The International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education (formerly the Journal of Distance Education) is an international publication of the Canadian Network for Innovation in Education (CNIE). Its aims are to promote and encourage scholarly work in e-learning and distance education and provide a forum for the dissemination of international scholarship. Original material in either English or French is invited in three broad categories: (a) Scholarly articles and research papers that focus on issues related to e-learning and distance education; (b) Reports that highlight unique solutions to critical problems, short descriptions of work underlying new or innovative programs or contemporary events, and brief notes on research in progress; and (c) Dialogues devoted to the discussion or debate of issues in e-learning and distance education that may arouse controversy. The Dialogues section will also include papers written in reply to articles published in earlier issues of the Journal. The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of their authors, not the Board or staff of the Canadian Network for Innovation in Education. All volumes and issues prior to Volume 29 (Issue 1) were published by the Journal of Distance Education.


The Globethics library contains articles of the International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education as of vol. 1(1986) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Virtual Communities of Practice for Faculty and Staff in Higher Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Beres, James; Janes, Diane P. (Athabasca University Press, 2023-02-27)
    In March 2020 a Canadian polytechnic moved to pandemic induced online learning and a virtual community of practice (vCOPs) called the Digital Learning Exchange (DigEx) was created to support faculty and staff in this transition. This systematic literature review, a preliminary step in the research of the efficacy of the Digital Learning Exchange, examines the recently published literature that researched vCOPs in higher education over the last five years. Several aspects of the vCOPs studied are identified and compared including: the defining characteristics of the communities, the digital tools used and the rationale for their selection, the positive impacts of the use of digital tools, the barriers created by the application of the technology, and the benefits experienced because of faculty and staff participation in the vCOPs.
  • Professional development of academics for the implementation of online learning in African open and distance teaching institutions

    Modise, Mpho-Entle; Zawacki-Richter , Olaf (Athabasca University Press, 2023-02-08)
    E-learning has been recognized as the vehicle with the highest potential to improve education systems in African countries if implemented well. However, the sought after improvements are yet to be realized owing to the increasing failure of e-learning initiatives. This study investigated how academics were prepared for online teaching and learning at open and distance education (ODE) institutions in South Africa and Nigeria, where two of Africa's largest ODE institutions are located. Twenty participants from both institutions were selected to participate in the study. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used to collect data, and a thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Consistent with previous research, the findings of this study showed higher education institutions (HEIs) in Africa did not properly plan and manage their e-learning implementation projects. A lack of proper understanding of online learning and appropriate digital skills were the main reasons for reported failures of e-learning initiatives in these contexts. Consequently, this study positioned the professional development of academics as integral to e-learning innovation in higher education. The results of this study may resonate with other types of educational institutions, and the lessons documented may be valuable and helpful to other cases in similar situations. The development of needs-based and timely training interventions is recommended. Keywords: academic professional development, digital transformation, e-learning readiness, ODeL, online teaching, TPACK Développement professionnel des universitaires pour le déploiement de la formation en ligne dans les établissements africains d'enseignement ouvert et à distance Dr. Mpho-Entle Puleng Modise & Professor Olaf Zawacki-Richter Résumé : La formation en ligne a été reconnue comme le moyen ayant le plus grand potentiel pour améliorer les systèmes éducatifs des pays africains si elle est bien mise en œuvre. Cependant, les progrès escomptés ne sont pas encore réalisés en raison de l'échec croissant des initiatives de formation en ligne. Cette étude a examiné la manière dont les universitaires ont été préparés à l'enseignement et à l'apprentissage en ligne dans les établissements de formation ouverte à distance (FOAD) d'Afrique du Sud et du Nigeria, où se trouvent deux des plus grands établissements de FOAD d'Afrique. Vingt participants des deux institutions ont été sélectionnés pour participer à l'étude. Des entretiens qualitatifs semi-directifs ont été réalisés pour collecter les données, et une analyse thématique a été utilisée pour analyser les données. En cohérence avec les recherches précédentes, les résultats de cette étude ont montré que les établissements d'enseignement supérieur en Afrique n'ont pas adéquatement planifié et géré leurs projets de mise en œuvre de la formation en ligne. Le manque de compréhension de la formation en ligne et des compétences numériques appropriées sont les principales raisons des échecs signalés concernant les projets de formation en ligne mis en place dans ces contextes. Par conséquent, cette étude a positionné le développement professionnel des universitaires comme faisant partie intégrante de l'innovation en matière d'e-learning dans l'enseignement supérieur. Les résultats de cette étude peuvent trouver écho dans d'autres types d'établissements d'enseignement, et les leçons tirées peuvent être intéressantes et utiles pour d'autres instances dans des situations similaires. Le développement d'interventions de formation fondées sur les besoins et moments opportuns est recommandé. Mots-clés : développement professionnel universitaire, transformation numérique, préparation à la formation en ligne, FOAD, enseignement en ligne, TPACK
  • Online Learning in Low-tech environments – What works, what doesn’t? A study based on Indian public schools

