Indonesian Journal of Theology (E-ISSN: 2339-0751) is a theological journal published by Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia (Indonesian Theologian Association). It is established to enhance theological discourse among theologians across denominations and faith traditions, particularly in the Indonesian context. We welcome contributions from scholars of theological studies, religious studies, and other related fields.
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The library contains vol. 1(2013) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Triangulating the Foundations of Kuyperian Spirituality

    Kristanto, David (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-12-31)
    Spirituality is an under-developed topic on Abraham Kuyper, perhaps it is due to Kuyper’s strong emphasis on the public implications of Christian faith. But things are not supposed to remain that way, since Kuyper also has an equally strong emphasis on the importance of the private dimension of Christian faith. For more than 40 years, Kuyper had written a multivolume of meditations which amount to 2,200. In those meditations, his personality and spirituality are clearly reflected. This article argues that his meditations would be a suitable starting point to construct a Kuyperian spirituality alongside other Kuyperian themes such as his doctrine of regeneration (palingenesis) and his ecclesiology. The term “palingenesis” (from Greek word palingenesia) refers to both personal rebirth and the rebirth of all cosmos. This doctrine bridges the private and public implications of Christian faith, between spirituality and Christian actions in Kuyper’s theology. And while his distinction between the Church as institution and as organism is well-known, his emphasis on the role of the institutional Church as mother which nurtures the spirituality of the believers is lesser known. A deeper examination shows how his ecclesiology plays a central role in his spirituality.
  • Surga Itu Tak Beratap: Refleksi atas Spiritualitas Kaum Non-Heteronormatif dan Gerakan Melawan Diskriminasi Berbasis Gender dan Seksualitas yang Dilakukan atas nama Agama

    Awijaya, Agetta Putri (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-12-31)
    Discrimination towards the non-heteronormative people, including in the mosques and churches, continues to happen. Along with that, particularly in Indonesia, the movements which fight for equality start to have new attention on faith and sexuality. This new wave shows that despite of the struggle related to gender and sexuality faced by our non-heteronormative fellows, there remains the need to defend their faith. The rejection, which is often based on religious values, does not fade their longing to be connected with God. In fact, our non-heteronormative fellows still strive to reach out to God through spiritual spaces outside the churches and refuse to believe the saying that they are “cursed” by God. Their faith does not only become the evidence of their yearning to devote, but also of God’s desire to embrace all creations in the communion with Him. Behind the struggle to cross the borders of patriarchal doctrines and discriminative interpretation of the Bible, there is a spirituality which recognize God’s presence and His involvement in the life of creation. This article tries to give an attention to the ideas which happen to be parts of non-heteronormative people and Beguine spirituality, as the latter was the pioneer of early emancipation movement, and then to construct a theological reflection which represents their spirituality. There is a hope that this article will contributes to the movements against the discrimination towards our non-heteronormative fellows, and that those movements will be regarded as an embodiment of our longing towards God and at the same time, the manifestation of the Triune God’s love which always moves to embrace all creations.
  • Sebuah Ilmu Menghasrat: Topografi Studi Spiritualitas di Indonesia

    Sasongko, Nindyo; Febrianto (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-12-31)
    This is an editorial introduction to the Special Issue "Desiring Love: Foundations of Spirituality."
  • Peranan Abbot Sebagai Representasi Kristus dan Implikasinya dalam Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini

    Benes, Meiliana Evita (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-12-31)
    The presence of the spiritual leaders who have the absolute power is aptly directly related to the spiritual growth of the people whom they served. Abbots in monastic times are examples of leaders with high qualifications to perform instructional tasks related to spiritual formation. The development in history shows the change and complexity of this role. Abbots’ role is important not only for the adults, but also for the children—even to the early childhood. Because spiritual leaders are present as representatives of Christ to show true, authentic, whole, and balanced love. Christ is the primary authority in this instructional process. Early childhood also needs the presence of authorities to support their spiritual formation. To achieve this goal, it is important to consider the role of spiritual leaders and spiritual needs based on early childhood development.
  • The Spirit of Atonement: Pentecostal Contributions and Challenges to the Christian Traditions: by Steven M. Studebaker

