Information Technology and Libraries is a refereed journal published quarterly by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA), a division of the American Library Association. It publishes material related to all aspects of information technology in all types of libraries. Topic areas include, but are not limited to, library automation, digital libraries, metadata, identity management, distributed systems and networks, computer security, intellectual property rights, technical standards, geographic information systems, desktop applications, information discovery tools, web-scale library services, cloud computing, digital preservation, data curation, virtualization, search-engine optimization, emerging technologies, social networking, open data, the semantic web, mobile services and applications, usability, universal access to technology, library consortia, vendor relations, and digital humanities.


The library contains articles of Information Technology and Libraries as of vol. 3(1970) no. 2 to current.

Recent Submissions

  • A Semantic Model of Selective Dissemination of Information for Digital Libraries

    Morales-del-Castillo, J. M.; Pedraza-Jiménez, R.; Peis, E.; Herrera-Viedma, E. (Library Information Technology Association, 2013-01-03)
    n this paper we present the theoretical and methodological foundations for the development of a multi-agent Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) service model that applies Semantic Web technologies for specialized digital libraries. These technologies make possible achieving more efficient information management, improving agent–user communication processes, and facilitating accurate access to relevant resources. Other tools used are fuzzy linguistic modelling techniques (which make possible easing the interaction between users and system) and natural language processing (NLP) techniques for semiautomatic thesaurus generation. Also, RSS feeds are used as “current awareness bulletins” to generate personalized bibliographic alerts.
  • Taking the Long Way Around: Improving the Display of HathiTrust Records in Primo

    Bengtson, Jason Alden; Coleman, Jason (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    As with any shared format for serializing data, Primo’s PNX records have limits on the types of data which they pass along from the source records and into the Primo tool. As a result of these limitations, PNX records do not currently have a provision for harvesting and transferring rights information about HathiTrust holdings that the Kansas State University (KSU) Library system indexes through Primo. This created a problem, since Primo was defaulting to indicate that all HathiTrust materials were available to KSU Libraries (K-State Libraries) patrons, when only a limited portion of them actually were. This disconnect was infuriating some library users, and creating difficulties for the public services librarians. There was a library-wide discussion about removing HathiTrust holdings from Primo altogether, but it was decided that such a solution was an overreaction. As a consequence, the library IT department began a crash program to attempt to find a solution to the problem. The result was an application called hathiGenius.
  • Who Will Use This and Why? User Stories and Use Cases

    Ford, Kevin M (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    User stories and use cases help focus any development project on those who stand to benefit, i.e. the project’s stakeholders, and can guard simultaneously against insufficient planning and software bloat. And the concepts, though most often thought of with respect to large-scale projects, apply in all circumstances, from the smallest feature request to an existing system to the redesign of a complex system.
  • The Democratization of Artificial Intelligence: One Library’s Approach

    Frisco Public Library; Adam Lamprecht, Frisco Public Library, Adult Services; Finley, Thomas K (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    This article argues that the current technological revolution that is happening in Artificial Intelligence is not just about its prevalence in daily life, but the real revolution is about the emergence of AI tools that may help to democratize its use. Lowering the barrier to a technology that is perceived more as science fiction than accessible for mass utilization. A Public Library shares its approach in leveraging available tools to enable AI education for all.
  • Measuring Information System Project Success through a Software-Assisted Qualitative Content Analysis

    Guo, Jin Xiu (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    Information System (IS)/IT project success is a growing interest in management due to its high impact on organizational change and effectiveness. Libraries have been adopting integrated library systems (ILS) to manage services and resources for years. It is essential for librarians to understand the mechanism of IS project management in order to successfully bring technology innovation to the organization. This study develops a theoretical model of measuring IS project success and tests it in an ILS merger project through a software-assisted qualitative content analysis. The model addresses project success through three constructs: (1) project management process, (2) project outcomes, and (3) contextual factors. The results indicate project management success alone cannot guarantee project success; project outputs and contextual factors also influence success through the leadership of the project manager throughout the lifecycle. The study not only confirms the proposed model in a post-project evaluation, but also signifies that project assessment can reinforce organizational learning, increase the chance of achieving success, and maximize overall returns for an organization. The qualitative content analysis with NVivo 11 has provided a new research method for project managers to self-assess an IS/IT project success systematically and learn from their experiences throughout the project lifecycle.
  • The Map as a Search Box: Using Linked Data to Create a Geographic Discovery System

