachings are not restricted to only the two said sources; it also gives a place for ra’yu (reason). From usul fiqh perspective, the sources can also be found in the form of isyarah (signalling) and ruh (spirit) of the Quran and the hadith. In this sense, usul fiqh refuses the literal interpretation proposed by the radical groups since not all of the texts in the Quran and the hadith can be understood literally.
    • Debating shura and democracy among British Muslim organizations

      Rahman, Bambang Arif (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2011-12-01)
      Shura as the system of representation of the Muslim’s voice in, typically, theIslamic state is often confronted with the West representation system namelyDemocracy. Some Islamic scholars believe that Shura is still the best system forMuslims to vote for their need in the state. However, as Islam is not a monolithicdoctrine, some other Muslim groups have another alternative view to representtheir political opinion to the state by, surprisingly, practicing democracy. In brief,Shura is still placed God instructions as the reference of all decisions which aremade in the council. Otherwise, democracy merely stands its policy on the people.Both systems have a long tradition processes to find their recent way in thisglobal age. And the British Muslims have to realize that they live in a developedcountry like Britain and still have to be Muslim. Giving challenging condition, HizbutTahrir, Tablighi Jama’at, and Muslim Council of Britain, three prominent MuslimOrganizations in England, have different attitude towards democratic Britain tovoice their representation. On the one hand, Hizbut Tahrir strictly rejects the ideaof democracy as its goal is to establish the Islamic Caliphate in the world. And onanother hand, Tablighi Jama’at tends to stay away from the political issue, includingits representation, as the core of this organization is only preaching in apeaceful way. Finally, Muslim Council of Britain as the umbrella of small-medium Muslim organizations in England, in fact is involving in the system of British democracy.Shura sebagai sistem perwakilan seringkali diperbandingkan dengan sistemperwakilan Barat, yaitu demokrasi. Beberapa tokoh umat Islam percaya bahwashura masih merupakan sistem perwakilan yang terbaik untuk menyuarakankeinginan umat Islam terhadap negara. Namun demikian, karena Islam bukanmerupakan doktrin yang kaku, ada beberapa kelompok Muslim lain yang memilikipandangan berbeda di dalam mengemukakan aspirasi politiknya terhadap negara,yang justru menggunakan sistem demokrasi. Secara singkat, sistem shura masihmenempatkan ajaran-ajaran Tuhan sebagai acuan untuk memutuskan segalapersoalan dalam dewan. Sedangkan demokrasi membuat kebijakan semata-mataberdasarkan pada suara manusia. Kedua sistem ini memiliki proses tradisionalyang panjang untuk mencapai bentuknya seperti sekarang ini. Sementara itu,Muslim Inggris harus menyadari bahwa mereka hidup di negara maju dan harustetap ber-Islam. Menghadapi kondisi yang menantang ini, tiga organisasi Islamterkemuka di Inggris seperti Hizbut Tahrir, Tablighi Jama’ah, dan Muslim Councilof Britain memiliki sikap berbeda untuk menyatakan suara mereka terhadappemerintah Inggris yang demokratis. Satu sisi, Hizbut Tahrir dengan keras menolakide demokrasi dikarenakan cita-cita mereka adalah mendirikan kekhalifahan Islamdi dunia. Sementara di sisi yang lain, Tablighi Jama’ah cenderung menghindariisu politik, termasuk keterwakilan mereka. Terakhir, Muslim Council of Britainyang merupakan payung bagi organisasi-organisasi Islam kecil-menengah diInggris pada kenyataannya ikut serta di dalam sistem demokrasi Inggris. 
    • Democracy in Islam: comparative study of Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri and Abdolkarim Soroush’s thoughts