    Rice, Monte Lee (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-12-31)
    Sebuah resensi untuk buku The Spirit of Atonement: Pentecostal Contributions and Challenges to the Christian Traditions
  • Kontribusi Doa Mistik Karl Rahner bagi Kalangan Reformed di Era Pascakebenaran

    Salim, Firdaus (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-12-31)
    Reformed conservatives tend to be suspicious and hostile to personal and subjective religious experience. Based on the works of John Calvin, Reformed theology is deemed to exclusively emphasize intellect and rationality. As the world is now facing a post-truth era, Reformed conservatives need to be aware that such era, which is generally understood in the political context, has also affected the dynamics of faith. The post-truth era has made rational and objective facts become less appealing. The subjective elements which involve mystery and awe have now deserved attention. In facing such an era, this article aims to show that the works of Calvin, especially Institutes and his commentary on the book of Psalms, are not hostile to personal religious experience. In fact, the works of Calvin are inseparable from mystical writings and even shows an openness to religious experience. Given such openness, Karl Rahner’s mystical prayers can instill the elements of mystery and awe in the faith of Reformed conservatives.
  • The Holy-Erotic Spirituality: Merayakan Seksualitas, Menghidupi Spiritualitas

    Verdino, Timotius (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-12-31)
    This article intends to show that spirituality and sexuality cannot be separated because they need one another and meet at a common point, namely eros which is animated by the Holy Spirit as a manifestation of divine eros or God's desire. To that end, this paper begins with a few explanations about human sexuality and an overview of how sexuality has been considered in Christianity throughout its history. After that, referring to the discussion of eros in the Song of Songs by Edmée Kingsmill and eros in the relation of the self and the Other according to Mayra Rivera, I will discuss eros as a meeting point for spirituality and sexuality. In the end, based on Pope Benedict XVI's view in Deus Caritas est, this article will be concluded with a theological construction of the Holy Spirit as the Divine Eros, which is God's own desire that animates both human spirituality and sexuality.
  • Interfaith Engagement in Milwaukee: A Brief History of Christian-Muslim Dialogue: by Irfan A. Omar and Kaitlyn C. Daly (eds.)

    Harmakaputra, Hans A. (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This is a book review of Interfaith Engagement in Milwaukee: A Brief History of Christian-Muslim Dialogue
  • Christianities in Southeast Asia: Editorial Introduction to Special Issue

    Harmakaputra, Hans A.; The , Christopher M. (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This is editorial introduction to Special Issue "Christianities in Southeast Asia."
  • Contemporary Christianities in Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities

    Phan, Peter C. (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This is a guest editor's introduction to the special issue "Christianities in Southeast Asia"
  • Locations of Theological Anthropology in Indonesia: A Postcolonial Literary Offer in Max Havelaar

    Hutagalung, Toar B. (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    Colonization takes over many dimensions of life, e.g., theology, economy, history, and the idea of humanity itself (anthropology). In Indonesia, colonization by the Dutch Empire has been determining the life of the Indonesian people since the eighteenth century. The twin gazes, namely of the European orientalists and of the colonized natives, have colluded to maintain certain ruptures in the mentality of the common Indonesian person, including how they treat other human beings. Such a malforming situation is obscured from historical analysis, given what history’s very construction owes to colonial influence. To retrace a more affirming and dignified history, I look elsewhere than the formal record and, by doing so, propose that such a decolonial task lies in availing contemporaneous literary works. In this essay, I present an analysis of the colonial-era novel Max Havelaar, wherein I parse the hidden historical archive offered both in and by the text. Through this analysis, I consider how such an alternative archive affects one’s theological imaginary and promotes the (re)construction of a theological anthropology that escapes the confinement of the white Western orientalist gaze.
  • The Pentecostal Hypothesis: Christ Talks, They Decide: By Nimi Wariboko

    Rice, Monte Lee (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This is a book review of The Pentecostal Hypothesis: Christ Talks, They Decide. 
  • Finding Balance and Harmony: Modernity, Food, and the Partaking of the Holy Communion by Converts from Chinese Religious Traditions in Singapore