    The Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University; Mckee, Gabriel (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    This article describes a bibliographic mapping project recently undertaken at the Library of the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World (ISAW). The MARC Advisory Committeerecently approved an update to MARC that enables the use of dereferenceable Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) in MARC subfield $0. The ISAW Library has taken advantage of MARC’s new openness to URIs, using identifiers from the linked data gazetteer Pleiades in MARC records and using this metadata to create maps representing our library’s holdings. By populating our MARC records with URIs from Pleiades, an online, linked open data (LOD) gazetteer of the ancient world, we are able to create maps of the geographic metadata in our library’s catalog. This article describes the background, procedures, and potential future directions for this collection-mapping project.
  • A Systematic Approach Towards Web Preservation

    Khan, Muzammil; Rahman, Arif Ur (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    The main purpose of the article is to divide the web preservation process into small explicable stages and design a step-by-step web preservation process that leads to creating a well-organized web archive. A number of research articles are studied about web preservation projects and web archives, and designed a step-by-step systematic approach for web preservation. The proposed comprehensive web preservation process describes and combines strengths of different techniques observed during the study for preserving digital web contents into a digital web archive. For each web preservation step, different approaches and possible implementation techniques have been identified that can be adopted in digital archiving. The potential value of the proposed model is to guide the archivist, related personnel, and organizations to effectively preserved their intellectual digital contents for future use. Moreover, the model can help to initiate a web preservation process and create a well-organized web archive to efficiently manage the archived web contents. A section briefly describes the implementation of the proposed approach in a digital news stories preservation framework for archiving news published online from different sources.
  • Letter from the Editor (March 2019)

    Varnum, Kenneth J. (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    Announcing our new regular column, Public Libraries Leading the Way, and summarizing this issue's contents.
  • Library Services Navigation: Improving the Online User Experience

    Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University; Rennick, Brian (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    While the discoverability of traditional information resources is often the focus of library website design, there is also a need to help users find other services such as equipment, study rooms, and programs. A recent assessment of the Brigham Young University Library website identified nearly two hundred services. Many of these service descriptions were buried deep in the site, making them difficult to locate. This article will describe a web application that was developed to improve service discovery and to help ensure the accuracy and maintainability of service information on an academic library website.
  • Determining Textbook Cost, Formats, and Licensing with Google Books API: A Case Study from an Open Textbook Project

    Costello, Eamon; Bolger, Richard; Soverino, Tiziana; Brown, Mark (Library Information Technology Association, 2019-03-18)
    The rising cost of textbooks for students has been highlighted as a major concern in higher education, particularly in the US and Canada. Less has been reported, however, about the costs of textbooks outside of North America, including in Europe. We address this gap in the knowledge through a case study of one Irish higher education institution, focusing on the cost, accessibility, and licensing of textbooks. We report here on an investigation of textbookprices drawing from an official college course catalogcontaining several thousand books. We detail how we sought to determine metadata of these books including: the formats they are available in, whether they are in the public domain, and the retail prices. We explain how we used methods to automatically determine textbook costs using Google Books API and make our code and dataset publicly available. 
  • Assessing the Treatment of Patron Privacy in Library 2.0 Literature

