• A Brief Political Economy of Energy Subsidies in the Middle East and North Africa

      El-Katiri, Laura; Fattouh, Bassam (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2017-01-30)
      Energy subsidies are among the most pervasive and controversial fiscal policy tools used in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In a region with few functioning social welfare systems, subsidised energy prices continue to form an important social safety net, albeit a highly costly and inefficient one. In the MENA region’s oil and gas producing countries, low energy prices have also historically formed an important element of an unwritten social contract, where governments have extracted their countries’ hydrocarbon riches in return for citizens’ participation in sharing resource rents. While it is clear that energy subsidy reform will not be the only variable at play, its potential socio-economic dividends are important factors for enabling some common regional objectives—sustainable fiscal policies, fiscal space to invest in key areas, and a more efficient and equitable distribution of scarce resources—to be achieved, helping to promote a more stable political status quo in the long term. If accommodated by effective mitigation measures, reforming energy subsidies in the MENA region’s middle-income economies could be a powerful tool for governments—addressing those very profound socio-economic grievances that have contributed to the outbreak of political protest and, in some cases, to an intensification of domestic infighting over political control. In this paper, we look at some of the MENA region’s potential avenues for reform. While the past has demonstrated the political difficulty of reforming energy prices, recent experience also shows that the reform of energy subsidies can be achieved, if accompanied by a set of enabling factors.
    • A Comment on ‘Democracy Promotion at a Local Level : Experiences, Perspectives and Policy of Swiss International Cooperation’ by Martin Dahinden

      Roy, Olivier (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2014-06-05)
      The article ‘Democracy Promotion at a Local Level : Experiences, Perspectives and Policy of Swiss International Cooperation’ by Martin Dahinden presents a fine and complex analysis of what could constitute a concrete and efficient democratisation aid policy; it highlights possible limitations of such a policy, the complexity of levels of intervention and the need to implement this policy within the context of a given civil society and local power dynamics. Such democratisation aid clearly ari...
    • A Neo-Liberal Exception? The Defence Industry ‘Turkification’ Project

      Côrte réal-Pinto, Anouck Gabriela (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2017-05-04)
      Presented at once as an example, a proof, and even a condition of the economic, technological, political and security development of Turkey, the ‘Turkification’ of the defence industry lies at the heart of the government’s legitimacy. Following a socio-historical approach, this chapter aims to understand how this major project, inseparable from the ongoing formation of the state and of a national bourgeoisie organically related to it, was reconfigured in the neo-liberal era not despite globalisation but based on it, particularly through the commodification of Muslim solidarity and military protection. This project appears to constitute an instrument of ‘nationaliberal’ extraversion that is part of an unstable quest for hegemony, riven by numerous conflicts.
    • A New Generation of Leaders in Africa: What Issues Do They Face?

      John O. Igué (2010-03-01)
      Africa is at a crossroads. It is now at the centre of development concerns that its leaders have been involved in for 50 years. These leaders are striving to find a happy outlet through which the black continent would be able play a role at the forefront of the world stage. A new generation of leaders has to be considered, who are capable of facing up to a number of challenges such as fragmentation of the region, history and knowledge, relaying the foundations of the post-colonial State, promotion of democracy and human rights and the implementation of new conditions for peace and freedom, the gauge of sustainable development. The ways in which these various challenges are tackled are crucial.
    • A New Generation of Leaders in Africa: What Issues Do They Face?

      Igué, John O. (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2010-03-11)
      Africa is at a crossroads. It is now at the centre of development concerns that its leaders have been involved in for 50 years. These leaders are striving to find a happy outlet through which the black continent would be able play a role at the forefront of the world stage. A new generation of leaders has to be considered, who are capable of facing up to a number of challenges such as fragmentation of the region, history and knowledge, relaying the foundations of the post-colonial State, promotion of democracy and human rights and the implementation of new conditions for peace and freedom, the gauge of sustainable development. The ways in which these various challenges are tackled are crucial.
    • A ‘Time’ to Act: The 2015–20 Development Plan for Greater Casablanca