    Ara, Farhat; Vijaysimha, Indira (Athabasca University Press, 2023-01-16)
    The COVID-19-induced pandemic compelled all schools and colleges to shift abruptly to online learning to continue education for students. Set in the context of a low-technological online learning environment in public schools in India, this study examined the contextual factors that supported or impeded online learning for middle school students drawn from 11 states of India.  The Community of Inquiry (COI) Framework (Garrison et al., 2000) served as a theoretical lens to examine teachers’ online practices and how contextual factors affected teachers’ practices and students’ experience of the three presences of the COI framework.  A qualitative study using interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted with students, teachers, education department officials and parents. Students’ interviews were conducted using Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) tools and group discussions. Device accessibility, poor networks, low competency and familiarity with online teaching and learning technology not only inhibited students’ from accessing online learning but also inhibited teachers from establishing effective online teaching practices in alignment with the COI framework. Drawing from the insights generated in the study, the paper proposes ways for creating more effective learning experiences in a technology-deficient online learning environment. 
  • From Metastudies to Metaverse: Disrupting the University

    Gallon, Ray; Lorenzo, Neus (Athabasca University Press, 2023-01-26)
    The authors believe that the Metaverse is a paradigm shift infrastructure technology that may make 60% of universities irrelevant in the next 20 years if they don’t move away from the meta-studies model. Meta-studies refers to an archival, largely paper-based process of “teaching” what other people have written about, focused on the past, and supported by the “publish or perish” imperative. The Covid-19 pandemic has forced universities into adopting technologies that form a part of the Metaverse, but for the most part they have used these technologies to perpetuate the status quo. If universities cannot change their practices to become more agile, adopting design thinking, inquiring minds, and critical thinking not only for students but also for themselves as institutions, it will be commercial entities such as Meta and Microsoft who will decide what education will take place in the Metaverse, and students will go there whether universities are present or not. It is therefore important that universities change their own paradigms, and engage with this technology to discover how it can be used effectively in education, so as to foster principles and values for building knowledge and cementing ethical, sustainable practices.
  • Remote Science Inquiry Instruction (RSII) for Motion on an Inclined Plane

