The International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education (formerly the Journal of Distance Education) is an international publication of the Canadian Network for Innovation in Education (CNIE). Its aims are to promote and encourage scholarly work in e-learning and distance education and provide a forum for the dissemination of international scholarship. Original material in either English or French is invited in three broad categories: (a) Scholarly articles and research papers that focus on issues related to e-learning and distance education; (b) Reports that highlight unique solutions to critical problems, short descriptions of work underlying new or innovative programs or contemporary events, and brief notes on research in progress; and (c) Dialogues devoted to the discussion or debate of issues in e-learning and distance education that may arouse controversy. The Dialogues section will also include papers written in reply to articles published in earlier issues of the Journal. The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of their authors, not the Board or staff of the Canadian Network for Innovation in Education. All volumes and issues prior to Volume 29 (Issue 1) were published by the Journal of Distance Education.


The library contains articles of the International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education as of vol. 1(1986) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Education as community affair: Digitally designing knowledge.

    Leslie, Paul; Camargo-Borges, Celiane (Athabasca University Press, 2022-05-11)
    Distance learning is becoming increasingly prevalent. If education is a community affair, how do we digitally design for our students the conditions for learning at a distance? This research examines a distance learning environment within a Master’s Degree course created using online discussion forums. With the community of inquiry model (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000) as a guide, the instructor and students shared knowledge and experiences with their educational community. A structural analysis of the discussion forums a quantitative analysis of social, teaching and cognitive presence using a ten-factor model (Dempsey & Zhang, 2019), and a qualitative analysis of individual interviews with community members, found that the role of the instructor is critical in pushing students towards uncertainty, thus opening the way for the relational construction of knowledge. To help students embrace that uncertainty, they require explicit knowledge of the processes that allow a community of inquiry to function.
  • Towards Safeguarding Users’ legitimate rights in Learning Management Systems (LMS): A case study of the Blackboard LMS at Sorbonne University, Abu Dhabi (SUAD).

    Kabata, Victor (Athabasca University Press, 2022-04-05)
    This paper sought to establish the extent to which users’ legitimate rights are safeguarded in Learning management systems (LMS), specifically, on the Blackboard system, used for teaching at Sorbonne University, Abu Dhabi (SUAD). Firstly, users’ legitimate rights that must be protected were identified. Subsequently, the security and privacy guarantees afforded by Blackboard were assessed.  Lastly, policy gaps and technological deficiencies undermining protection of users’ legitimate rights were identified.   The study adopted a qualitative research approach and a case study research design. Data was collected through content analysis, document review and interviews. The research revealed that to a large extent Blackboard, LMS safeguarded most of the users’ legitimate rights. However, the system is silent on some legitimate rights such as storage limitation and data sharing arrangements.  Further, it emerged that Blackboard’s privacy practices are to a large extent informed by educational institutions using its products. The study concludes that safeguarding user’s legitimate rights is a collective responsibility between the learning management services providers and the educational institutions. As such, there is need for educational institutions using Blackboard and other learning management systems to craft robust data protection regimes. Keywords: Learning Management Systems, Privacy, Users' legitimate rights 
  • An Analysis of Synchronous and Asynchronous Online Undergraduate Learning During the COVID Pandemic

    Al-Areibi, Iman; Dickson, Brandon; Kotsopoulos, Donna (Athabasca University Press, 2022-04-05)
    In response to the COVID pandemic, university classes across the world were forced online. In this research, we explored students’ experiences in emergency online learning in two undergraduate business classes. Where the literature on online learning has traditionally focused on those students who chose online learning, in light of recent shifts in education, online learning continues to increase its prevalent in the education of all students, even those who would not have traditionally chosen this medium. In this research, through the use of learning platform metadata and students survey responses, we examined the impact of the various pedagogical techniques used in the online classroom and their ability to maintain high student motivation. Ultimately, we concluded that providing multiple opportunities for engagement through the use of both synchronous and asynchronous tools in is crucial to promoting student motivation, learning and course success. Implications for classroom instruction and further research will be discussed.
  • Exploring Teachers’ Cognitive Processes and Web-Based Actions During a Series of Self-Directed Online Learning Sessions