    Zimmer, Michael (Library Information Technology Association, 2013-06-10)
    As libraries begin to embrace Web 2.0 technologies to serve patrons – ushering in the era of Library 2.0 – unique dilemmas arise regarding protection of patron privacy. The norms of Web 2.0 promote the open sharing of information – often personal information – and the design of many Library 2.0 services capitalize on access to patron information and might require additional tracking, collection and aggregation of patron activities. Thus, embracing Library 2.0 potentially threatens the traditional ethics of librarianship, where protecting patron privacy and intellectual freedom has been held paramount. As a step towards informing the decisions to implement Library 2.0 to adequately protect patron privacy, we must first understand how such concerns are being articulated within the professional discourse surrounding these next generation library tools and services. The study presented in this paper aims to determine whether and how issues of patron privacy are introduced, discussed, and settled – if at all – within trade publications utilized by librarians and related information professionals
  • An Overview of the Current State of Linked and Open Data in Cataloging

    Ullah, Irfan; Khusro, Shah; Ullah, Asim; Naeem, Muhammad (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-12-17)
    Linked Open Data (LOD) is a core Semantic Web technology that makes knowledge and information spaces of different knowledge domains manageable, reusable, shareable, exchangeable, and interoperable. The LOD approach achieves this through the provision of services for describing, indexing, organizing, and retrievingknowledge artifacts and making them available for quick consumption and publication. Thisis also alignedwith the role and objective of traditional library cataloging. Owing to this link, majorlibraries of the world are transferring their bibliographic metadata to the LOD landscape. Some developments in this direction include the replacement of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules 2nd Edition by the Resource Description and Access (RDA) and the trend towards the wideradoption of BIBFRAME 2.0. An interestingand related development in this respect arethe discussions among knowledge resources managers and library community on the possibility of enriching bibliographic metadata with socially curated or user-generated content. The popularity of Linked Open Data and its benefit to librarians and knowledge management professionals warrant a comprehensive survey of the subject. Althoughseveral reviews and survey articles on the application of Linked Data principles to cataloging have appeared in literature, a generic yet holistic review of the current state of Linked and Open Data in cataloging is missing. To fill the gap, the authors have collected recent literature (2014–18) on the current state of Linked Open Data in cataloging to identify research trends, challenges, and opportunities in this area and, in addition, to understand the potential of socially curated metadata in cataloging mainlyin the realm of the Web of Data. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this review article is the first of its kind that holistically treats the subject of cataloging in the Linked and Open Data environment. Some of the findings of the review are: Linked and Open Data is becoming the mainstream trend in library cataloging especially in the major libraries and research projects of the world; with the emergence of Linked Open Vocabularies (LOV), the bibliographic metadata is becoming more meaningful and reusable; and, finally, enriching bibliographic metadata with user-generated content is gaining momentum.Conclusions drawn from the study include the need for a focus on the quality of catalogued knowledge and the reduction of the barriers to the publication and consumption of such knowledge, and the attention on the part of library community to the learning from the successful adoption of LOD in other application domains and contributing collaboratively to the global scale activity of cataloging.
  • The “Black Box”: How Students Use a Single Search Box to Search for Music Materials

    Dougan, Kirstin (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-12-17)
    Given the inherent challenges music materials present to systems and searchers (formats, title forms and languages, and the presence of additional metadata such as work numbers and keys), it is reasonable that those searching for music develop distinctive search habits compared to patrons in other subject areas. This study uses transaction log analysis of the music and performing arts module of a library’s federated discovery tool to determine how patrons search for music materials. It also makes a top-level comparison of searches done using other broadly defined subject disciplines’ modules in the same discovery tool. It seeks to determine, to the extent possible, whether users in each group have different search behaviors in this search environment. The study also looks more closely at searches in the music module to identify other search characteristics such as type of search conducted, use of advanced search techniques, and any other patterns of search behavior.
  • Letter from the Editor (December 2018)

    Varnum, Kenneth J. (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-12-17)
    As 2018 draws to a close, we have our last retrospective look at ITAL's past, and announce a new feature for the future.
  • President’s Message: Imagination and Structure in Times of Change

    Kim, Bohyun (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-12-17)
    A report on the work of the Steering Committee investigating the proposed merger of LITA with ALCTS (Association for Library Collections and Technical Services) and LLAMA (Library Leadership and Management Association) and the four working groups.
  • PAL: Toward a Recommendation System for Manuscripts

