Une histoire impériale connectée ? Hải Phòng : jalon d’une stratégie lyonnaise en Asie orientale (1881-1886)
Social sciences (General)
History of Asia
History (General) and history of Europe
DOAJ:History and Archaeology
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AbstractDans la seconde moitié du xixe siècle, les milieux d’affaires lyonnais liés à l’industrie de la soie – les Soyeux – réussissent à ravir aux Britanniques le marché des soies d’Asie (Bengale, Chine et Japon). Dans un premier temps, sous la Monarchie de Juillet et le Second Empire (de 1843 à 1870), ils mettent en place une route française des soies asiatiques, système complexe alliant maisons de commerce, banques, entrepôts, infrastructures portuaires et ferroviaires. Afin de renforcer leur avance – et dans un contexte de tensions économiques majeures liées à la récession de la fin du xixe siècle – les Soyeux vont jeter leur dévolu sur le Tonkin, vu comme une porte ouverte sur les marchés pensés comme fabuleux du Yunnan et du Sichuan. Ces libéraux, regroupés autour de meneurs d’hommes charismatiques (Aynard et Pila) vont entrer par capitaux interposés dans une logique de repli impérial qui succède à la logique du tout ouverture internationale des lendemains du traité de libre-échange de 1860. Dans les logiques – à la fois politiques et économiques – des Soyeux, le Tonkin apparaît comme une pièce maîtresse dans la partie de poker qui les oppose à leurs partenaires Britanniques dans ce « scramble » indochinois de cette fin de siècle, pendant asiatique de la course au Nil. Au cœur de cette stratégie impériale des Soyeux, le port d’Hải Phòng devient un enjeu majeur, un lieu où s’entrecroise la trame des capitaux et la chaine des réseaux de ces hommes d’affaires qui n’ignoraient rien des subtilités des us commerciaux particuliers de la mer de Chine.<br>During the second half of the 19th century, the Silk businessmen of Lyon succeeded in wrestling the Asian silk markets (Bengal, China, and Japan) from the British. At first, under the July Monarchy and the Second Empire (from 1843 to 1870), they created a French route for Asian silks, a complex system linking mercantile houses, banks, warehouses, and rail and port infrastructures. In order to consolidate their lead – and within a context of extreme economic tension due to the recession at the end of the 19th century – the Silk merchants of Lyon set their sights on Tonkin, the perceived gateway to the supposedly fabulous markets of Yunnan and Sichuan. Charismatic leaders such as Aynard and Pila would convince these Liberals to invest their capitals within the closed frontiers of the French empire – an about face from the former international scope of their activities due to the 1860 Anglo-French free-trade treaty. From both an economic and political point of view, the Silk businessmen of Lyon considered Tonkin their trump card in an Indochinese scramble that pitted them against their British partners. As the 19th century drew to a close, the port of Hải Phòng encapsulated the entire imperial system of these Silk merchants, reducing it to its very essence. The port would become a vital milestone for these businessmen who were well versed in the subtleties of business practices specific to the China Sea.
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Byzantine war against Christians – an "emphylios polemos"?Ioannis STOURAITIS (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)The Byzantine civil wars have been the subject of studies which aimed to analyze and interpret the political and military dimension of the phenomenon of armed conflicts inside the Byzantine society. The ideological aspect of civil war in Byzantium has received less attention. During my study on Byzantine war ideology, I noticed that there are some cases of Byzantine authors of the period after the 9th century that present Byzantine war against another Christian people as a civil one. Beginning with a short overview of the Byzantines’ understanding of the term emphylios polemos which modern researchers interpret usually with the modern term civil war, this study will concentrate on the ideological and political similarities or differences between Byzantine civil war and Byzantine war against Christian enemies.
"Judges of the Velum" and "Judges of the Hippodrome" in Thessalonike (11th c.)Andreas GKOUTZIOUKOSTAS; Λέκτορας Βυζαντινής Ιστορίας ΑΠΘ (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)The present study focuses on judicial officers coming from Constantinople to Thessalonike in the 11th century. The judge of the theme of Thessalonike was in charge of trying cases in the region. From the second fifth of the 11th century, however, his jurisdiction was extended to the greater financial and judicial unit of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike as well. Lead seals and documents from the archives of the monasteries of Athos prove that many of the krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike had been previously krites of the velum and judges of the hippodrome who performed their duties in the capital and belonged to the ranks of the “small judges”. These judicial officers tried cases that were referred to them, while they could also function as assessors of the “great” or superior judges of Constantinople, i.e. the droungarios of the vigla, the dikaiodotes, the protoasecretis, the eparchos of the city, the koiaistor and the epi ton kriseon. The latter could delegate the authority to try cases to the “small” or inferior judges. Consequently, the judges of the velum and the judges of the hippodrome could also be sent from Constantinople to the themes by the emperor or other officials, in order to examine some cases and then return to the capital. This is confirmed by the primary sources, which mention for example the case of judge of the hippodrome Michael Rhodios, who was sent by Alexios I Komnenos in 1084 from Constantinople to the region of Thessalonike, in order to examine a dispute between the Lavra monastery and the brother of the emperor, Adrian. Some years later Michael Rhodios was sent again to try cases in Thessalonike, but this time as krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike. Consequently, apart from the judge of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike, other judges delegated by the emperor or by high officers could also examine cases there, as happened in other themes. From the 14th century on, as Macedonia developed its own law schools, a person who had acquired legal training and judicial experience in Thessalonike could continue his judicial career in Constantinople.
Οι "Κατηχήσεις" του Μιχαήλ Χωνιάτη. Χρονολόγηση και ιστορική προσέγγισηΕργαστήριο Ψηφιακής Αποτύπωσης του Δημοσίου και Ιδιωτικού Βίου των Βυζαντινών/Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών; Καλλιόπη ΜΑΥΡΟΜΜΑΤΗ; Υποψήφιος Διδάκτορας (Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, Εθνικό Ίδρυμα ΕρευνώνInstitute for Byzantine Research, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2010-06-01)THE CATECHISMS OF MICHAEL CHONIATES. DATING AND HISTORICAL APPROACH The Catechisms of Michael Choniates, archbishop of Athens, are included in Spyridon Lampros’ Archive, who first studied the sources in 1906 and transcribed the texts from the manuscript Mosquensis Synodalis 218 (olim 230) and 219 (olim 262). Although he prepared a critical edition, he did not proceed with publishing. Eventually, his work has been digitized and the researcher can visit the Archive online through the website of the Laboratory of Digital Recording of the Public and Private Life of the Byzantines of the University of Athens (http://lamprosarcheio.arch.uoa.gr). The Catechisms are mainly, yet not exclusively, works of religious ethics; they also address the socioeconomic issues of the city of Athens at the end of the 12th century, and thus can be used as a supplementary source for this period. Indeed, the Catechisms offer a comprehensive account of the burdens endured by the Athenians, caused by the exploitative activities of state tax officers, usurers and pirates. On a different perspective, Choniates argues how adverse social conditions, such as poverty, immigration, and land tresspassing, modulate the social fabric and interpersonal relations. Although many of these issues are omitted or very briefly mentioned in other texts, they are clarified in the Catechisms.