    Lim, Benita (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    As Christianity arrived on the shores of Singapore closely following British colonization, Western missionaries introduced their interpretation of the Holy Communion into a foreign land and space that was experiencing its first brushes with Western modernity. Contemporaneously, the movement of modernity continues to make an impact upon an important element of life closely intertwined with religious folk practices and culture of locals: food. In the face of modernizing foodscapes and primordial religious backgrounds, converts from Chinese religious traditions to Christianity find themselves navigating the dissonance of Western Holy Communion theologies with the Chinese philosophies of food. How might churches in Singapore begin to respond to the tensions arising when these two philosophical systems meet, and when Christians and churches seem to appropriate “syncretistic” theologies into their liturgical behavior? This article undertakes an interdisciplinary effort by employing social science to explore the modernizing of food in Singapore, as well as engaging Chinese philosophies of food and the body to explain tensions among converts from Chinese religious traditions, and the resistance of local churches towards Chinese understandings of food rituals in the partaking of the Holy Communion. It will also briefly propose that interdisciplinary studies, including liturgical studies, will be essential in developing a more robust theology of the Holy Communion among churches, thereby enhancing its witness within and without.
  • The Theology of Struggle: Critiques of Church and Society in the Philippines (1970s-1990s)

    Asedillo, Lisa (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This article explores writing and scholarship on the theology of struggle developed by Protestants and Catholics in the Philippines during the 1970s-90s. Its focus is on popular writing—including pamphlets, liturgical resources, newsletters, magazines, newspaper articles, conference briefings, songs, popular education and workshop modules, and recorded talks—as well as scholarly arguments that articulate the biblical, theological, and ethical components of the theology of struggle as understood by Christians who were immersed in Philippine people’s movements for sovereignty and democracy. These materials were produced by Christians who were directly involved in the everyday struggles of the poor. At the same time, the theology of struggle also projects a “sacramental” vision and collective commitment towards a new social order where the suffering of the masses is met with eschatological, proleptic justice—the new heaven and the new earth, where old things have passed away and the new creation has come. It is within the struggle against those who deal unjustly that spirituality becomes a “sacrament”—a point and a place in time where God is encountered and where God’s redeeming love and grace for the world is experienced.
  • “We Believe the Bible”: Cambodian Women in Christian Leadership, 1953–Present

    Wong, Briana (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    Christianity is a small but growing minority in Cambodia, accounting for only about 3% of the population yet growing there at a rate faster than in any other country in Southeast Asia. In Cambodian Christian communities, it is not uncommon to find more women than men in the churches. Cambodian boys often spend a brief period of their youth as novice monks at Theravada Buddhist monasteries, during which time they have the opportunity to become familiar with the Pali language and holy texts. Girls are not afforded this same opportunity, as there are no nuns (bhikkhuni) in contemporary Theravada. Within the Christian community in Cambodia, women carry out much of the service work in the churches, but only rarely are they invited to preach, let alone to become pastors—as is the case in much of the world. This article, based on interviews and participant observation with evangelical churches in Cambodia in 2019, demonstrates the ways in which ministry carried out by women has been characterized by courageous creativity, empowered through physical distance, and undergirded by a resoluteness of vocation.
  • Dari Kabar Baik menjadi Kitab-kitab Injil: Apa yang Diberitakan Orang Kristen Mula-mula tentang Yesus? oleh David Wenham

    Prasetyo, Nurcahyo (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    This is a book review of Dari Kabar Baik menjadi Kitab-kitab Injil.
  • Merengkuh Imaji, Melukis Liturgi: Sebuah Usaha Mengembalikan Fungsi Imajinasi Dalam Praktik Bernyanyi Kongregasional Melalui Teori Ontologi Trinitarian Supernaturalism John Jefferson Davis

