Indonesian Journal of Theology (E-ISSN: 2339-0751) is a theological journal published by Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia (Indonesian Theologian Association). It is established to enhance theological discourse among theologians across denominations and faith traditions, particularly in the Indonesian context. We welcome contributions from scholars of theological studies, religious studies, and other related fields.
Journal website:


The Globethics library contains vol. 1(2013) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • A Hosah Scientific-Cultural Theology of Sacred Air: Science, Simalungun Culture, and Christianity in Constructive Trialogue

    Sipayung, Parulihan (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    This study aims to develop a constructive theology of hosah through an interdisciplinary approach. The research involves a scientific understanding of air, the Simalungun cultural concept of hosah, and Christian theology of the Holy Spirit. It employs a trialogical method consisting of two stages, namely, descriptive-comparative and normative-constructive. The first stage explains the concepts of air, hosah, and Spirit from scientific, cultural, and theological perspectives, respectively. The second stage focuses on constructing a theology of hosah. The results of this trialogue critically analyze, enrich, and revise these concepts. Overall, the study concludes that air is more than just a gaseous compound; it is a sacred altar of life.
  • Jesus, Eunuch, and Holiness: A Holy Space for Intersex in Matthew 19:12

    Rahelia, Vika; Martoyo, Ihan (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    This article presents several views related to the interpretation of “eunuch” in Matthew 19:12. We find that alternative interpretations allow for inclusive gender variations when translating from the original language of this verse. Notably, this would include understanding the status of a eunuch, who is unable to marry or bear children. This condition could be natural from birth, inflicted by another individual, or chosen voluntarily for service or the Kingdom of God. Although the notion of “unmanliness” was considered shameful and disrespectful at the time, it was met with valorization by Jesus. Like most verses open to interpretation, this scripture has led to multiple interpretations from various perspectives. However, a common thread in Jesus’ acknowledgment of the eunuch condition is evident, and we note that only in Matthew is the natural condition of a eunuch mentioned, namely, the condition of being a eunuch from birth or the mother’s womb. Although the term “eunuch” is typically used for men who have been castrated, either voluntarily or due to external factors, reference to a natural eunuch plainly includes what we now recognize as individuals with genetic anomalies, a fact that necessitates new identifications under intersex variations.
  • Theologizing Perennial Religious Conversion: A Multi-Faith Interpretation of Acts 9:1-19 from the Sufi Notion of Wahdat al-Adyan (Unity of Religions)

    Abdillah, Aldi (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    The phenomenon of religious conversion can incite fear and prejudice against other religions, particularly those exhibiting radical moments and movements. Within the diverse context of Indonesia, the multifaceted yet deeply personal dimensions of such radical religious conversions invite further examination. A prominent historical figure who experienced such a radical religious conversion was Paul the Apostle. This article considers the text of Acts 9:1-19, which narrates his mystical encounter with Jesus while on the way to persecute the primitive Christian community in Damascus. It then moves to consider the mystical notion of Wahdat al-Adyan, or the Unity of Religions, as articulated centuries later by the Sufi mystic, Al-Hallaj (858-922 CE). My aim is to propose a theology of perennial religious conversion, or considering the religious conversion as a mystical, esoteric, and syncretic event. To do this, I adopt a perennialist philosophy as my primary framework for exploring the phenomenon of religious conversion. Informed by one of the religious conversion aspect of the Christian New Testament and mystical Islamic teachings, the multi-faith hermeneutic I construct provides opportunities to understand a given sacred text (Christianity) from the perspective of another religious tradition (Islam), thereby yielding a theology of religious conversion that is deeply relevant given Indonesia’s diversity.
  • Holy Communion as Inclusive Space of Encounter for People with Disabilities

