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AbstractThe article is devoted to the justification of the hermeneutic approach to the study of keyboard musical instruments. The author rightly says that it is impossible to reduce the problem of ergonomics studies of musical instruments to the subject-object relations "man-machine". Changes in the keyboard design of musical instruments primarily dictated musical aesthetic needs. With the proliferation of organ-piano keyboard type musical instruments become more complex. Front of the musicians was a problem of learning an instrument proficiency. In the evolution of keyboards clearly observed change of scientific and aesthetic paradigms, the transformation approach to ergonomics sound of guns in general. Harmonics keyboard for more than a century of its existence, partly in general follows the historical path systems keyboards and continued forward motion beyond the classic organ-piano keyboard. At the present stage are key, leading to increased complexity and intellectualization of classical music, expanding arsenal of artistic expression.