Indonesian Journal of Theology (E-ISSN: 2339-0751) is a theological journal published by Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia (Indonesian Theologian Association). It is established to enhance theological discourse among theologians across denominations and faith traditions, particularly in the Indonesian context. We welcome contributions from scholars of theological studies, religious studies, and other related fields.
Journal website:


The library contains vol. 1(2013) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Interfaith Engagement in Milwaukee: A Brief History of Christian-Muslim Dialogue: by Irfan A. Omar and Kaitlyn C. Daly (eds.)

    Harmakaputra, Hans A. (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This is a book review of Interfaith Engagement in Milwaukee: A Brief History of Christian-Muslim Dialogue
  • Christianities in Southeast Asia: Editorial Introduction to Special Issue

    Harmakaputra, Hans A.; The , Christopher M. (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This is editorial introduction to Special Issue "Christianities in Southeast Asia."
  • Contemporary Christianities in Southeast Asia: Challenges and Opportunities

    Phan, Peter C. (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This is a guest editor's introduction to the special issue "Christianities in Southeast Asia"
  • Locations of Theological Anthropology in Indonesia: A Postcolonial Literary Offer in Max Havelaar

    Hutagalung, Toar B. (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    Colonization takes over many dimensions of life, e.g., theology, economy, history, and the idea of humanity itself (anthropology). In Indonesia, colonization by the Dutch Empire has been determining the life of the Indonesian people since the eighteenth century. The twin gazes, namely of the European orientalists and of the colonized natives, have colluded to maintain certain ruptures in the mentality of the common Indonesian person, including how they treat other human beings. Such a malforming situation is obscured from historical analysis, given what history’s very construction owes to colonial influence. To retrace a more affirming and dignified history, I look elsewhere than the formal record and, by doing so, propose that such a decolonial task lies in availing contemporaneous literary works. In this essay, I present an analysis of the colonial-era novel Max Havelaar, wherein I parse the hidden historical archive offered both in and by the text. Through this analysis, I consider how such an alternative archive affects one’s theological imaginary and promotes the (re)construction of a theological anthropology that escapes the confinement of the white Western orientalist gaze.
  • The Pentecostal Hypothesis: Christ Talks, They Decide: By Nimi Wariboko

    Rice, Monte Lee (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This is a book review of The Pentecostal Hypothesis: Christ Talks, They Decide. 
  • Finding Balance and Harmony: Modernity, Food, and the Partaking of the Holy Communion by Converts from Chinese Religious Traditions in Singapore

    Lim, Benita (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    As Christianity arrived on the shores of Singapore closely following British colonization, Western missionaries introduced their interpretation of the Holy Communion into a foreign land and space that was experiencing its first brushes with Western modernity. Contemporaneously, the movement of modernity continues to make an impact upon an important element of life closely intertwined with religious folk practices and culture of locals: food. In the face of modernizing foodscapes and primordial religious backgrounds, converts from Chinese religious traditions to Christianity find themselves navigating the dissonance of Western Holy Communion theologies with the Chinese philosophies of food. How might churches in Singapore begin to respond to the tensions arising when these two philosophical systems meet, and when Christians and churches seem to appropriate “syncretistic” theologies into their liturgical behavior? This article undertakes an interdisciplinary effort by employing social science to explore the modernizing of food in Singapore, as well as engaging Chinese philosophies of food and the body to explain tensions among converts from Chinese religious traditions, and the resistance of local churches towards Chinese understandings of food rituals in the partaking of the Holy Communion. It will also briefly propose that interdisciplinary studies, including liturgical studies, will be essential in developing a more robust theology of the Holy Communion among churches, thereby enhancing its witness within and without.
  • The Theology of Struggle: Critiques of Church and Society in the Philippines (1970s-1990s)