    Tohatta, Debbie (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    This article considers Holy Communion as a meeting space of meaningful inclusivity for people with disabilities. While God’s initiative extends to all Christians to share together in table fellowship, individuals with disabilities are often less involved in the act of Holy Communion. Given conditions such as blindness, paralysis, and cognitive impairment, these Christians are frequently viewed as objects of compassion. Moreover, disabilities are often perceived in certain cultures as a result of parental or communal sins. Instead of regarding the disabilities of such persons as a symptom of sin, we must recognize that people with disabilities possess gifts bestowed by God for their life’s journey (Nancy L. Eiesland). The church, which is often indifferent to the challenges faced by people with disabilities, suffers from a lack of understanding of Christ’s role in the lives of people with disabilities (Michael S. Beates). As such, cultural values of shame felt by families often cause them to feel embarrassed about bringing their children to church or undergoing the catechetical process for their participating in Holy Communion. In contrast, the profound inclusivity of Holy Communion can help people understand that all are equal before Christ, and everyone deserves to participate in Holy Communion, accept salvation, and participate in fellowship with Christ. The church needs further education to understand Holy Communion as welcoming of everyone to encounter Christ in salvific faith and the truth that they are accepted as they are.
  • To Love Nature From Within the Divine Auspices: Reinterpreting Augustinian Uti and Frui through the Seva and Svarupa of Hinduism

    Atmoko, Ricky (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    Evangelical Christianity’s concern for nature generally follows a dualistic, utilitarian influence that can be traced back to the thought of Augustine. To escape the trap of dualism, I reinterpret the Augustinian dyad of uti (means or use) and frui (enjoyment or delight) using the Hindu notions of seva (selflessness) and svarupa (true form). In doing so, I construct the posture of loving nature from within the divine auspices—namely, to love creation in the shade of God. I employ the reinterpretative comparative theology methodology of Catherine Cornille, which makes one concept from a given religion more understandable by means of the context of another. First, the Hindu notion of svarupa can transpose the dualistic tendency of frui from being directed “to” the divine auspices of God’s being towards the non-dualistic sense of being “within” the divine shade. As such, svarupa is vital for my reinterpretation of frui. Second, the Hindu notion of seva retrieves the meaning of uti from falling into a utilitarian (or, worse still, consequentialist) mode of relating to nature without love. Likewise, I find seva helpful to inform my reinterpretation of uti. By understanding the Augustinian uti-frui binary through seva and svarupa, I propose to develop a non-dichotomous, non-utilitarian comparative environmental paradigm. Moving beyond a God-nature dualism helps Christians to see God’s love in the material world, just as taking a non-utilitarian view helps us to be concerned with the long-term impact of human actions on nature.
  • Teologi Sahala: by Riris Johanna Siagian

    Tambunan, Elia (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    A book review of Teologi Sahala.
  • The Crucifixion of Jesus: Torture, Sexual Abuse, and Scandal of the Cross: By David Tombs

    Chandra, Fang Fang (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    A book review of The Crucifixion of Jesus: Torture, Sexual Abuse, and Scandal of the Cross.
  • Evaluating the Relationship between Christianity and Indigenous Religion in the Context of the Christian Evangelical Church in Timor (Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor)

    Nenohai, Jear Niklas Doming Karniatu (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    This article examines the relationship between the Christian Evangelical Church of Timor (Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor, or GMIT) and Indigenous religions. It gives special attention to the Monthly Cultural Liturgy (Liturgi Bulan Budaya, or LBB), which is a contextual theological construct instituted by the GMIT Synod. This research explores the limited efficacy of contextual theology as the approach only aids GMIT members in observing aspects of Indigeneity within the context of Christian worship, while the LBB otherwise rejects Indigenous cultural and religious practices as errant and infidel. Despite incorporation of Indigenous values within an ecclesial milieu, the discriminatory attitudes of GMIT members towards Indigenous communities remain unaddressed within the current prism of contextual theology. Consequently, I aim to improve Christian contextual theology through studying other religions by means of the Indigenous religion paradigm. The goal is to create a more inclusive theology that encourages GMIT members to be more open and accepting of local communities practicing Indigenous religions. Such an amalgamation yields an intersubjective paradigm of contextual theology, the upshot of which makes for a more adaptive LBB that fosters relationships within the scope of GMIT’s ministerial services.
  • Cultural-Ecological Mission as a Cosmological Dialectic between Aluk Mappurondo and Christianity in Mamasa, West Sulawesi