    Wells, Patrick; Goodnough, Karen; Galway, Gerald; Azam, Saiqa (Athabasca University Press, 2022-12-22)
    This case study examined distance education (DE) teachers using remote science inquiry instruction (RSII) to support a hands-on lab for motion on an inclined plane. The RSII lesson was developed as part of an online lesson study (Lewis & Hurd, 2011). The activities of the teachers and students, collectively the case, are reported by the phase of lesson study. During the Study and Plan phases of the lesson study, student preparation was deemed paramount. Students at disparate geographical locations needed to be ready to conduct the hands-on inquiry. The students used Vernierâ probe ware and interfaces during synchronous instruction, and teacher support via Brightspace. A Google Doc, with hyperlinked Screencastify videos, was developed during the Plan phase to train students in how to use the probe ware required to conduct the inquiry. During the Teach phase of the lesson study, the teachers used the predict–observe–explain (POE) strategy of inquiry to engage students and elicit samples of student thinking (White & Gunstone, 1992). To predict, the students drew the shape of the graph and explained the reasoning behind their prediction. To observe, the students conducted the inclined plane inquiry and took note of what happened as the motion data was simultaneously collected and graphed. To explain, the students observed the graph to engage synchronously with their data and teachers. This allowed students and teachers to begin addressing any misconceptions that occurred during the prediction stage. Keeping the students engaged, giving them an opportunity to predict the shape of the graph, and providing simultaneous data visualization of the phenomenon helped to support the conceptual change process. In this article, we examine how RSII helped students construct meaning during the inquiry process. Keywords: remote science inquiry instruction, online lesson study, hands-on inquiry, predict–observe–explain (POE), misconceptions, student engagement ______________________________________ Instruction d'enquête scientifique à distance pour le mouvement sur un plan incliné Patrick R. Wells, Karen Goodnough, Gerald Galway, and Saiqa Azam Résumé: Cette étude de cas a examiné l'enseignement à distance en utilisant l'enseignement de la recherche scientifique à distance (RSII) pour soutenir un laboratoire pratique sur le mouvement sur un plan incliné. Les actions des enseignants et des étudiants, collectivement le cas, sont rapportées ici alors qu'ils ont mis en œuvre le RSII en utilisant une leçon développée par trois enseignants pendant une étude de leçon en ligne (Lewis & Hurd, 2011). La préparation des élèves a été jugée primordiale dans les phases d'étude et de planification au cours de l'étude de cours, sachant que les élèves, géographiquement disparates, mèneraient l'enquête pratique à l'aide des sondes et interfaces Vernierâ pendant l'enseignement synchrone et le soutien de l'enseignant via Brightspace. Un document Google Doc, contenant des liens hypertextes vers des vidéos Screencastify, a été élaboré pendant la phase de planification afin de former les élèves à l'utilisation du matériel de sondage nécessaire à la réalisation de l'enquête. Les enseignants ont utilisé la stratégie d'enquête POE pour faire participer les élèves et obtenir des exemples de leur réflexion pendant la phase d'enseignement de l'étude des leçons (prédire, observer, expliquer, White & Gunstone, 1992). Dans la phase de prédiction, les élèves ont dessiné la forme du graphique et ont fourni un raisonnement pour leur prédiction. Ensuite, les élèves ont mené l'enquête sur le plan incliné afin d'observer le phénomène pendant que les données relatives au mouvement étaient collectées et représentées simultanément sous forme de graphique pour les élèves. Voir les représentations graphiques du mouvement ont permis aux élèves de participer à l'étape d'explication de la POE, où l'engagement synchrone de RSII avec leurs données et les enseignants ont commencé à aborder toutes les idées fausses de la phase de prédiction. L'engagement des élèves, la visualisation simultanée des données du phénomène et la prédiction personnelle ont soutenu le processus de changement conceptuel. La façon dont la RSII favorise la construction de sens par les élèves au cours du processus d'enquête est discutée. Mots-clés : instruction d'enquête scientifique à distance, étude de cours en ligne, enquête pratique, prédire-observer-expliquer (POE), idées fausses, engagement des élèves
  • Trust the Process: A Duoethnography of Graduates of a Low-Residency Undergraduate Program

    Roberts Bucca, Kate; Bucca, Dominic (Athabasca University Press, 2022-12-21)
    What are the benefits or drawbacks of a low-residency educational delivery model? How does the process of designing one's own study impact the work completed in a distance education program with this form of delivery? As researchers who found success in a low-residency undergraduate program, we engaged in a duoethnographic study to mine our experiences and better understand the advantages and disadvantages of this educational model. We engaged in four recorded conversations over the course of three weeks, with sessions ranging from 35 to 60 minutes each. Between sessions, we journaled in a shared online document, discussing our emerging understandings of the topic, responding to each other's perspectives, and pushing one another to articulate and revisit our stances. Through these oral and written dialogues, we identified six themes featured in the low-residency educational model: reduced stigma for non-traditional students, diversity of community, flexibility, self-designed study, staying connected, and clarity of boundaries. Keywords: low-residency, distance education, duoethnography, self-designed learning, non-traditional students
  • Targeted and Tailored: The Importance of a Personalized Approach to Open Distance Learning Support