    Beach, Pamela; Favret, Elena; Minuk, Alexandra (Athabasca University Press, 2021-07-16)
    This exploratory study used screen-capture technology and a cued retrospective think aloud called the virtual revisit think aloud to understand teachers’ self-directed online learning (SDOL) experiences. Three elementary teachers were involved in a series of in-depth one-on-one SDOL sessions where they informally used the Internet for their professional learning. Nine think aloud transcripts and three interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative methods. Additionally, nine 20-minute screen-capture recordings were analyzed using a time sampling observation analysis in which participants’ web-based actions were tallied in 10-second intervals. The analyses led to four main themes related to participants’ cognitive processes as well as overall trends of participants’ web-based actions. Additionally, findings from this study provide preliminary insight into the feasibility and value of SDOL over time.
  • Superintendents’ Experiences With Distance Learning Practices in K–12 Public-School Districts in New York During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Roff, Kimberly (Athabasca University Press, 2021-07-16)
    In early March 2020, the United States was first faced with the COVID‑19 virus, which became a pandemic affecting 216 countries across the globe (, 2020). This pandemic impacted approximately 1.5 billion learners globally by schools’ closures and revised practices (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2020), and it required social distancing practices and school closures across the U.S. (Lieberman, 2020). Due to closures, public-school districts were tasked with creating immediate solutions for seamless learning. Many public-school districts implemented distance learning practices to meet the needs of quarantined students. The sudden shift from a traditional, in-person classroom to a distance learning setting challenged both faculty and students. This qualitative case study examines how superintendents in K–12 public schools shifted from on-site learning to distance learning practices during the pandemic. Thirty superintendents from K–12 public-school districts in two suburban counties of New York participated in an online survey. By mid-March 2020, according to the findings, distance learning was implemented in varying degrees. In addition, the study found that most faculty were prepared for online learning through professional development. Parental support, technology, and the inability to work independently were barriers to student learning. The findings suggest ramifications from the delivery of distance learning in the first months of the pandemic. In addition, the study found a need for increased professional development and solutions to distance learning barriers.
  • “Like Pushing Through Slog”: Women with Depression in Online Learning

    Orr, Tracy (Athabasca University Press, 2021-07-16)
    Abstract: Using Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological psychological method and a social work disciplinary lens, this Canadian study explores how women in online learning contexts experience and recover from depression. The primary research question guiding the study was, “What are the lived experiences of women in online learning who have lived with and recovered from depression?” The goal of the study was to provide a general description of the structure of this lived experience. Ten women who suffered and recovered from an episode of major depressive disorder during their online studies were interviewed. Seven invariable constituents of the experience were identified, including the development of depression, the impact of depression on learning, the treatment of depression, the importance of peers in online learning, the experience of role overload, changes in self-identity, and the application of personal agency. The study provides recommendations for institutions, educators, and course designers to increase peer interaction and provide direct in-course links to student support.     Keywords: online learning, women, depression, post-secondary, phenomenology
  • Video Surveillance of Online Exam Proctoring: Exam Anxiety and Student Performance