      Susanto, Happy (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2011-12-01)
      Using analytic and interpretative approaches, this research compares al-Jabiriand Soroush’s thoughts about democracy in Islam. To assess Islam’s compatibilitywith democracy, this thesis will analyze the issues of authority, sharia, andfreedom according to the two scholars. Al-Jabiri and Soroush agree that theconcept of authority in Islam cannot be interpreted simply as God’s sovereignty,but it also concerns human rights and sovereignty. A leader put justice as his/hercentral concern in practicing policies for citizens. To pursue this hope, they alsopropose that sharia should be reinterpreted in order to be harmonizing in accordancechanging circumstances and time. Al-Jabiri has different understandingwith Soroush about the relationship between religion and state. Al-Jabiri seesthat Muslims are free to choose democracy as their political life. He doesn’tagree the integration of religion and state. In this case, he doesn’t agree theimplementation of sharia in the state. Meanwhile Soroush sees that religion hasan important role in the state, so that he agrees the implementation of shariabecause according to him it supports the political process of the state.Muhammad Abid al-Jabiri dan Abdolkarim Soroush merupakan intelektual Muslimyang memandang bahwa Islam kompatibel dengan demokrasi, dan keduanyatermasuk dalam kelompok moderat. Untuk menguji apakah Islam kompatibeldengan demokrasi, artikel ini menganalisis isu-isu otoritas, syariah, dan kebebasanmenurut pandangan kedua tokoh tersebut. Kedua intelektual itu memilikipandangan filosofis yang sejalan tentang ide demokrasi dalam Islam. Misalnya,konsep otoritas dalam Islam tidak saja dipahami sebagai bentuk kedaulatan Tuhan,namun yang lebih penting bahwa konsep ini juga memerhatikan aspek hak dankedaulatan manusia. Syariah perlu direinterpretasi agar sesuai dengan konteksperubahan zaman dan dapat mengarah pada pencapaian tujuannya. Perbedaankeduanya terletak pada relasi agama-negara. Dalam hal ini, al-Jabiri memilikipandangan yang “liberal” bahwa konsep sebuah negara tidak perlu berdasarkanidentitas agama. Umat Islam diberikan kebebasan penuh untuk menjalankankehidupan politiknya, tanpa terbebani oleh rujukan teks-teks Islam yang masihdiperdebatkan. Dengan demikian, ia memandang bahwa penerapan syariah dalamsebuah negara tidak perlu karena sesungguhnya syariah belum penah diterapkansecara sempurna. Sedangkan Soroush berpandangan sebaliknya bahwa identitasagama perlu ditambatkan ke dalam ide sebuah negara (demokrasi).
    • Déwi Malêka: the Javanese Islam manuscript

      Zakiyah, Zakiyah (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2016-06-01)
      This paper concerns on the Javanese Islam manuscript entitled Déwi Malêka Code Br.16 saved at the National Library of Republic Indonesia in Jakarta and Cod.Or 7562 preserved at the Library of Leiden University the Nether- lands. The objectives of this study are to describe the physical condition of the manuscripts and to examine the content of those two texts especially the Islamic and Javanese values. Data was collected using documentary research and analyzed using codicology, philology and Islamic studies. The finding of this research shows that these manuscripts tell about the story of Dèwi Maléka, a queen of Rum. From this story, it can be understood about the Islamic and Javanese values that are presented as questions and answers. In the last chapter of each text, there are some advises related to what should not be done by human being refereeing to the Javanese values. Artikel ini membahas manuskrip Islam Jawa berjudul Déwi Malêka kode Br.16 yang tersimpan di Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia di Jakarta dan manuskrip dengan kode Cod.Or 7562 yang berada di Perpustakaan Universitas Leiden Belanda. Penelitian ini fokus pada deskripsi kondisi fisik naskah, dan isi dari dua teks tersebut, khususnya terkait dengan nilai-nilai Islam dan Jawa yang terkandung dalam teks. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan s tudi dokumentasi dan dianalisis dengan bantuan ilmu filologi, kodikologi dan studi Islam. Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kedua naskah bercerita tentang Dèwi Maléka, ratu negeri Rum. Dari cerita yang dipaparkan dalam bentuk Tanya jawab dapat diketahui bahwa naskah ini berisi tentang nilai- nilai Islam dan Jawa. Pada bagian akhir teks terdapat nasehat terkait dengan apa-apa yang seharusnya tidak dilakukan oleh manusia. Nasehat-nasehat tersebut merujuk kepada nilai-nilai Jawa.
    • Distributive principles of economic justice: an Islamic perspective

