Information Technology and Libraries is a refereed journal published quarterly by the Library and Information Technology Association (LITA), a division of the American Library Association. It publishes material related to all aspects of information technology in all types of libraries. Topic areas include, but are not limited to, library automation, digital libraries, metadata, identity management, distributed systems and networks, computer security, intellectual property rights, technical standards, geographic information systems, desktop applications, information discovery tools, web-scale library services, cloud computing, digital preservation, data curation, virtualization, search-engine optimization, emerging technologies, social networking, open data, the semantic web, mobile services and applications, usability, universal access to technology, library consortia, vendor relations, and digital humanities.


The library contains articles of Information Technology and Libraries as of vol. 3(1970) no. 2 to current.

Recent Submissions

  • ResearchGate Metrics’ Behavior and Its Correlation with RG Score and Scopus Indicators

    Valizadeh-Haghi, Saeideh; Nasibi-Sis, Hamed; Shekofteh, Maryam; Rahmatizadeh, Shahabedin (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2022-03-21)
    Objective: Social networking sites are appropriate tools for sharing and exposing scientific works to increase citations. The objectives of the present study are to investigate the activity of Iranian scholars in the medical sciences in ResearchGate and to explore the effect of each of the four ResearchGate metrics on the RG score. Moreover, the citation metrics of the faculty members in Scopus and the relationship between these metrics and the RG score were explored. Methods: The study population included all SBMU faculty members who have profiles in ResearchGate (N=950). The data were collected through ResearchGate and Scopus in January 2021. The Spearman correlation coefficient was applied to examine the relationship between ResearchGate metrics and Scopus indicators as well as to determine the effect of each ResearchGate metric on the RG score. Results: The findings revealed that the publication sharing metric had the highest correlation (0.918) with the RG score and had the greatest impact on it (p-value <0.001), while the question asking metric showed the lowest correlation (0.11). Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the RG score and Scopus citation metrics (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, all four RG metrics had a positive and significant relationship with Scopus indicators (p-value <0.05), in which the number of shared publications had the highest correlation compared to other RG metrics. Conclusion: Researchers’ participation in the ResearchGate social network is effective in increasing citation indicators. Therefore, more activity in the ResearchGate social network may have favorable results in improving universities’ ranking.
  • Local Hosting of Faculty-Created Open Education Resources

    Letriz, Joseph (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2022-03-21)
    Rising costs of secondary education institutions, coupled with the inflated cost of textbooks, have forced students to make decisions on whether they can afford the primary materials for their classes. Publishers working to supply digital access codes, which limit the ability of students to copy, print, or share the materials, or resell the textbook after the course is over, have further pushed students into forgoing purchasing materials. In recent years, institutions have moved to support OER (Open Education Resources) initiatives to provide students a cost-free primary text or supplement to their materials. This allows students unfettered access to quality resources that help drive engagement in courses, from homework to discussions. While larger institutions or in-state partnerships with resource sharing consortiums, such as the MnPALS cooperation with the state of Minnesota, provide access to platforms like Pressbooks, smaller institutions and private colleges don’t always have the ability to negotiate these types of relationships. In this case study, I will cover the foundations necessary to start a low-cost, self-hosted solution to support faculty creation of OER material and the available resources that the University of Dubuque utilized in their development process. This overview will briefly cover the skills and knowledge needed to support the growth of this initiative with minimal complexity and as little jargon as possible.
  • Using DPLA and the Wikimedia Foundation to Increase Usage of Digitized Resources