    Scheepers, Liesl; Van den Berg, Geesje (Athabasca University Press, 2023-01-03)
    The article explored the need to provide ODL students with support that is more personalised in nature; support that speaks to the presence of a “human touch,” and specifically refers to an individual whose primary focus is on relationship building and fostering a sense of community and care amongst its online students. Although literature reveals the importance of online student support, including affective, cognitive, and systemic support, not enough is known about the value of having a role whose sole focus is personalised affective support in an online learning environment. Within a qualitative approach, the study used 12 semi-structured interviews and five focus groups with 34 participants to explore the value ODL students place on non-academic support. The findings revealed that while participants were familiar with who their Programme Success Tutor (PST) was, for various reasons, there was no shared or common understanding of the role as being intentionally affective in nature. Based on the findings, the study suggests that a PST or a similar role at an ODL institution should be closely aligned with the needs and expectations of the students for whom this role is envisaged. We further recommend using Karp’s four non-academic support mechanisms as a framework when establishing or revising such a support role.
  • A Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Social Presence

    Mykota, David (Athabasca University Press, 2022-10-17)
    The purpose of this research is to report the protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the construct of social presence. Protocols for systematic reviews and meta-analysis are desirable as they offer a more knowledgeable and transparent conceptualization of a study so methods can be appraised and suggestions for modifications provided. The focused purpose outlined in the protocol is to systematically review and statistically summarize, thru meta-analysis (i.e., the study of studies), the research literature on social presence within higher education. The objectives of the systematic review are i) to determine the holistic effects that social presence has on student learning and student satisfaction outcomes across studies, and ii) what study characteristics (i.e., course design elements, instructor behaviors', and online learning environments) explain and moderate the variability in the results. The study protocol outlines the aims, objectives, and methods used to conduct the study and collect and analyze the data. The publication of the research protocol is an accountable process that mitigates research duplication while allowing for a more informed understanding of the prospective program of research. As such, with the completion of the systematic review and meta-analysis, the higher education online community will benefit from a more strategic and knowledgeable conceptualization of what constitutes social presence and how best to incorporate it into quality online learning environments. Keywords: study protocol, evidence synthesis, higher education, online learning, systematic review, meta-analysis, course design, teaching, technology, social presence Protocole de Revue Systématique et Méta-Analyse sur la Présence Sociale Résumé: L'objectif de cette recherche est de présenter le protocole d'une revue systématique et d'une méta-analyse sur le concept de présence sociale. Les protocoles pour les revues systématiques et les méta-analyses sont intéressants en ce sens qu’ils offrent une conceptualisation plus éclairée et transparente d'une étude, ce qui permet d’en évaluer la méthode, voire de proposer des modifications. Le protocole décrit dans cet article a pour but d'examiner systématiquement et de résumer statistiquement, par le biais d'une méta-analyse (c'est-à-dire l'étude d'études), la littérature scientifique sur la présence sociale dans l'enseignement supérieur. Les objectifs de la revue systématique sont i) de déterminer les effets holistiques de la présence sociale sur les résultats de l'apprentissage et de la satisfaction des étudiants à travers les études, et ii) de définir les caractéristiques de l'étude (c.-à-d. les éléments de conception du cours, les comportements de l'instructeur et les environnements d'apprentissage en ligne) qui expliquent et modèrent la variabilité des résultats. Le protocole de recherche décrit ainsi les buts, les objectifs et les méthodes utilisées pour mener l'étude, recueillir et analyser les données. La publication du protocole de recherche est un processus responsable qui limite la duplication des recherches tout en permettant une compréhension plus éclairée du programme de recherche envisagé. Ainsi, avec cette publication de la revue systématique et de la méta-analyse, la communauté de l'enseignement supérieur en ligne bénéficiera d'une conceptualisation plus stratégique et mieux informée de ce qui constitue la présence sociale et de la meilleure façon de l'intégrer dans des environnements d'apprentissage en ligne de qualité. Mots-clés: protocole d'étude, synthèse des données, enseignement supérieur, apprentissage en ligne, revue systématique, méta-analyse, conception de cours, enseignement, technologie, présence sociale.
  • Online but Not Alone: Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Online School Leadership (OSL)