      Hachimi Alaoui, Nadia (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2017-05-04)
      This chapter examines conflicts of development focusing on the 2015–20 Development Plan for Casablanca, which was the subject of a broad consultation process initiated and implemented by the Wali of Casablanca, the King of Morocco’s direct representative. The study highlights the competing visions, power relationships and struggles that led to the completion of a hundred or so development projects. Unlike studies on urban development in Morocco, which mainly focus on opposition and protest against development projects, or on engendered loyalties and alliances, this chapter highlights the tactical alliances and various mediations that helped define the development plan. This encourages us to understand the state not as a ‘referee’ but as an ‘arena’. The Casablanca development project represents a period when the balance of power and the competing forces at work in Morocco—the interconnectedrelations of state and society—could be brought up to date.
    • Acción bélica: las zonas de conflicto y su repercusión en las políticas sobre drogas

      Reitano, Tuesday (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2020-10-14)
      La economía de las drogas ilícitas ha surgido como un factor preponderante de agravamiento de la violencia, de obstaculización de las negociaciones de paz y de corrupción de la transición de la guerra a la paz. Las cadenas de narcotráfico se extienden a través de continentes enteros, consolidándose a menudo en Estados frágiles y en situación de conflicto en los cuales los agentes violentos pueden sacar provecho de un “paradigma de gobernanza violenta” para afianzar su influencia económica, política y social. Se ha comprobado que lo anterior, combinado con el sistema internacional de detección y represión existente en materia de estupefacientes, tiene consecuencias adversas en la resolución de los conflictos, así como en las trayectorias de desarrollo de largo plazo de aquellas personas cuyas fuentes de ingresos dependen de la economía de las drogas. Si bien se justificaría la aplicación de una estrategia de reducción de los efectos negativos, se requiere que los encargados de las políticas sobre drogas demuestren ser capaces de proponer alternativas válidas que trasciendan la fase de cultivo y que se dirijan a agentes situados más adelante en la cadena de oferta de drogas.
    • Accra’s Decongestion Policy: Another Face of Urban Clearance or Bulldozing Approach?

      O. Crentsil, Aba; Owusu, George (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2020-03-02)
      Metropolitan local governments in Ghana, most especially the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA), have adopted and implemented a policy of decongestion of the large metropolitan cities of Ghana in the past decades. This policy has been implemented with the explicit aim of reducing informal activities and their operators in the central business districts (CBDs) and other key areas of the cities. While the implementation of the policy in Accra, Ghana’s largest metropolis, has been ad hoc in character, owing to a combination of factors such as limited public support and political liability most especially in election years, the policy in both theoretical and practical terms can be described as representing another form of the much criticised classical ‘bulldozing or slum clearance’ approach. Bearing in mind the backlash against the bulldozing or slum clearance approach as an unsustainable means for promoting urban development, city authorities have coined the term ‘decongestion’ as a simplistic approach to clearing areas of the city of Accra they perceive to be undesirable. This chapter reveals wide-ranging negative impacts of these bulldozing approaches on street traders, slum dwellers and other informal operators as well as the political liability of the policy. It also finds that the concept and practice of ‘Right to the City’ has, to a large extent, been ‘back-burnered’ as urban informal operators are regarded as not possessing any rights in public spaces, with serious implications for achieving inclusive and sustainable urban development as highlighted in the Sustainable Development Goals and the New Urban Agenda.
    • Achats de biens et services des organisations internationales dans les pays industrialisés et les économies émergentes