    Byrd-McDevitt, Dominic; Dewees, John (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2022-03-21)
    The Digital Public Library of America has created a process by which rights-free or openly licensed resources that have already been harvested can be copied over into Wikimedia Commons, thus creating a simple path for including those digital collections materials into Wikipedia articles. By meeting internet users where they already are, rather than relying on them to navigate to individual digital libraries, the access and usage of digital assets is dramatically increased, in particular to user groups that might otherwise not have a reason to interact with such digitized resources.
  • Using Open Access Institutional Repositories to Save the Student Symposium during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Symulevich, Allison; Hamilton, Mark (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2022-03-21)
    In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, colleges and universities around the world were forced to close or move to online instruction. Many institutions host yearly student research symposiums. This article describes how two universities used their institutional repositories to adapt their student research symposiums to virtual events in a matter of weeks. Both universities use the bepress Digital Commons platform for their institutional repositories. Even though the two universities’ symposium strategies differed, some commonalities emerged, particularly with regard to learning the best practices to highlight student work and support their universities’ efforts to host research symposiums virtually.
  • Migration of a Research Library's ICT-Based Services to a Cloud Platform

    Jayakanth, Francis; Byrappa, Ananda T; Minj, Filbert (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2022-03-21)
    Libraries have been at the forefront in adopting emerging technologies to manage the library’s operations and provide information services to the user community they serve. With the emergence of cloud computing (CC) technology, libraries are exploring and adopting CC service models to make their own services more efficient, reliable, secure, scalable, and cost-effective. In this article, the authors share their experience migrating some of the library’s locally hosted ICT-based services onto the Microsoft Azure cloud platform. The migration of services to a cloud platform has helped the library significantly reduce the downtime of its services due to power or network or system outages.
  • Policy Before Technology

    Lund, Brady (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2022-03-21)
    In the race to adopt the newest and best, practical considerations for emerging technologies are frequently overlooked. Technology can set an organization apart and, in the case of libraries, be instrumental in helping demonstrate value. Yet, all new technologies carry additional, potentially unpleasant consequences, whether it be threats to privacy and security, barriers to accessibility or risks to health, learning barriers, or exposure to misinformation. Organizations must consider these threats before introducing new technologies, rather than the other way around. To illustrate these threats and their policy implications, I will briefly discuss two popular technologies/innovations—virtual reality and data analytics—and the threats that are often overlooked by organizations and how they may be appropriately addressed by policy.
  • Letter from the Editors (March 2022)

    Varnum, Kenneth J.; Kelly, Marisha C. (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2022-03-21)
    Welcome to ITAL's Assistant Editor, call for volunteers to serve on the Editorial Board, and summary of the issue's contents.
  • Balancing Community and Local Needs

    Coughlin, Daniel (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2022-03-21)
    This paper examines the decision points over the course of ten years for developing an Institutional Repository. Specifically, the focus is on the impact and influence from the open-source community, the needs of the local institution, the role that team dynamics plays, and the chosen platform. Frequently, the discussion revolves around the technology stack and its limitations and capabilities. Inherently, any technology will have several features and limitations, and these are important in determining a solution that will work for your institution. However, the people running the system and developing the software, and their enthusiasm to continue work within the existing software environment in order to provide features for your campus and the larger open-source community will play a bigger role than the technical platform. These lenses are analyzed through three points in time: the initial roll out of our Institutional Repository, our long-term running and maintenance, and eventual new development and why we made the decisions we made at each of those points in time.
  • Developing a Minimalist Multilingual Full-text Digital Library Solution for Disconnected Remote Library Partners

    Digby, Todd (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-20)
    The University of Florida (UF) George A. Smathers Libraries have been involved in a wide range of partnered digital collection projects throughout the years with a focus on collaborating with institutions across the Caribbean region. One of the countries that we have a number of digitization projects within is Cuba. One of these partnerships is with the library of the Temple Beth Shalom (Gran Sinagoga Bet Shalom) in Havana, Cuba. As part of this partnership, we have sent personnel over to Cuba to do onsite scanning and digitization of selected materials found within the institution. The digitized content from this project was brought back to UF and loaded into our University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC) system. Because internet availability and low bandwidth are issues in Cuba, the Synagogue’s ability to access the full-text digitized content residing on UFDC was an issue. The Synagogue also did not have a local digital library system to load the newly digitized content. To respond to this need we focused on providing a minimalist technology solution that was highly portable to meet their desire to conduct full-text searches within their library on their digitized content. This article will explore the solution that was developed using a USB flash drive loaded with a PortableApps version of Zotero loaded with multilingual OCR’s documents.
  • Bridging the Gap