    Sivia, Awneet; Robertson, Joanne (Athabasca University Press, 2022-06-30)
    Online school leadership (OSL) is of particular interest given the growing number of online education opportunities. As school districts develop more online and blended learning programs, particularly for secondary grade students, the need to examine leadership in these programs is paramount. The literature suggests that most studies focus on effective leadership in bricks and mortar schools, while limited research focuses on leadership in online programs. In this study, we aimed to explore teachers’ perceptions of leadership in online secondary schools in two districts. Our questions focused on secondary teachers’ experiences with leaders in their online schools and how these experiences contribute to perceptions of what makes for effective leadership practices. Using phenomenology, we interviewed six teachers, analyzed for themes and categorized these into a sense of community, organizational learning and empowerment to represent teachers' perceptions of OSL. Based on these results, we suggest that OSL consists of both foundational and contextualized practices, and that both are necessary for effective OSL. This research has implications for educational leadership broadly, but specifically for leadership in online education.    
  • Patterns of Teaching Presence during One Semester of a Large Online Graduate Nursing Course

    Baker, Micah; Richardson, Stephanie; Rubio, Fernando (Athabasca University Press, 2022-07-08)
    Extensive research supports the claim that student-instructor interaction is an essential element of successful online teaching. It is less clear, however, whether teaching presence is discipline-specific, or how it may be affected by the personal and professional background of individual instructors.  This article describes the qualitative portion of a mixed-methods study to analyze patterns of commenting behaviors in a graduate-level online nursing course. Following the Community of Inquiry theoretical framework (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000), we compare experienced and inexperienced instructors and specifically focus on how teaching presence evolved over a fifteen-week course. Our findings indicate that teaching experience affects the types and density of comments used by teachers. Experience played a role in how density and overall level of activity evolved as the semester progressed. No differences in teaching presence emerged when comparing instructions for each assignment, but there were differences when comparing instructions to teacher posts.
  • Education as community affair: Digitally designing knowledge.

    Leslie, Paul; Camargo-Borges, Celiane (Athabasca University Press, 2022-05-11)
    Distance learning is becoming increasingly prevalent. If education is a community affair, how do we digitally design for our students the conditions for learning at a distance? This research examines a distance learning environment within a Master’s Degree course created using online discussion forums. With the community of inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000) as a guide, the instructor and students shared knowledge and experiences with their educational community. A structural analysis of the discussion forums a quantitative analysis of social, teaching and cognitive presence using a ten-factor model (Dempsey & Zhang, 2019), and a qualitative analysis of individual interviews with community members, found that the role of the instructor is critical in pushing students towards uncertainty, thus opening the way for the relational construction of knowledge. To help students embrace that uncertainty, they require explicit knowledge of the processes that allow a community of inquiry to function.
  • Towards Safeguarding Users’ legitimate rights in Learning Management Systems (LMS): A case study of the Blackboard LMS at Sorbonne University, Abu Dhabi (SUAD).

    Kabata, Victor (Athabasca University Press, 2022-04-05)
    This paper sought to establish the extent to which users’ legitimate rights are safeguarded in Learning management systems (LMS), specifically, on the Blackboard system, used for teaching at Sorbonne University, Abu Dhabi (SUAD). Firstly, users’ legitimate rights that must be protected were identified. Subsequently, the security and privacy guarantees afforded by Blackboard were assessed.  Lastly, policy gaps and technological deficiencies undermining protection of users’ legitimate rights were identified.   The study adopted a qualitative research approach and a case study research design. Data was collected through content analysis, document review and interviews. The research revealed that to a large extent Blackboard, LMS safeguarded most of the users’ legitimate rights. However, the system is silent on some legitimate rights such as storage limitation and data sharing arrangements.  Further, it emerged that Blackboard’s privacy practices are to a large extent informed by educational institutions using its products. The study concludes that safeguarding user’s legitimate rights is a collective responsibility between the learning management services providers and the educational institutions. As such, there is need for educational institutions using Blackboard and other learning management systems to craft robust data protection regimes. Keywords: Learning Management Systems, Privacy, Users' legitimate rights 
  • An Analysis of Synchronous and Asynchronous Online Undergraduate Learning During the COVID Pandemic