    Asedillo, Lisa (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    This article explores writing and scholarship on the theology of struggle developed by Protestants and Catholics in the Philippines during the 1970s-90s. Its focus is on popular writing—including pamphlets, liturgical resources, newsletters, magazines, newspaper articles, conference briefings, songs, popular education and workshop modules, and recorded talks—as well as scholarly arguments that articulate the biblical, theological, and ethical components of the theology of struggle as understood by Christians who were immersed in Philippine people’s movements for sovereignty and democracy. These materials were produced by Christians who were directly involved in the everyday struggles of the poor. At the same time, the theology of struggle also projects a “sacramental” vision and collective commitment towards a new social order where the suffering of the masses is met with eschatological, proleptic justice—the new heaven and the new earth, where old things have passed away and the new creation has come. It is within the struggle against those who deal unjustly that spirituality becomes a “sacrament”—a point and a place in time where God is encountered and where God’s redeeming love and grace for the world is experienced.
  • “We Believe the Bible”: Cambodian Women in Christian Leadership, 1953–Present

    Wong, Briana (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2021-08-12)
    Christianity is a small but growing minority in Cambodia, accounting for only about 3% of the population yet growing there at a rate faster than in any other country in Southeast Asia. In Cambodian Christian communities, it is not uncommon to find more women than men in the churches. Cambodian boys often spend a brief period of their youth as novice monks at Theravada Buddhist monasteries, during which time they have the opportunity to become familiar with the Pali language and holy texts. Girls are not afforded this same opportunity, as there are no nuns (bhikkhuni) in contemporary Theravada. Within the Christian community in Cambodia, women carry out much of the service work in the churches, but only rarely are they invited to preach, let alone to become pastors—as is the case in much of the world. This article, based on interviews and participant observation with evangelical churches in Cambodia in 2019, demonstrates the ways in which ministry carried out by women has been characterized by courageous creativity, empowered through physical distance, and undergirded by a resoluteness of vocation.
  • Dari Kabar Baik menjadi Kitab-kitab Injil: Apa yang Diberitakan Orang Kristen Mula-mula tentang Yesus? oleh David Wenham

    Prasetyo, Nurcahyo (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    This is a book review of Dari Kabar Baik menjadi Kitab-kitab Injil.
  • Merengkuh Imaji, Melukis Liturgi: Sebuah Usaha Mengembalikan Fungsi Imajinasi Dalam Praktik Bernyanyi Kongregasional Melalui Teori Ontologi Trinitarian Supernaturalism John Jefferson Davis

    Augustan, Hansel (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    Imagination appears to be an inescapable aspect of the human order, one with the power to reveal meaning, grasp reality, animate feelings, and motivate people. Yet it can often go undertheorized and, thus, be undervalued.  This can be witnessed, for example, in the worship rituals of the Protestant church. Logocentrism and other various historical trajectories in this (broad) tradition have brought the church to a crisis of imagination. What an irony!—since worship is a bodily ritual that reveals the truest reality of the universe in sacramental ways. Therefore, this article attempts to revitalize and re-reveal the significance of the imagination, especially for believers in the context of Christian worship. Following the ontological theory of Trinitarian Supernaturalism as proposed by John Jefferson Davis, I explain how the imagination can become a vehicle that brings the congregation to interpret worship observances within a “holistic” ontology of reality. The implications will specifically address the practice of congregational singing as a performative activity that dominates worship rituals. With this elaboration, it is hoped that the congregation will be able to experience a sense of meaning that is holistic and authentic within its observance of worship.
  • Communal Religious Education in a Multicultural Indonesian Church