    Boczar, Jason; Pollock, Bonita; Mi, Xiying; Yeslibas, Amanda (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-20)
    The year of COVID-19, 2020, brought unique experiences to everyone in their daily as well as their professional life. Facing many challenges of division in all aspects (social distancing, political and social divisions, remote work environments), University of South Florida Libraries took the lead in exploring how to overcome these various separations by providing access to its high-quality information sources to its local community and beyond. This paper shares the insights of using Linked Data technology to provide easy access to digital cultural heritage collections not only for the scholarly communities but also for those underrepresented user groups. The authors present the challenges at this special time of the history, discuss the possible solutions, and propose future work to further the effort.
  • A 21st Century Technical Infrastructure for Digital Preservation

    Tallman, Nathan (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-20)
    Digital preservation systems and practices are rooted in research and development efforts from the late 1990s and early 2000s when the cultural heritage sector started to tackle these challenges in isolation. Since then, the commercial sector has sought to solve similar challenges, using different technical strategies such as software defined storage and function-as-a-service. While commercial sector solutions are not necessarily created with long-term preservation in mind, they are well aligned with the digital preservation use case. The cultural heritage sector can benefit from adapting these modern approaches to increase sustainability and leverage technological advancements widely in use across Fortune 500 companies.
  • Black, White, and Grey

    Ellern, Gillian (Jill) D; Cruz, Laura (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-20)
    This study seeks to extend wicked problems analysis within the context of a library’s support for virtual reality (VR) and the related extended reality (XR) emerging technologies. The researchers conducted 11 interviews with 13 librarians, embedded IT staff, and/or faculty members who were involved in administering, managing, or planning a virtual reality lab or classroom in a library (or similar unit) in a higher education setting. The qualitative analysis of the interviews identified clusters of challenges, which are categorized as either emergent (but solvable) such as portability and training; complicated (but possible) such as licensing and ethics: and/or wicked (but tameable). The respondents framed their role in supporting the wickedness of VR/XR in three basic ways: library as gateway, library as learning partner, and library as maker. Five taming strategies were suggested from this research to help librarians wrestle with these challenges of advocating for a vision of VR/XR on their respective campuses. This research also hints at a larger role for librarians in the research of technology diffusion and what that might mean to their role in higher education in the future.
  • Stateful Library Analysis and Migration System (SLAM)

    Panescu, Adrian-Tudor; Grosu, Teodora-Elena; Manta, Vasile (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-20)
    Interoperability between research management systems, especially digital libraries or repositories, has been a central theme in the community for the past years, with the discussion focused on means of enriching, linking, and disseminating outputs. This paper considers a frequently overlooked aspect, namely the migration of records across systems, by introducing the Stateful Library Analysis and Migration system (SLAM) and presenting practical experiences with migrating records from DSpace and Digital Commons repositories to Figshare.
  • Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Statements on Academic Library Websites

    Ely, Eric (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-20)
    Post-secondary education in the 21st century United States is rapidly diversifying, and institutions’ online offerings and presence are increasingly significant. Academic libraries have an established history of offering virtual services and providing online resources for students, faculty, staff, and the general public. In addition to these services and resources, information on academic library websites can contribute to an institution’s demonstration of value placed on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). This article analyzes the DEI statements of a library consortium’s member websites to explore how these statements contribute to institutional construction of, and commitment to, diversity, equity, and inclusion. Descriptive analysis revealed 12 of 16 member libraries had explicitly labeled DEI statements in November 2020, with an additional member updating their website to include such a statement in early 2021. Content analysis examined how the existing statements contributed to institutional value of and commitment to DEI, and multi-modal theory explored the communicative aspects of DEI statement content. Analysis revealed vague conceptualizations of diversity and library-centered language in DEI statements, while a subset of statements employed anti-racist and social justice language to position the library as an active agent for social change. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed.
  • How COVID Affected our Python Class at the Worcester Public Library