    Woldeab, Daniel; Brothen, Thomas (Athabasca University Press, 2021-07-16)
    Recent media stories have reported that online webcam-based exam proctoring have wrongly flagged students for cheating, causing tremendous anxiety and frustration, and thus disadvantaging students. This study assesses if online webcam-based exam proctoring in the age of COVID-19 disadvantages students (particularly those who are non-white and with different ethnic and socio-economic status), and whether worry about being wrongly flagged for cheating may affect students’ exam performance. This survey-based study was conducted using 237 undergraduate students enrolled in a public land-grant research university in the upper Midwest region of the United States, who took their exams through Proctorio. Our study supports – as is widely reported by the media –that students are experiencing anxiety and fear of being wrongly flagged during online proctoring. However, we show that students’ anxiety about online proctoring is associated with their general level of anxiety; this correlation to “trait” anxiety supports our previous study. We further find that worry over being wrongly flagged did not directly impede students’ exam performance. We discuss how students and faculty alike face challenges, especially those who had not used online webcam exam proctoring prior to COVID-19 stay-at-home directives. For faculty, it is not only having to adapt to an unfamiliar teaching environment that requires new technologies, but also being expected to utilize webcam-based online proctoring for high stakes exams. An in-depth look is needed into the kind of support students and faculty need using online proctoring into the future. Furthermore, the academic world in general, and US colleges and universities in particular, should initiate a conversation on how best to regulate this industry so that students and institutions are well served. Keywords: online, exam, proctoring, anxiety, students, performance 
  • Effets de la plate-forme e-learning « minassati » sur les pratiques pédagogiques chez les enseignants et les étudiants inscrits en « Histoire et civilisation » à l’université Abdelmalek Essaadi

    OULMAATI, Karim; EZZAHRI, Said; SAMADI, Khalid (Athabasca University Press, 2021-02-05)
    Résumé: Le présent travail de recherche vise à analyser les pratiques d’utilisation d’une plate-forme e-learning nommée « Minassati » en se basant sur les traces numériques, et à cerner les effets de son utilisation sur les pratiques pédagogiques chez les enseignants et les étudiants du programme Histoire et Civilisation de l’Université Abdelmalek Essaadi au Maroc. Pour la cueillette des données analysées dans cette étude, nous avons eu recours à deux outils complémentaires : l’enquête par questionnaire auprès des enseignants et des étudiants ayant utilisé la plate-forme « Minassati » dans l’activité d’enseignement-apprentissage, et les traces numériques laissées sur cette plate-forme. Il ressort de cette étude que les enseignants et les étudiants avaient la possibilité d’utiliser une panoplie d’outils intégrés à la plate-forme e-learning « Minassati » dans le cadre de l’activité d’enseignement-apprentissage, notamment les outils de transmission du contenu, de communication et d’évaluation. En outre, les résultats montrent que tous les enseignants et la majorité des étudiants ont effectivement observé des changements importants au niveau des pratiques pédagogiques, nommément les possibilités de communication et d’interaction, d’une manière formelle et organisée, entre les étudiants ainsi qu’avec les enseignants en dehors de la classe; la diversité des ressources et des activités pédagogiques liées aux cours; les tâches confiées aux étudiants ainsi que la motivation accrue et l’engagement actif des étudiants dans les activités d’apprentissage. Mots-clés: TIC, Intégration des TIC dans les pratiques pédagogiques, E-learning, Enseignement supérieur. Effects of an e-Learning platform called « Minassati » on pedagogical practices among teachers and students of History and Civilization at Abdelmalek Essaadi University in Morocco Abstract: This article aims to analyze usage practices of an e-Learning platform called “Minassati” using the digital traces and to identify the effects of the use of on pedagogical practices among teachers and students of History and Civilization at Abdelmalek Essaadi University in Morocco. Data was collected through two complementary tools: the questionnaire survey of teachers and students who used the “Minassati” platform in the teaching-learning activity and the digital traces left on this platform. It emerges from this study that teachers and students had the opportunity to use a set of tools integrated into the “Minassati” platform as part of the teaching-learning activity, notably the tools of content transmission, communication, and evaluation. In addition, the results show that all teachers and the majority of students have actually observed significant changes in pedagogical practices, in particular the possibilities of communication and interaction, in a formal and organized way, between students and with teachers outside the classroom, the diversity of resources and pedagogical activities related to the courses and the tasks assigned to students as well as the increased motivation and active engagement of students in learning activities. Keywords: ICT, Integration of ICT in pedagogical practices, E-learning, Higher education.
  • Exploring Video Conferencing as Possible Tool to Teach English in Public Schools in Paraguay