    Al-Areibi, Iman; Dickson, Brandon; Kotsopoulos, Donna (Athabasca University Press, 2022-04-05)
    In response to the COVID pandemic, university classes across the world were forced online. In this research, we explored students’ experiences in emergency online learning in two undergraduate business classes. Where the literature on online learning has traditionally focused on those students who chose online learning, in light of recent shifts in education, online learning continues to increase its prevalent in the education of all students, even those who would not have traditionally chosen this medium. In this research, through the use of learning platform metadata and students survey responses, we examined the impact of the various pedagogical techniques used in the online classroom and their ability to maintain high student motivation. Ultimately, we concluded that providing multiple opportunities for engagement through the use of both synchronous and asynchronous tools in is crucial to promoting student motivation, learning and course success. Implications for classroom instruction and further research will be discussed.
  • Exploring Teachers’ Cognitive Processes and Web-Based Actions During a Series of Self-Directed Online Learning Sessions

    Beach, Pamela; Favret, Elena; Minuk, Alexandra (Athabasca University Press, 2021-07-16)
    This exploratory study used screen-capture technology and a cued retrospective think aloud called the virtual revisit think aloud to understand teachers’ self-directed online learning (SDOL) experiences. Three elementary teachers were involved in a series of in-depth one-on-one SDOL sessions where they informally used the Internet for their professional learning. Nine think aloud transcripts and three interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods. Additionally, nine 20-minute screen-capture recordings were analyzed using a time sampling observation analysis in which participants’ web-based actions were tallied in 10-second intervals. The analyses led to four main themes related to participants’ cognitive processes as well as overall trends of participants’ web-based actions. Additionally, findings from this study provide preliminary insight into the feasibility and value of SDOL over time.
  • Superintendents’ Experiences With Distance Learning Practices in K–12 Public-School Districts in New York During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Roff, Kimberly (Athabasca University Press, 2021-07-16)
    In early March 2020, the United States was first faced with the COVID‑19 virus, which became a pandemic affecting 216 countries across the globe (, 2020). This pandemic impacted approximately 1.5 billion learners globally by schools’ closures and revised practices (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2020), and it required social distancing practices and school closures across the U.S. (Lieberman, 2020). Due to closures, public-school districts were tasked with creating immediate solutions for seamless learning. Many public-school districts implemented distance learning practices to meet the needs of quarantined students. The sudden shift from a traditional, in-person classroom to a distance learning setting challenged both faculty and students. This qualitative case study examines how superintendents in K–12 public schools shifted from on-site learning to distance learning practices during the pandemic. Thirty superintendents from K–12 public-school districts in two suburban counties of New York participated in an online survey. By mid-March 2020, according to the findings, distance learning was implemented in varying degrees. In addition, the study found that most faculty were prepared for online learning through professional development. Parental support, technology, and the inability to work independently were barriers to student learning. The findings suggest ramifications from the delivery of distance learning in the first months of the pandemic. In addition, the study found a need for increased professional development and solutions to distance learning barriers.
  • “Like Pushing Through Slog”: Women with Depression in Online Learning

    Orr, Tracy (Athabasca University Press, 2021-07-16)
    Abstract: Using Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological psychological method and a social work disciplinary lens, this Canadian study explores how women in online learning contexts experience and recover from depression. The primary research question guiding the study was, “What are the lived experiences of women in online learning who have lived with and recovered from depression?” The goal of the study was to provide a general description of the structure of this lived experience. Ten women who suffered and recovered from an episode of major depressive disorder during their online studies were interviewed. Seven invariable constituents of the experience were identified, including the development of depression, the impact of depression on learning, the treatment of depression, the importance of peers in online learning, the experience of role overload, changes in self-identity, and the application of personal agency. The study provides recommendations for institutions, educators, and course designers to increase peer interaction and provide direct in-course links to student support.     Keywords: online learning, women, depression, post-secondary, phenomenology
  • Video Surveillance of Online Exam Proctoring: Exam Anxiety and Student Performance