    Saputra, Jefri Andri; Mordekai (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-12-26)
    This research explores the discord of belief between Aluk Mappurondo and Christianity in Mamasa, West Sulawesi, which is evident in residential segregation and the decline of relations between the two religions. As we aim to identify the common ground between them, the study uses a comparative approach to analyze the similarities and differences in the cosmologies of Aluk Mappurondo and Christianity. Despite their differing cosmologies, we find that Aluk Mappurondo and Christianity can coexist by defining and respecting each other's territories. They can also collaborate to uphold ethical values as well as demonstrate shared ecological concern in preserving forests and agricultural land in Mamasa.
  • Constructing a Contextual Theology of Friendship: Re-reading the Friendship Narrative between Jonathan and David through the Lens of a Batak Toba

    Sipahutar, Roy Charly (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    Indonesian theologians over the past decade have shown increasing interest in discussing various aspects of friendship. Unfortunately, not many have explored it from the perspective of the Old Testament (OT), in spite of the fact that several OT narratives explicitly depict interpersonal friendship—one of which tells of the close relationship between Jonathan and David as found passim throughout 1 and 2 Samuel. This article seeks both a deeper understanding of as well as fresh insights from the Jonathan-David narrative, which will be re-read through the lens of Batak Toba friendship as represented by marpadan and maraleale. Sociological, anthropological, and spiritual values of friendship are intertwined in these two important terms. In re-reading the Jonathan-David narrative, marpadan (intricate solidarity) and maraleale (deep friendship) are placed in a constructive dialogue with bĕrîth (covenant or testament in biblical Hebrew). The results of this re-reading through a Batak Toba perspective shows that the Jonathan-David relationship was not limited only to their interpersonal relationship but later expands to include intercommunal relations. Friendship is thus the willingness of both parties to open up, blend together, and always be progressively subject to mutual self-evaluation.
  • A Forgiving Community: Interpreting the Concept of Forgiveness in 2 Corinthians 2:5-11 by Means of Intercontextual Method

    Weldemina, Yudit Tiwery; Wenno, Vincent Kalvin (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    Public forgiveness plays a crucial role in efforts to reduce conflicts. In practice, forgiveness performed by a group or community often becomes the subject of diverse discourses. The text of 2 Corinthians 2:5-11 conveys a message about the necessity of forgiveness in a public context. The text is closely associated with the dynamic relationship between Paul, the community, and the individuals considered guilty. Paul makes a demand for the community to forgive those who have committed wrongdoings, following the example of forgiveness that he has demonstrated towards the offenders. Employing an intercontextual method, this study examines the context of public forgiveness in 2 Corinthians 2:5-11 and the forgiveness process that occurs in the post-conflict situation in Maluku. Both contexts are treated as subjects that collectively contribute creatively to determining meaning within this research. Considering both contexts, this study elaborates on the experiences of forgiveness in these two contexts simultaneously. Ultimately, the study deduces that public forgiveness is also important to be considered in reconciliation efforts. Forgiveness is not solely confined to the dimensions of personal piety or personal morality, but it also serves as a moral value that must be implemented by the entire community.
  • Repentance and Renewal of Mind: Comparing the Narrative Structures of Romans 12:1-12 and Sastra Jendra Hayuningrat Pangruwating Diyu