    Wowor, Jeniffer (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    The reality of diversity is an integral part of Gereja Protestan di Indonesia bagian Barat (The Protestant Church in Western Indonesia, abbreviated as GPIB). This contextual plurality is the church’s wealth, which should make an essential contribution to its ministry. However, a singular challenge that arises in light of that diversity relates to the strong emphasis on “church unity”—which should be a supportive element—thus contributing to problems with the church’s ministry and pedagogy. How is this so? Given that centralized efforts to promote unity correlate closely with the imposition of rules that dominate and determine Christian religious education in the church, this article asserts the necessity of communal identity for an ongoingly diverse reality; communal identity, in other words, must not be destroyed in the name of promoting unity. The argument unfolds in three stages, entailing (1) a summary of the current context of the GPIB and problems it faces, (2) an academic study of the objectives of Christian religious education, to be considered in the context of the GPIB, and (3) a rationale for setting these objectives. Through these three stages, the communal vision is expected to contribute to the church’s ministry and education in the midst of the congregation and the whole Indonesian society with its multicultural context.
  • Mendedah Lokalitas, Menuju Interseksionalitas: Suatu Usulan Heuristik Lintasan Berteologi dalam Konteks Bagi Kaum Tionghoa-Injili Indonesia Lewat Kacamata Interseksionalitas

    Yosia, Adrianus (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    This article discusses the utility of intersectional theology for understanding the contextual plurality of social identity within an Indonesian Sino-evangelical frame. My claim will be that the very multiplicity of social identity found in Sino-evangelical communities in Indonesia, which arises from the context of the May 1998 riots, serves as a theological resource that takes form according to certain heuristic trajectories. These trajectories stem from four well-attested characteristics of the Evangelical category itself, which in turn can be read through intersectional lenses. To achieve such an aim, I first explore the notion of plural identity vis-à-vis the label of Sino-evangelical in general. The essay then moves to discuss intersectional theology in light of what is characteristic about the category, Evangelical. Afterward, I explicate a key social context for the Sino-evangelical community, namely, the May 1998 riots. In the final section, I construct certain theologically heuristic trajectories according to an intersectional theological reading of the Sino-evangelical community, which is then framed according to four dimensions of David W. Bebbington’s (Evangelical) quadrilateral: conversionism, activism, biblicism, and crucicentrism.
  • Narasi Membangun Selebrasi: Gulir Ritual Kekristenan Awal

    Rachman, Rasid (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    At its inception, Christian worship emerged from social conversations around a feast table. During Christianity’s earliest moments, these dining hall conversations shaped the (plural) narratives concerning the death of Christ. In this article, I trace the manner in which Christ’s death narratively fomented and fostered a messianic hope within the life of the earliest Christian communities. Central to my thesis is that the expression of such a hope then birthed the narrative of resurrection and of Jesus’ eventual return. The Evangelists, who developed these narratives in turn, did so by collecting stories from several sources, so that they might fashion a revised narrative—a retelling—of the life, work, death, and resurrection of Jesus the Messiah. I demonstrate that such narratives concerning Jesus thus materialize within the very form of ritual worship (liturgy) that had been characteristic of the fellowship enjoyed by the Primitive Church. These rites and practices entailed worship on the first day (Sunday worship), the Divine Office (daily prayers according to the hours), Paschal (Easter) worship, and baptism (ritualistic initiation). At the same time, even these worship rites themselves (re)narrate the story of Christ—with everything becoming intertwined, both bound up together and unfurling as a scroll. The worship rites of today’s church thereby comprise a heritage that stems from the celebratory feasts and mealtime stories of an anticipatory antiquity.
  • Delighting the Trinity: An Introduction To Christian Faith: by Michael Reeves

    Wijaya, Jonathan Cristian (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    This is a book review of Delighting the Trinity.
  • Dialog Kemanusiaan: Mengupayakan Dialog antara Spiritualitas Trinitaris dengan Ateisme Spiritual ala André-Comte Sponville