      Carbonnier, Gilles (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2013-05-27)
      Cet article examine l’évolution des achats de biens et services des organisations multilatérales auprès de fournisseurs établis dans les pays industrialisés et les économies émergentes. Il présente les résultats d’une étude empirique – première du genre – sur les facteurs explicatifs des inégalités entre pays. Les différences s’expliquent notamment par la force du secteur manufacturier et les relations d’affaires établies dans le passé. Les résultats laissent penser que les contributions versées par les pays donateurs peuvent avoir une influence positive sur les achats de biens et services, nonobstant le fait que les organisations multilatérales recourent à des procédures d’appels d’offres internationaux. La proximité géographique, les affinités culturelles et linguistiques et la présence dans le pays du siège d’une organisation multilatérale jouent également un rôle positif. Les achats de biens et services des agences multilatérales peuvent être considérés comme une retombée indirecte de l’aide publique au développement (APD). Alors que nombre d’entre eux font face à de sérieuses difficultés économiques et contraintes budgétaires, documenter un tel « retour sur investissement » peut contribuer à convaincre les décideurs politiques d’augmenter – ou simplement de ne pas réduire – les budgets d’APD. De tels arguments doivent toutefois demeurer marginaux par rapport aux questions centrales de la pertinence et l’efficacité de l’aide, et des performances des organisations multilatérales.
    • Advancing Sustainable Development in Global Trade and Multilateral Negotiations

      Bellmann, Christophe; Latif, Ahmed Abdel; Hepburn, Jonathan (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2011-05-24)
      Published by Palgrave Macmillan World exports and imports are quickly recovering after the 2008-09 sharp decline in merchandise trade, as illustrated by global trade performances in the first and second quarters of 2010. In spite of this impressive recovery, domestic concerns in OECD countries about employment, competitiveness and China’s exchange rate policy have created a difficult political environment for further liberalisation under the Doha Round. Interestingly, developing countries, which were reluctant to engage in a new round of trade negotiations back in 2001, are now in the vanguard of those that wish for a swift conclusion of the talks, even if consensus on the ambitious ‘development package’ envisaged in Doha remains elusive. At the same time trade has been the subject of unprecedented attention and scrutiny in the climate change talks. In a world where multilateral cooperation is in crisis there is a dire need for the international community to generate new types of arrangements and innovative responses to the imperatives of development and the global transition to a low-carbon economy.
    • Africa | Afrique

      Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2012-06-11
      African countries’ independence dates and former colonial powers Dates d’indépendance des pays africains et anciennes puissances coloniales    African countries’ dependence on foreign ODA, 2008 Dépendance des pays africains vis-à-vis de l’APD extérieure, 2008 ODA receipts as a percentage of recipients’ GNI. Among the countries less dependent on foreign ODA, there are those where the industrial structure is diversified and those which export considerable volumes of raw materials, notably oil...
    • Africa | Afrique

      Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2012-06-11
      African countries’ independence dates and former colonial powers Dates d’indépendance des pays africains et anciennes puissances coloniales African countries’ dependence on foreign ODA, 2008 Dépendance des pays africains vis-à-vis de l’APD extérieure, 2008 ODA receipts as a percentage of recipients’ GNI. Among the countries less dependent on foreign ODA, there are those where the industrial structure is diversified and those which export considerable volumes of raw materials, notably oil. |...
    • African Cities and the Development Conundrum

      Ammann, Carole; Förster, Till; Gironde, Christophe; Panizza, Ugo (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2018-09-10)
      Forthcoming, November 2018 This 10th thematic issue of International Development Policy presents a collection of articles exploring some of the complex development challenges associated with Africa’s recent but extremely rapid pace of urbanisation that challenges still predominant but misleading images of Africa as a rural continent. Analysing urban settings through the diverse experiences and perspectives of inhabitants and stakeholders in cities across the continent, the authors consider the evolution of international development policy responses amidst the unique historical, social, economic and political contexts of Africa’s urban development. Guest Editors Carole Ammann is a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Geography at the University of Bern and at the Institute of Sociology, University of Fribourg. She recently completed her dissertation—entitled ‘Silent Politics. Gender, Imagination and the State in Kankan, Guinea’—at the University of Basel. Carole Ammann is interested in questions of urbanity, secondary cities, transformations of the state, political participation, everyday life, and gender in West Africa and France. Till Förster is an anthropologist. He holds a PhD from the Freie Universität Berlin. Since 2001 he has been Chair of Social Anthropology at the University of Basel. Till Förster has specialised in art, visual culture and political transformations in West and Central Africa. Since 1979, he has conducted field research in Côte d’Ivoire and Cameroon. His recent publications focus on visual culture, social creativity and the postcolonial state, as well as on politics and governance in African cities.
    • African Cities and the Development Conundrum