    Sugianto (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    Examining the harmony and disharmony between sacred texts and the wisdom tradition of the local community is an important step to develop a peaceful dialogue with the hope of reducing tensions, namely, in the social, cultural, and religious context of Java. In this study, the narrative structures of Romans 12:1-2 and Sastra Jendra Hayuningrat Pangruwating Diyu are placed in cross-textual dialogue. In particular, the author uses the actantial analytic reading method of Algirdas Julien Greimas to bridge an analysis concerning repentance and the renewal of the mind. This approach to cross-textual reading, as it is informed by Greimas' theory, focuses on the main narrative structure of Romans 12:1-2 and Sastra Jendra Hayuningrat Pangruwating Diyu, showing that there is both harmony that becomes the basis for dialogue but also disharmony that enriches the dialogue between these stories.
  • Love, Virginity, and Shame: An Intersectional Feminist Analysis of Dating Violence

    Siahaan, Melinda; Sianturi, Reymond Pandapotan; Lumbantobing , Agustina; Rajagukguk, Rolima; Gea, Cahaya Julita (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    This paper discusses the phenomenon of dating violence, or kekerasan dalam pacaran (KDP). Although a perpetrator evinces threats upon personal safety, victims tend to defend and rationalize a perpetrator's negative behaviour by considering KDP a unique form of love, care, and affection. This stance perpetuates KDP on the one hand, while it hinders advocacy efforts for victims on the other. The authors conducted a study of the experiences of KDP among eleven female undergraduate students in North Tapanuli Regency. Through its use of an intersectional feminist perspective proposed by Kimberlé Crenshaw, this paper finds that cultural, religious, gendered, and economic factors play a pivotal role in a victim’s stance to maintain KDP relations. Such victoms of KDP become trapped in overlapping injustices caused by the KDP perpetrator, cultures of discriminatory gender relations within a patriarchal society, an errant theological interpretation of love and forgiveness, and even poverty. This article offers three points for a theological reconstruction: a (corrective) theology of love and forgiveness, of imago Dei, and of shame and accountability.
  • Understanding Generational Characteristics to Develop an Intergenerational Ministry in the Evangelical Christian Church in Timor (Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor)

    Hale, Merensiana (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    The church in its ministry is ever sensitive to respond to the needs of the congregation according to the times. Congregations comprised of several generations often become mired in congregational divisions, stemming from generational gap issues that then foment intergenerational conflicts. To respond to this problem, the church must equip itself with insights into generational characteristics so as to improve generation-based ministries. Therefore, this paper promotes the convergence of generational theory and church ministry, to enrich the church by means of an understanding of generations according to their characteristics. Toward these aims, a methodological literature review yields that generational theory presents a major contribution for the church that seeks to maximize its congregational ministry towards all who belong to God. For Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor, (Evangelical Christian Church in Timor), having a good understanding of generational theory and how it contributes to ministry is useful for developing and implementing strategies involving intergenerational Christian education.
  • Pilgrimage in a Complex and Plural World: The Role of Shrines and the Practice of Catholic Pilgrimage in the Church’s Evangelizing Mission

    Laksana, Albertus Bagus; Hariandja, William Christopher; Taruna, Rezerius Bintang (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    Through case study research involving several Catholic pilgrimage sites in Java and Bali, this article shows the role of Catholic pilgrimage sites and their assoiated practices. By taking a phenomenological-anthropological approach informed by sacramental theology and a Catholic theology of evangelization, this article examines today’s dynamics of evangelization in an increasingly divided, complex, and pluralistic era. Pilgrimage sites and traditions have a unique role in the process of evangelization, understood as an expansion of the Church’s presence that transforms people and local communities, with pilgrimage sites and practices shown to empower pilgrims by helping them connect with God, themselves, others, and the universe on a personal, spiritual level. The administrators of pilgrimage sites also seek solidarity with a site’s surrounding community. Given that the Catholic pilgrimage tradition helps people to express their religion in personal, interpersonal, cosmic, and inclusive ways vis-à-vis other religions, the pilgrimage tradition helps the Church and society face the dangers of the privatization of religion, the politicization of religion, and the spread of radical and iconoclastic ideologizations of religion. Such is the task of contextual evangelization in a plural and complex society like Indonesia.
  • Intersectional Theology: An Introductory Guide: by Grace Ji-Sun Kim dan Susan M. Shaw