    Friedenthal, Melody (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-17)
    Teaching a technical class online due to COVID required some adjustments by both the instructor and the students. 
  • Hackathons and Libraries

    Longmeier, Meris Mandernach (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-20)
    Libraries foster a thriving campus culture and function as “third space,” not directly tied to a discipline.[i] Libraries support both formal and informal learning, have multipurpose spaces, and serve as a connection point for their communities. For these reasons, they are an ideal location for events, such as hackathons, that align with library priorities of outreach, data and information literacy, and engagement focused on social good. Hackathon planners could find likely partners in either academic or public libraries as their physical spaces accommodate public outreach events and many are already providing similar services, such as makerspaces. Libraries can act solely as a host for events or they can embed in the planning process by building community partnerships, developing themes for the event, or harnessing the expertise already present in the library staff. This article, focusing on years from 2014 to 2020, will highlight the history and evolution of hackathons in libraries as outreach events and as a focus for using library materials, data, workflows, and content. [i] James K. Elmborg, “Libraries as the Spaces Between Us: Recognizing and Valuing the Third Space,” Reference and User Services Quarterly 50, no. 4 (2011): 338–50.
  • Letter from the Editor

    Varnum, Kenneth J. (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-12-20)
  • Expanding and Improving Our Library’s Virtual Chat Service

    Fruehan, Parker; Hellyar, Diana (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-09-20)
    With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing shutdown of the library building for several months, there was a sudden need to adjust how the Hilton C. Buley Library at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU) delivered its services. Overnight, the library’s virtual chat service went from a convenient way to reach a librarian to the primary method by which library patrons contacted the library for help. In this article, the authors will discuss what was learned during this time and how the service has been adjusted to meet user needs. Best practices and future improvements will be discussed.
  • Product Ownership of a Legacy Institutional Repository

    Narlock, Mikala; Brower, Don (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-09-20)
    Many academic libraries have developed and/or purchased digital systems over the years, including digital collection platforms, institutional repositories, and other online tools on which users depend. At Hesburgh Libraries, as with other institutions, some of these systems have aged without strong guidance and resulted in stale services and technology. This case study will explore the lengthy process of stewarding an aging service that satisfies critical external needs. Starting with a brief literature review and institutional context, the authors will examine how the current product owners have embraced the role of maintainers, charting a future direction by defining a clear vision for the service, articulating firm boundaries, and prioritizing small changes. The authors will conclude by reflecting on lessons learned and discussing potential future work, both at the institutional and professional level.
  • Text Analysis and Visualization Research on the Hetu Dangse During the Qing Dynasty of China

    Wang, Zhiyu; Wu, Jingyu; Yu, Guang; Song, Zhiping (Core: Leadership, Infrastructure, Futures, a division of the American Library Association, 2021-09-20)
    In traditional historical research, interpreting historical documents subjectively and manually causes problems such as one-sided understanding, selective analysis, and one-way knowledge connection. In this study, we aim to use machine learning to automatically analyze and explore historical documents from a text analysis and visualization perspective. This technology solves the problem of large-scale historical data analysis that is difficult for humans to read and intuitively understand. In this study, we use the historical documents of the Qing Dynasty Hetu Dangse,preserved in the Archives of Liaoning Province, as data analysis samples. China’s Hetu Dangse is the largest Qing Dynasty thematic archive with Manchu and Chinese characters in the world. Through word frequency analysis, correlation analysis, co-word clustering, word2vec model, and SVM (Support Vector Machines) algorithms, we visualize historical documents, reveal the relationships between functions of the government departments in the Shengjing area of the Qing Dynasty, achieve the automatic classification of historical archives, improve the efficient use of historical materials as well as build connections between historical knowledge. Through this, archivists can be guided practically in historical materials’ management and compilation.

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