    Woldeab, Daniel; Brothen, Thomas (Athabasca University Press, 2021-07-16)
    Recent media stories have reported that online webcam-based exam proctoring have wrongly flagged students for cheating, causing tremendous anxiety and frustration, and thus disadvantaging students. This study assesses if online webcam-based exam proctoring in the age of COVID-19 disadvantages students (particularly those who are non-white and with different ethnic and socio-economic status), and whether worry about being wrongly flagged for cheating may affect students’ exam performance. This survey-based study was conducted using 237 undergraduate students enrolled in a public land-grant research university in the upper Midwest region of the United States, who took their exams through Proctorio. Our study supports – as is widely reported by the media –that students are experiencing anxiety and fear of being wrongly flagged during online proctoring. However, we show that students’ anxiety about online proctoring is associated with their general level of anxiety; this correlation to “trait” anxiety supports our previous study. We further find that worry over being wrongly flagged did not directly impede students’ exam performance. We discuss how students and faculty alike face challenges, especially those who had not used online webcam exam proctoring prior to COVID-19 stay-at-home directives. For faculty, it is not only having to adapt to an unfamiliar teaching environment that requires new technologies, but also being expected to utilize webcam-based online proctoring for high stakes exams. An in-depth look is needed into the kind of support students and faculty need using online proctoring into the future. Furthermore, the academic world in general, and US colleges and universities in particular, should initiate a conversation on how best to regulate this industry so that students and institutions are well served. Keywords: online, exam, proctoring, anxiety, students, performance 
  • Effets de la plate-forme e-learning « minassati » sur les pratiques pédagogiques chez les enseignants et les étudiants inscrits en « Histoire et civilisation » à l’université Abdelmalek Essaadi

    OULMAATI, Karim; EZZAHRI, Said; SAMADI, Khalid (Athabasca University Press, 2021-02-05)
    Résumé: Le présent travail de recherche vise à analyser les pratiques d’utilisation d’une plate-forme e-learning nommée « Minassati » en se basant sur les traces numériques, et à cerner les effets de son utilisation sur les pratiques pédagogiques chez les enseignants et les étudiants du programme Histoire et Civilisation de l’Université Abdelmalek Essaadi au Maroc. Pour la cueillette des données analysées dans cette étude, nous avons eu recours à deux outils complémentaires : l’enquête par questionnaire auprès des enseignants et des étudiants ayant utilisé la plate-forme « Minassati » dans l’activité d’enseignement-apprentissage, et les traces numériques laissées sur cette plate-forme. Il ressort de cette étude que les enseignants et les étudiants avaient la possibilité d’utiliser une panoplie d’outils intégrés à la plate-forme e-learning « Minassati » dans le cadre de l’activité d’enseignement-apprentissage, notamment les outils de transmission du contenu, de communication et d’évaluation. En outre, les résultats montrent que tous les enseignants et la majorité des étudiants ont effectivement observé des changements importants au niveau des pratiques pédagogiques, nommément les possibilités de communication et d’interaction, d’une manière formelle et organisée, entre les étudiants ainsi qu’avec les enseignants en dehors de la classe; la diversité des ressources et des activités pédagogiques liées aux cours; les tâches confiées aux étudiants ainsi que la motivation accrue et l’engagement actif des étudiants dans les activités d’apprentissage. Mots-clés: TIC, Intégration des TIC dans les pratiques pédagogiques, E-learning, Enseignement supérieur. Effects of an e-Learning platform called « Minassati » on pedagogical practices among teachers and students of History and Civilization at Abdelmalek Essaadi University in Morocco Abstract: This article aims to analyze usage practices of an e-Learning platform called “Minassati” using the digital traces and to identify the effects of the use of on pedagogical practices among teachers and students of History and Civilization at Abdelmalek Essaadi University in Morocco. Data was collected through two complementary tools: the questionnaire survey of teachers and students who used the “Minassati” platform in the teaching-learning activity and the digital traces left on this platform. It emerges from this study that teachers and students had the opportunity to use a set of tools integrated into the “Minassati” platform as part of the teaching-learning activity, notably the tools of content transmission, communication, and evaluation. In addition, the results show that all teachers and the majority of students have actually observed significant changes in pedagogical practices, in particular the possibilities of communication and interaction, in a formal and organized way, between students and with teachers outside the classroom, the diversity of resources and pedagogical activities related to the courses and the tasks assigned to students as well as the increased motivation and active engagement of students in learning activities. Keywords: ICT, Integration of ICT in pedagogical practices, E-learning, Higher education.
  • Exploring Video Conferencing as Possible Tool to Teach English in Public Schools in Paraguay