      Baidhawy, Zakiyuddin (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2012-12-01)
      Poverty and impoverishment in the world currently continue to increase as aresult of distributive justice systems and its principles that became the basis ofcontemporary economics did not succeed in allocating and distributing resourcesjustly. Based on this problem, this study aimed at describing the Islamic responseto the problem of distributive injustice, and how necessarily the state played arole in upholding distributive justice. Through the thematic-induction method andthe synthetic analysis, the study finds out several findings as follows. Firstly,Islam formulated three principles of distributive justice as follows: 1) the Distributionof natural and the environmental resources was in the framework of participation;2) the Redistribution of the wealth and the income were joint responsibilityof ascertaining social security, the increase in the capacity and the authorityfor them who were disadvantage; and 3) the Role of the state was certaintythat was complementary for the ethical market in order to guarantees the senseof justice and the achievement of public welfare. Secondly, according to Islam,the process of the redistribution of the wealth and the income aimed at givingsocial security on the fulfillment of basic needs for the poor; strove for the increasein the capacity through education and skills; and increased the poor’sbargaining position through their participation in decision making that was linkedwith their interests and the control on its implementation. Thirdly, the intention of establishing justice was to gain both individual and public welfare and the happiness(al-fala>h}).Kemiskinan dan pemiskinan di dunia kontemporer terus meningkat sebagai akibatsistem keadilan distributif dan prinsip-prinsipnya yang menjadi basis ekonomisaat ini tidak berhasil dalam mengalokasikan dan memeratakan sumber dayasecara adil. Berdasarkan masalah ini, kajian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskanrespon Islam atas problem ketidakadilan distributif, dan bagaimana seharusnyanegara ambil peranan dalam menegakkan keadilan distributif. Melalui metodeinduksi-tematik dan analisis sintetik, kajian ini menemukan beberapa hal pentingantara lain. Pertama, Islam telah merumuskan tiga prinsip keadilan distributifsebagai berikut: 1) pemerataan sumber daya alam dan lingkungan dalamkerangka partisipasi; 2) redistribusi kekayaan dan pendapatan dalam rangkamemastikan keamanan sosial, dan meningkatkan kapasitas dan otoritas bagimereka yang kurang/tidak beruntung; dan 3) peran negara merupakan pelengkapbagi pasar yang etis dengan maksud untuk menjamin rasa keadilan dantercapainya kesejahteraan publik. Kedua, menurut Islam, proses redistribusikekayaan dan pendapatan bertujuan untuk memberikan jaminan sosial bagipemenuhan kebutuhan orang miskin; untuk meningkatkan kapasitas merekamelalui pendidikan dan pelatihan; dan meningkatkan posisi tawar kaum miskinmelalui partisipasi dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berkaitan langsung dengankepentingan mereka, serta kendali atas pelaksanaan keputusan tersebut. Ketiga,maksud penegakkan keadilan ialah untuk mewujudkan kesejahteraan sekaliguskebahagiaan individu dan publik.
    • Educational practice: lessons to be learned from madrasah and religious schools in contemporary Southeast Asia

      Ahmad, Kamaruzzaman Bustamam (State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, 2015-06-01)
      This article aims at examining the current portrait of Islamic education inSoutheast Asia. Recently, there have been many studies on the role of madrasahsor religious schools in Islamic education. As Muslim who studies social-anthropology,I would like to approach this issue by examining socio-cultural ofIslamic education in Southeast Asia. Historically, the tradition has been basedon Muslim society at grass root level. The word of madrasah in Southeast Asiahas long history, which called as dayah in Aceh, surau in Minangkabau, pesantrenin Java, pondok in Malaysia, and pho no in Southern Thailand. The role ofmadrasah, then has similarities with the tradition of pesantren, even in someMuslim countries like Indonesia scholars still can differentiate between pesantrenand madrasah. In this study, I examine to philosophical dimension and systemof knowledge reproduction in Islamic education. Finally, I argue thatpesantren or religious school is embedded in Muslim culture.Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan keadaan terkini mengenai pendidikanIslam di Asia Tenggara.Sejauh ini, sudah begitu banyak kajian mengenai madrasah atau pendidikan agama di dalam pendidikan Islam. Sebagai seorangMuslim yang menekuni kajian sosial-antropologi, saya ingin mendekati studiini denganmemaparkansosio-kultural pendidikan Islam di Asia Tenggara.Menurut sejarah, tradisi pendidikan tersebut sudah menggejala dalammasyarakat Muslim pada level akarrumput.Istilah madrasah di Asia Tenggarasudah mengalami perkembangan yang amat pesat, di mana kalau di Aceh dikenaldengan istilah dayah, di Minangkabau dikenal dengan istilah surau, sementaradi Jawa digunakan istilah pesantren, di Malaysia memakai istilah pondok, diThailand Selatan digunakan istilah pho no. Peran madrasah, hamper sama dengantradisi pesantren, kendati di beberapa negara, seperti Indonesia, para sarjanamasih membedakan antara pesantren dan madrasah. Dalam kajian ini, dikupastentang dimensi filosofis dan system reproduksi pengetahuan dalam pendidikanIslam. Akhirnya, saya berargumen bahwa pesantren dan pendidikan agamamerupakan bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dalam budaya Muslim.