    Augustan, Hansel (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    Imagination appears to be an inescapable aspect of the human order, one with the power to reveal meaning, grasp reality, animate feelings, and motivate people. Yet it can often go undertheorized and, thus, be undervalued.  This can be witnessed, for example, in the worship rituals of the Protestant church. Logocentrism and other various historical trajectories in this (broad) tradition have brought the church to a crisis of imagination. What an irony!—since worship is a bodily ritual that reveals the truest reality of the universe in sacramental ways. Therefore, this article attempts to revitalize and re-reveal the significance of the imagination, especially for believers in the context of Christian worship. Following the ontological theory of Trinitarian Supernaturalism as proposed by John Jefferson Davis, I explain how the imagination can become a vehicle that brings the congregation to interpret worship observances within a “holistic” ontology of reality. The implications will specifically address the practice of congregational singing as a performative activity that dominates worship rituals. With this elaboration, it is hoped that the congregation will be able to experience a sense of meaning that is holistic and authentic within its observance of worship.
  • Communal Religious Education in a Multicultural Indonesian Church

    Wowor, Jeniffer (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    The reality of diversity is an integral part of Gereja Protestan di Indonesia bagian Barat (The Protestant Church in Western Indonesia, abbreviated as GPIB). This contextual plurality is the church’s wealth, which should make an essential contribution to its ministry. However, a singular challenge that arises in light of that diversity relates to the strong emphasis on “church unity”—which should be a supportive element—thus contributing to problems with the church’s ministry and pedagogy. How is this so? Given that centralized efforts to promote unity correlate closely with the imposition of rules that dominate and determine Christian religious education in the church, this article asserts the necessity of communal identity for an ongoingly diverse reality; communal identity, in other words, must not be destroyed in the name of promoting unity. The argument unfolds in three stages, entailing (1) a summary of the current context of the GPIB and problems it faces, (2) an academic study of the objectives of Christian religious education, to be considered in the context of the GPIB, and (3) a rationale for setting these objectives. Through these three stages, the communal vision is expected to contribute to the church’s ministry and education in the midst of the congregation and the whole Indonesian society with its multicultural context.
  • Mendedah Lokalitas, Menuju Interseksionalitas: Suatu Usulan Heuristik Lintasan Berteologi dalam Konteks Bagi Kaum Tionghoa-Injili Indonesia Lewat Kacamata Interseksionalitas

    Yosia, Adrianus (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    This article discusses the utility of intersectional theology for understanding the contextual plurality of social identity within an Indonesian Sino-evangelical frame. My claim will be that the very multiplicity of social identity found in Sino-evangelical communities in Indonesia, which arises from the context of the May 1998 riots, serves as a theological resource that takes form according to certain heuristic trajectories. These trajectories stem from four well-attested characteristics of the Evangelical category itself, which in turn can be read through intersectional lenses. To achieve such an aim, I first explore the notion of plural identity vis-à-vis the label of Sino-evangelical in general. The essay then moves to discuss intersectional theology in light of what is characteristic about the category, Evangelical. Afterward, I explicate a key social context for the Sino-evangelical community, namely, the May 1998 riots. In the final section, I construct certain theologically heuristic trajectories according to an intersectional theological reading of the Sino-evangelical community, which is then framed according to four dimensions of David W. Bebbington’s (Evangelical) quadrilateral: conversionism, activism, biblicism, and crucicentrism.
  • Narasi Membangun Selebrasi: Gulir Ritual Kekristenan Awal

    Rachman, Rasid (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    At its inception, Christian worship emerged from social conversations around a feast table. During Christianity’s earliest moments, these dining hall conversations shaped the (plural) narratives concerning the death of Christ. In this article, I trace the manner in which Christ’s death narratively fomented and fostered a messianic hope within the life of the earliest Christian communities. Central to my thesis is that the expression of such a hope then birthed the narrative of resurrection and of Jesus’ eventual return. The Evangelists, who developed these narratives in turn, did so by collecting stories from several sources, so that they might fashion a revised narrative—a retelling—of the life, work, death, and resurrection of Jesus the Messiah. I demonstrate that such narratives concerning Jesus thus materialize within the very form of ritual worship (liturgy) that had been characteristic of the fellowship enjoyed by the Primitive Church. These rites and practices entailed worship on the first day (Sunday worship), the Divine Office (daily prayers according to the hours), Paschal (Easter) worship, and baptism (ritualistic initiation). At the same time, even these worship rites themselves (re)narrate the story of Christ—with everything becoming intertwined, both bound up together and unfurling as a scroll. The worship rites of today’s church thereby comprise a heritage that stems from the celebratory feasts and mealtime stories of an anticipatory antiquity.

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