    Sandoval, Leonardo; Canese Caballero, Valentina (Athabasca University Press, 2020-12-23)
    The Ministry of Education of Paraguay (MEC) has introduced the teaching of English in public primary education in 2012. However, the number of English teachers was not enough to meet the high demand, especially because the majority of those teachers reside in the central department of the country. As a response, this qualitative research study was designed to examine the feasibility of teaching English via videoconferencing. In the process, semi-structured interviews served as the main data collection instrument, leading to the conclusion that videoconferencing could become an effective teaching option, but it will not be feasible until a project fostered by governmental institutions in coordination with departmental governments join forces towards a common and synchronised objective. Technology could become a meaningful teaching tool; albeit, an expensive one. Therefore a sustainable action plan should be elaborated for a successful implementation that yields the expected outcomes.
  • Leading the Pandemic Practicum: One Teacher Education Response to the COVID-19 Crisis

    Burns, Amy; Danyluk, Patricia; Kapoyannis, Theodora; Kendrick, Astrid (Athabasca University Press, 2020-12-18)
    Abstract: This article will outline one Canadian teacher education response to the closure of kindergarten to grade twelve schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant online teacher education practicum that was subsequently developed, termed the pandemic practicum. In the month of March 2020, teacher educators across Canada were prompted to move to online delivery of content for preservice teachers and, in many cases, this pivot was, while not simple, at least imaginable. More difficult was the integration of an online solution for the teaching practicum, a cornerstone of teacher education. The following article outlines the steps taken to ensure a credible and engaging online experiential offering. Themes were generated through the self-reflections of the design and leadership team, as well as through a survey completed by postsecondary students undertaking the online practicum. Findings included the initial challenges as noted by the design team including program and licensing requirements, as well as philosophical differences among stakeholders as to the role of practicum in teacher education. In addition, a number of important opportunities were presented by this shift to an online practicum, including the importance of the pedagogy of online learning and the need to re-vision and question the practicum. Keywords: online pedagogy; practicum; teacher education; online practicum Mettre en œuvre un stage pendant la pandémie : une réponse de formation des enseignants à la crise COVID-19 Résumé: Cet article présente une réponse de la formation des enseignants canadiens à la fermeture des écoles de la maternelle à la douzième année en raison de la pandémie de la COVID-19 et le stage de formation des enseignants en ligne qui en a résulté et qui a ensuite été développé, appelé stage pandémique. Au mois de mars 2020, les formateurs d'enseignants de tout le Canada ont été invités à passer à la diffusion en ligne de contenus destinés aux enseignants en formation initiale et, dans de nombreux cas, ce changement, bien que loin d'être simple, était au moins imaginable. Plus difficile était l'intégration d'une solution en ligne pour le stage d'enseignement, pierre angulaire de la formation des enseignants. L'article suivant décrit les mesures prises pour garantir une expérience en ligne cohérente et attrayante. Les thèmes ont été générés par les réflexions de l'équipe de conception et de direction, ainsi que par une enquête réalisée auprès des étudiants de l'enseignement supérieur qui ont effectué le stage en ligne. Les conclusions ont porté sur les défis initiaux relevés par l'équipe de conception, notamment en ce qui concerne les exigences en matière de programme et de certification, ainsi que sur les différentes conceptions des parties prenantes quant au rôle du stage dans la formation des enseignants. En outre, ce passage à un stage en ligne a présenté un certain nombre de possibilités importantes, concernant notamment l'importance de la pédagogie de l'apprentissage en ligne et la nécessité de revoir et de remettre en question le stage. Mots clés: pédagogie en ligne ; stage pratique ; formation des enseignants ; stage en ligne

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