      Förster, Till; Ammann, Carole (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2020-03-02)
      Africa is urbanising faster than any other continent. The stupendous pace of urbanisation challenges the usual image of Africa as a rural continent. The sheer complexity of African cities contests conventional understandings of the urban as well as standard development policies. Lingering between chaos and creativity, Western images of African cities seem unable to serve as a basis for development policies. The diversity of African cities is hard to conceptualise—but at the same time, unbiased views of the urban are the first step to addressing the urban development conundrum. International development cooperation should not only make African cities a focus of its engagement—it should also be cautious not to build its interventions on concepts inherited from Western history, such as the formal/informal dichotomy. We argue that African cities are more appropriately regarded as urban grey zones that only take shape and become colourful through the actors’ agency and practice. The chapters of this special issue offer a fresh look at African cities, and the many opportunities as well as limitations that emerge for African urbanites—state officials, planners, entrepreneurs, development agencies and ordinary people—from their own point of view: they ask where, for whom and why such limitations and opportunities emerge, how they change over time and how African urban dwellers actively enliven and shape their cities.
    • African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

      Austin, Gareth (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2010-03-11)
      This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.
    • African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

      Gareth Austin (2010-03-01)
      This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.
    • Afterword: Middle Class Activism and Bangalore's Environmental Predicament

      Upadhya, Carol (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2017-11-03)
      Carol Upadhya suggests that changes in Bangalore’s social composition and political economy have not only affected the consumption practices of its middle classes, but have also shaped public perception of urban environmental problems as well as the modes of civic engagement documented in this special e-issue. India’s new consumer and public cultures are increasingly centred on these new middle classes, whose lifestyles reflect a tension between a rising consumerist culture and growing environmental awareness. While civic activism and initiatives around waste management in Bangalore are aimed at more sustainable urban management, they fail to address the need for more equitable and democratic mechanisms of public governance. Middle-class actors rarely raise the twin questions of municipal governance and local democracy that must be addressed if long-term solutions to environmental degradation are to be found. This afterword, therefore, invites us to analyse the political economy of consumption and waste that links it to a larger critique of the ‘world-city’ agenda that underlies Bangalore’s development planning.
    • Agriculture and Development in the Wake of the Arab Spring

      Woertz, Eckart (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2017-01-30)
      This paper analyses the role of agriculture in the political economy of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It outlines agriculture’s relative contribution to development and employment, shows linkages with food security policies, and discusses possible future scenarios. Agriculture’s role in the economies of MENA is limited nowadays, but its contribution to employment is still substantial. In many countries it is at the heart of the region’s water crisis as it withdraws about 80 per cent of water resources. Agricultural constituencies have played an important role in sociopolitical transformations of the region. Populist regimes tried to win them over—as support base—with land reforms enacted in the 1950s and 1960s. Since the 1980s these earlier reforms have been pushed back and the sector has been liberalised under bureaucratic-authoritarian reform coalitions. In other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, extensive production subsidies have been maintained. The MENA region is the largest cereal importer in the world and its governments regard this dependency as a strategic liability. However, the quest for self-sufficiency has proven to be elusive in the light of natural constraints and population growth. The major challenge in MENA is not macro food security or lack of calories, but deficiencies of micronutrients such as vitamins and iron and a lack of accessible food for the poor. Hence, inclusive growth, rural livelihood strategies, and political participation will be crucial for food security in MENA.
    • Aid, Emerging Economies and Global Policies

