Excellence in sport: Towards an understanding of the psychological “architecture” of elite athletes
Public aspects of medicine
Geography. Anthropology. Recreation
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AbstractThe purpose of this study was to provide a brief overview of the literature around the field of excellence, focused on the sport's context. Thus, the main approaches to the study of excellence were presented and then some important factors in its development and maintenance were sought considering a set of social and personal dimensions. Among the latter, the focus of attention was on the athlete's psychological, motivational, affective, and emotional characteristics and skills, in an attempt to design the elite athletes' psychological "architecture". The characterization of these athletes included a number of consensual factors and strategies, such as high levels of motivation, commitment, concentration, and self-confidence, as well as the use of adaptive coping strategies, self-regulation, goal-setting and mental imagery. Although these results show some consistency in terms of research, it is still unsolved the issue of the weight and importance of each one of these factors and how such factors are combined in order to "produce" excellent performances.
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EFFICACY OF HOME-BASED KINESTHESIA, BALANCE & AGILITY EXERCISE TRAINING AMONG PERSONS WITH SYMPTOMATIC KNEE OSTEOARTHRITISMatthew W. Rogers; Nauris Tamulevicius; Stuart J. Semple; Zarko Krkeljas (University of Uludag, 2012-12-01)The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a home-based kinesthesia, balance and agility (KBA) exercise program to improve symptoms among persons age > 50 years with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-four persons were randomly assigned to 8-weeks, 3 times per week KBA, resistance training (RT), KBA + RT, or Control. KBA utilized walking agility exercises and single-leg static and dynamic balancing. RT used elastic resistance bands for open chain lower extremity exercises. KBA + RT performed selected exercises from each technique. Control applied inert lotion daily. Outcomes included the OA specific WOMAC Index of Pain, Stiffness, and Physical Function (PF), community activity level, exercise self-efficacy, self-report knee stability, and 15m get up & go walk (GUG). Thirty-three participants [70.7 (SD 8.5) years] completed the trial. Analysis of variance comparing baseline, mid-point, and follow-up measures revealed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in WOMAC scores among KBA, RT, KBA + RT, and Control, with no differences between groups. However, Control WOMAC improvements peaked at mid- point, whereas improvement in the exercise conditions continued at 8-weeks. There were no significant changes in community activity level. Only Control improved exercise self-efficacy. Knee stability was improved in RT and Control. GUG improved in RT and KBA+RT. These results indicate that KBA, RT, or a combination of the two administered as home exercise programs are effective in improving symptoms and quality of life among persons with knee OA. Control results indicate a strong placebo effect in the short term. A combination of KBA and RT should be considered as part of the rehabilitation program, but KBA or RT alone may be appropriate for some patients. Studies with more statistical power are needed to confirm or refute these results. Patient presentation, preferences, costs, and convenience should be considered when choosing an exercise rehabilitation approach for persons with knee OA
OPTIMIZING BONE MASS AND STRENGTH: THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITION DURING GROWTH (MEDICINE & SPORT SCIENCE, VOL 51)R. M. Daly; M. A. Petit (University of Uludag, Turkey, 2007-09-01)DESCRIPTION This volume describes and discusses the maturation of bone in children and adolescents. The focus is on the role of physical activity for optimizing this process. PURPOSE To provide an up to date review of the factors that influence the development of bone health during childhood and adolescence. AUDIENCE Exercise specialists, pediatricians, nutritionists, biomedical researchers, sports medics and any public health professional will find this book very helpful when dealing with optimizing bone development and/or maintaining bone health. FEATURES The featured subjects are: Osteoporosis: A Pediatric Concern?; The Biomechanical Basis of Bone Strength Development during Growth; The Effect of Exercise on Bone Mass and Structural Geometry during Growth; Evidence for an Interaction between Exercise and Nutrition for Improved Bone Health during Growth; Gene- Environment Interactions in the Skeletal Response to Nutrition and Exercise during Growth; The Effect of Energy Balance on Endocrine Function and Bone Health in Youth; Risk Factors for Fractures in Normally Active Children and Adolescents; Does Exercise during Growth Prevent Fractures in Later Life?; Lessons Learned from School-Based Skeletal Loading Intervention Trials: Putting Research into Practice. ASSESSMENT The editors have assembled the 51st' volume of Medicine and Sports Science as a necessary reading for exercise specialists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and/or any public health professionals interested in understanding and improving the health of bone in children and adults. The book provides an excellent source of recent information on the subject
RESPONSE TO THE STUDY OF GÓMEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. "PERCEIVED BARRIERS BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. J SPORT SCI & MED 9, 374-38, 2010"Robert Whitham; Bryn Saville (University of Uludag, 2011-03-01)The article by Manuel Gómez-López et al., 2010 was read with interest by student members of Cardiff University's newly formed Sports and Exercise Medicine Society. As medical students we, more than most, are aware of the long term effects that a sedentary lifestyle may bring and its impact on a healthcare system such as ours in the United Kingdom (UK).We found the results of the study intriguing, particularly regarding the 'external barriers-lack of time' category as an important factor in not participating in sports. In the UK there is one afternoon every week which is set aside purely for sporting activities, providing the time to train and compete against other universities. Furthermore, UK universities on the whole offer more advanced and diverse facilities than those available to people at school, whilst there is also a greater number of sporting and exercise opportunities for people to partake in. University is potentially one of the best times in life to expand one's horizons and spend time enjoying the various extra-curricular activities that there is on offer, hence it is crucial that any perceived barriers to this are broken down to allow implementation of a healthy routine. Physical activity has been shown to decrease psychosocial stress and cardiovascular mortality (Milani and Lavie, 2009), something that would surely be considered positive if a sedentary individual were contemplating regular exercise.As future doctors we are concerned about an obesity epidemic that is only becoming more severe. Much of adult obesity has its roots in childhood (Sinha and Kling, 2009) and in modern times many children progress to university and further education. With students as the next generation of parents and working people, there should be a clear focus, especially across the developed world, on improving involvement in physical activities in the hope of decreasing prospective morbidity and the strain this brings to each nation's health service.It is undisputed that a lot of time is required to meet educational requirements and academic deadlines, yet it is not immensely difficult for those with an interest in sport to also pursue these activities. Medicine is a demanding and time-consuming course, yet the majority of medical students in our year at Cardiff regularly participate in sports, many of us acquiring important roles within the clubs whilst competing to high standards. We believe that students in the UK who have adopted an inactive way of life may be influenced by intrinsic factors, such as those mentioned within the article, to a greater extent than proposed. It would be easy for people to blame extrinsic factors in this questionnaire to hide their own lack of motivation. Although these intrinsic traits cannot truly be altered, educational institutes should commit to provide the facilities and spare time for sport amongst this age group, therefore partially reducing the hindrance of any external factors. The important observations made by Gómez-López et al. should not be taken for granted; it is crucial that a healthy lifestyle is promoted from an early age to maintain a good level of physical and mental health. Universities have a duty to their students whereby they should remove any barriers preventing students from practicing their chosen activity. In the future we hope that participation levels will continue to rise, bringing with it all the associated benefits.