    Ziegler, Scott; Shrake, Richard (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-09-26)
    Book-recommendation systems are increasingly common, from Amazon to public library interfaces. However, for archives and special collections, such automated assistance has been rare. This is partly due to the complexity of descriptions (finding aids describing whole collections) and partly due to the complexity of the collections themselves (what is this collection about and how is it related to another collection?). The American Philosophical Society Library is using circulation data collected through the collection-management software package, Aeon, to automate recommendations. In our system, which we’re calling PAL (People Also Liked), recommendations are offered in two ways: based on interests (“You’re interested in X, other people interested in X looked at these collections”) and on specific requests (“You’ve looked at Y, other people who looked at Y also looked that these collections”). This article will discuss the development of PAL and plans for the system. We will also discuss ongoing concerns and issues, how patron privacy is protected, and the possibility of generalizing beyond any specific software solution. 
  • Library Space Information Model Based on GIS — A Case Study of Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Guo Jing, Chen Jiayi, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library; Liu Min and Peng Xia, East China Normal University; the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (17JCYA13), Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Shen, Yaqi (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-09-26)
    In this paper, a library-space information model (LSIM) based on a geographical information system (GIS) was built to visually show the bookshelf location of each book through the display interface of various terminals. Taking Shanghai Jiao Tong University library as an example, both spatial information and attribute information were integrated into the model. In the spatial information, the reading room layout, bookshelves, reference desks, and so on were constructed with different attributes. The bookshelf layer was the key attribute of the bookshelves, and each book was linked to one bookshelf layer. Through the field of bookshelf layer, the book in the query system can be connected with the bookshelf-layer information of the LSIM. With the help of this model, readers can search books visually in the query system and find the books’ positions accurately. It can also be used in the inquiry of special-collection resources. Additionally, librarians can use this model to analyze books’ circulation status, and books with similar subjects that are frequently circulated can be recommended to readers. The library’s permanent assets (chairs, tables, etc.) could be managed visually in the model. This paper used GIS as a tool to solve the problem of accurate positioning, simultaneously providing better services for readers and realizing visual management of books for librarians.
  • Gaps in IT and Library Services at Small Academic Libraries in Canada

    Hoover, Jasmine (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-12-17)
    Modern academic libraries are hubs of technology, yet the gap between the library and IT is an issue at several small university libraries across Canada that can inhibit innovation and lead to diminished student experience. This paper outlines results of a survey of small (<5,000 FTE) universities in Canada, focusing on IT and the library when it comes to organizational structure, staffing, and location. It then discusses higher level as well as smaller scale solutions to this issue.
  • Getting to Yes: Stakeholder Buy-In for Implementing Emerging Technologies in Your Library

    Joiner, Ida Arlene (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-09-26)
    Have you ever wanted to implement new technologies in your library or resource center such as (drones, robotics, artificial intelligence, augmented/virtual reality/mixed reality, 3D printing, wearable technology, and others) and presented your suggestions to your stakeholders (board members, directors, managers, and other decision makers) only to be rejected based on “there isn’t enough money in the budget,” or “no one is going to use the technology,” or “we like things the way that they are,” then this column is for you.
  • Application Level Security in a Public Library: A Case Study

    Thomchick, Richard; San Nicolas-Rocca, Tonia (Library Information Technology Association, 2018-12-17)
    Libraries have historically made great efforts to ensure the confidentiality of patron personally identifiable information (PII), but the rapid, widespread adoption of information technology and the internet have given rise to new privacy and security challenges. Hypertext Transport Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a form of Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) that enables secure communication over the public internet and provides a deterministic way to guarantee data confidentiality so that attackers cannot eavesdrop on communications. HTTPS has been used to protect sensitive information exchanges, but security exploits such as passive and active attacks have exposed the need to implement HTTPS in a more rigorous and pervasive manner. This report is intended to shed light on the state of HTTPS implementation in libraries, and to suggest ways in which libraries can evaluate and improve application security so that they can better protect the confidentiality of PII about library patrons.

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