      Bellmann, Christophe; Bellmann, Christophe; Buissonnière, Marine; Buissonnière, Marine; Carbone, Maurizio; Carbone, Maurizio; Carbonnier, Gilles; Carbonnier, Gilles; Davies, Thomas Richard; Davies, Thomas Richard; et al. (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2012-04-01)
      International development cooperation is undergoing a revolution in order to cope with global challenges that cut across the rich/poor and North/South divides. Beyond the fight against poverty, development aid is called upon to address global public goods. While intergovernmental negotiations stall, bilateral and multilateral aid agencies boast to tackle climate change, food insecurity, water and energy scarcity, pandemics, armed conflicts and disasters in weak states, migrations, etc. The emergence of new aid actors radically alters the traditional aid architecture and approaches. The increasing number of poor living in middle-income countries makes poverty alleviation more of a political than a technical endeavour. The book examines how this profoundly affects international development cooperation. It questions how far bilateral and multilateral aid agencies succeed in mainstreaming global issues in their operations. It assesses how emerging and traditional donors address competing objectives, often with diverging rationales. Sixteen authors examine these challenges and the responses of traditional and emerging donors, including Brazil, China and South Africa. A full colour 30-page section illustrates this with graphics and diagrams. Buy the English issue published by Palgrave Macmillan. La coopération internationale au développement est bousculée, tant par la perte de ses repères traditionnels Nord/Sud ou riches/pauvres que par la multiplication des problèmes globaux qu’elle est appelée à traiter. Aujourd’hui, la majorité des pauvres vivent dans des pays à revenu intermédiaire. La lutte contre la pauvreté devient alors plus politique que technique. Il s’agit de (re)penser la répartition des richesses au niveau national, bien au-delà des cadres d’intervention des agences d’aide. En même temps, le système de gouvernance mondiale piétine et les agences se voient confier des missions de plus en plus vastes : préserver les biens publics mondiaux et combattre le changement climatique, l’insécurité alimentaire, les pandémies, les conflits armés, etc. Les agences bilatérales et multilatérales sauront-elles intégrer ces enjeux globaux dans leurs cadres opérationnels ? Comment les acteurs émergents de l’aide - tels l’Afrique du Sud, le Brésil et la Chine - s’inscrivent-ilsdans une coopération internationale aux prises avec des objectifs multiples et des logiques souvent contradictoires ? Le dossier thématique l'"Aide bousculée" est suivi d'une revue annuelle des principales évolutions des politiques commerciale, financière et de coopération au développement et d'un cahier infographique éclairant les thèmes abordés. Achetez le livre papier (256 pages, infographies en couleur). Achetez le livre numérique (EPub et .Pdf sur immateriel), aussi disponible sur Apple Store.
    • Aligning Stakeholder Frames for Transition Management in Solid Waste: A Case Study of Bangalore

      Biyani, Nivedita; Anantharaman, Manisha (Institut de hautes études internationales et du développementInternational Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de développement, 2017-11-03)
      Increasingly, sanitation issues are becoming a central part of global environmental governance and the discourse on sustainability. The city of Bangalore, India, is one of many cities worldwide that is trying to come to terms with its solid waste management (SWM) problems. In 2000, the Government of India issued SWM handling rules, which is a non-binding handbook (MSW Rules 2000) that seeks to guide state and city municipalities and stakeholders in their efforts to deliver better services. A serious SWM crisis prompted Bangalore to be the first city in India to mandate segregation of waste at source. However, implementing these mandates has been a slow process, for reasons we explore in this paper. Building on transition management scholarship, the paper examines the role of interpersonal competency and framing in facilitating partnerships between diverse actors. We do this by i) clarifying the motives of actors and their aims and frames; ii) understanding roles, needs and skills; and iii) selecting, from communication research, communication methods that could possibly secure an enduring shift to more sustainable SWM policies. Our analysis shows that i) the drivers and objectives of some of the actors involved are not coherent with the main vision of the government, and ii) some actors in the city’s SWM field stand to lose financially because of the new mandates, and hence strongly oppose the change. Role transformations would need diverse stakeholders in Bangalore’s SWM system to come together for a cleaner city. This paper focuses on framing and facilitation strategies in the transitional arena for better participatory governance and stakeholder engagement.