    Nixon, Grant (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    A book review of Intersectional Theology: An Introductory Guide
  • How to Study Global Christianity: A Short Guide for Students: by Jason Bruner

    Choi, Byung Ho (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    A book review of How to Study Global Christianity: A Short Guide for Students.
  • Folk Christian Community in Kalimantan Evangelical Church (GKE) Congregations of Pendahara Katingan Resort

    Tumbol, Stynie Nova; Wainarisi, Yane Octavia Rismawati (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    The cultural openness of Dayak society in Central Borneo has enabled the Dayak people to quickly adopt Christian traditions since Christianity came there in the late 1830s. However, not all Christian communities were able to reconcile their faith with their indigenous culture. Many Dayak continue to face the dilemma of living as “true” Christians abandoning all indigenous traditions yet burdened by the extinction of indigenous culture or, on the other hand, living as Christians continuing to observe local traditions while being absorbed in syncretist practices. Katingan Regency is distinctive for the number of Christian communities that continue in adherence to their original religion of Kaharingan. More than religious affiliation, Kaharingan is itself a cultural aspect of the Dayak people in Central Borneo. This qualitative research uses phenomenological methods to study GKE Resort Pendahara Katingan, whose congregations remains actively involved in the practice of Kaharingan ancestral rituals and traditions. Data were collected through direct observations, interviews, and document research, which were then triangulated prior to analysis and final conclusions. Findings of the study suggest that not all indigenous cultures stemming from folk religion are bad in principle, since many of these promote ethical values including ecosystem preservation within the framework of ecotheology. Such localized ethical wisdom supports and aligns with church traditions, as seen in the notion of belom bahadat—a term denoting the upright, virtuous life informed by the truth of tradition—that bespeaks hospitality towards fellow creatures as well as the earth where humanity dwells.
  • The Cultural House of Anggrunggondok as a Means to Build the Local Church in the Diocese of Purwokerto, Central Java

    Aryanto, Antonius Galih Arga Wiwin; Kurniawan, Agustinus Brian; Saptono (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2023-07-08)
    This article examines the Anggrunggondok cultural house (rumah budaya) as a space of meeting and mutual dialogue between local Javanese values and the Catholic Church, through gamelan, ketoprak, and other traditional Javanese arts. The cultural house is located in Anggrungondok, Kapencar, Wonosobo, Central Java in the Diocese of Purwokerto. Research was conducted by means of in-depth interviews with resident artists. Study findings demonstrate the benefits of the cultural house as an instrument for the Church to develop the local community and become more relevant and significant for people nearby. The Anggrunggondok cultural house does this by helping farmers to be more self-supporting and artists to develop their local culture.
  • Membangkitkan Realitas Alternatif: Konsep “Imajinasi Profetik” Walter Brueggemann sebagai Metafora Kitab Suci bagi Kontestasi Naratif Realitas Kontemporer

    Hendradi, Nathaniel (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2022-07-15)
    Modern scholars of narrative, such as Ninian Smart, Paul G. Hiebert, Charles Taylor, James W. Sire, and James K.A. Smith, affirm the centrality of narrative for shaping the identity and spirituality of individuals and society. The power of narrative attends the dimension of the imaginal, which is manifest in mythical stories. Such scholarship draws primarily upon sociological/anthropological approaches if not, more simply, a humanities-oriented disciplinarity. While maintaining an appreciation for such precedent studies, this article aims to make a discursive contribution to the subject at hand—a contribution that considers the discourse on narrative and mythical stories from biblical studies perspective, given the significance of what it means to perceive the human person in complex and holistic fashion. The author holds the centrality of the scriptural text for determining the life and faith of God’s people, given that the text comprises God’s narrative: as foundation, as memory, and as their mythical framework. Utilizing Walter Brueggemann’s notion of the “prophetic imagination,” this article proposes that the metaphor of Scripture serves as a model for encountering the reality of contemporary life, surrounded as each one is by narrative contestations.

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