    Banoet, Fiktor (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-12-31)
    Is there room for furthering a humanistic dialogue on the interplay between Christianity and atheism? Whence an opportunity for investigating the discursive, practical, and even subtle relations between the spiritualities of these ir/religious domains? In this article, I explore these imaginative possibilities following my conviction that any efforts to bridge such humanistic dialogue between Christian and atheist spiritualities are to be sustained by taking a position of paradox—namely, within a “spiritual” zone of commensurability and incommensurability that determines the conditions (and limits) for any comparative or correlative work. This thesis emerges from a consideration of André Comte-Sponville’s efforts to develop a discourse à la “spirituality without God.” Utilizing a critical approach, I frame spirituality without God as a shared discourse, that is, a discursivity under construction between a cosmic spirituality on the one hand and a dialogically humanistic perspective on the other. The direction and benefit of this tandem construction is having the room to experience a Trinitarian spirituality, a possibility and opportunity that emerges after taking into dialogical consideration the critical message that an atheistic spirituality puts toward the task of theology in the midst of so many humanitarian (in addition to ecological) crises. Such discursive correspondence is a matter of contemporary historical import, particularly in the Indonesian context marked by violence and socioreligious dysfunction.
  • Merenungkan Kembali Pertanyaan "Siapakah Sesamaku Manusia?" : Sebuah Pengantar Editorial

    Yosia, Adrianus (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-09-10)
    This is an editor introduction to the special issue Rethinking the Idea of "Who is My Neighbor?"   
  • Reading the Book of Job and Camus's La Peste during COVID-19

    Susanto, Erwin (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-09-10)
    The pandemic crisis that is COVID-19 has caused unprecedented suffering throughout the world. At such a time, the religious person can legitimately ask why God allows this and how one’s faith might wrestle with such tragedy. In my search of the Scriptures to respond to these questions, I find the Book of Job to be a fruitful dialogue partner—be it in the way it urges one to consider aspects of suffering that are not apparent or in how it resists attempts at oversimplifying God’s character. In this essay, I compare the Book of Job with Albert Camus’s novel La Peste, the latter being set during an epidemic. I argue that both literary works provide space for a theological voice to recognize and articulate suffering in terms of divine justice; both works also enable one to resist any concrete framework for explaining suffering. I then suggest that La Peste complements one’s reading of Job as Scripture by highlighting both the importance of active response to suffering as well as the relational dimension of suffering in the world, which should prove to be helpful in this time of crisis and beyond.
  • Mystical Hunger: Memaknai Lapar sebagai Pengalaman Mistik dalam Upaya Transformasi Sosial

    Leonard, Leksmana (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-09-10)
    This article endeavors to discuss hunger as a site for mystical encounter with God. The history of Christian mysticism shows that our experiences play a significant role in the sourcing of its very theology. Upon consideration of a clarifying definition for mystical theology, I elaborate on Simone Weil’s view of hunger as mystical experience along with Dorothee Sölle’s notion that mystical experience impacts social transformation. With help from both, hunger can be seen as an experience of intimacy with God and at once possesses the dimension for hospitality, for the purposes of breaking down social barriers.
  • Menolak Diam: Gereja Melawan Perdagangan Orang: by Mery Kolimon, et. al., eds.

    Gunawan, Linna (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-09-10)
    Book discussion of Menolak Diam.
  • The Acting Person on the U.S.-Mexico Border : Revisiting Karol Wojtyla’s Idea of Being a Neighbor

    Ludji, Irene (Asosiasi Teolog Indonesia, 2020-09-10)
    This article discusses the importance of being a neighbor, as understood through Karol Wojtyla’s idea of “the acting person,” in the context and experience of the migrants and humanitarian volunteers on the U.S.-Mexico border. There are three parts to this article. In the first part, I discuss the reality that migrants and humanitarian volunteers face at the U.S.-Mexico border. Migrants live in a liminal and violent space at the border, and the volunteers choose to enter this space to meet the vulnerable others. In the second part, I examine an idea presented by then-Cardinal Karol Wojtyla in his book The Acting Person. In the book─published in 1969 before he became Pope John Paul II in 1978─Wojtyla addresses the importance of being a neighbor through conscious participation in actions “together with others” for the achievement of the common good. In the third part, I present a critical reflection on the connection between migrants’ context and humanitarian work experience at the U.S.-Mexico border and Wojtyla’s idea of the acting person as a neighbor. By putting the idea of a neighbor in dialogue with the context of the U.S.-Mexico border, I intend to broaden Wojtyla’s thought to address the contemporary circumstances at the border. 

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