    Sandoval, Leonardo; Canese Caballero, Valentina (Athabasca University Press, 2020-12-23)
    The Ministry of Education of Paraguay (MEC) has introduced the teaching of English in public primary education in 2012. However, the number of English teachers was not enough to meet the high demand, especially because the majority of those teachers reside in the central department of the country. As a response, this qualitative research study was designed to examine the feasibility of teaching English via videoconferencing. In the process, semi-structured interviews served as the main data collection instrument, leading to the conclusion that videoconferencing could become an effective teaching option, but it will not be feasible until a project fostered by governmental institutions in coordination with departmental governments join forces towards a common and synchronised objective. Technology could become a meaningful teaching tool; albeit, an expensive one. Therefore a sustainable action plan should be elaborated for a successful implementation that yields the expected outcomes.
  • Leading the Pandemic Practicum: One Teacher Education Response to the COVID-19 Crisis

    Burns, Amy; Danyluk, Patricia; Kapoyannis, Theodora; Kendrick, Astrid (Athabasca University Press, 2020-12-18)
    Abstract: This article will outline one Canadian teacher education response to the closure of kindergarten to grade twelve schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant online teacher education practicum that was subsequently developed, termed the pandemic practicum. In the month of March 2020, teacher educators across Canada were prompted to move to online delivery of content for preservice teachers and, in many cases, this pivot was, while not simple, at least imaginable. More difficult was the integration of an online solution for the teaching practicum, a cornerstone of teacher education. The following article outlines the steps taken to ensure a credible and engaging online experiential offering. Themes were generated through the self-reflections of the design and leadership team, as well as through a survey completed by postsecondary students undertaking the online practicum. Findings included the initial challenges as noted by the design team including program and licensing requirements, as well as philosophical differences among stakeholders as to the role of practicum in teacher education. In addition, a number of important opportunities were presented by this shift to an online practicum, including the importance of the pedagogy of online learning and the need to re-vision and question the practicum. Keywords: online pedagogy; practicum; teacher education; online practicum Mettre en œuvre un stage pendant la pandémie : une réponse de formation des enseignants à la crise COVID-19 Résumé: Cet article présente une réponse de la formation des enseignants canadiens à la fermeture des écoles de la maternelle à la douzième année en raison de la pandémie de la COVID-19 et le stage de formation des enseignants en ligne qui en a résulté et qui a ensuite été développé, appelé stage pandémique. Au mois de mars 2020, les formateurs d'enseignants de tout le Canada ont été invités à passer à la diffusion en ligne de contenus destinés aux enseignants en formation initiale et, dans de nombreux cas, ce changement, bien que loin d'être simple, était au moins imaginable. Plus difficile était l'intégration d'une solution en ligne pour le stage d'enseignement, pierre angulaire de la formation des enseignants. L'article suivant décrit les mesures prises pour garantir une expérience en ligne cohérente et attrayante. Les thèmes ont été générés par les réflexions de l'équipe de conception et de direction, ainsi que par une enquête réalisée auprès des étudiants de l'enseignement supérieur qui ont effectué le stage en ligne. Les conclusions ont porté sur les défis initiaux relevés par l'équipe de conception, notamment en ce qui concerne les exigences en matière de programme et de certification, ainsi que sur les différentes conceptions des parties prenantes quant au rôle du stage dans la formation des enseignants. En outre, ce passage à un stage en ligne a présenté un certain nombre de possibilités importantes, concernant notamment l'importance de la pédagogie de l'apprentissage en ligne et la nécessité de revoir et de remettre en question le stage. Mots clés: pédagogie en ligne ; stage pratique ; formation des enseignants ; stage en ligne
  • Online Indigenous University Student Supports, Barriers, and Learning Preferences

    Walton, Patrick D; Byrne, Robert; Clark, Natalie; Pidgeon, Michelle; Arnouse, Mike; Hamilton, Kristen (Athabasca University Press, 2020-12-18)
    Abstract: The research goals were to identify the key supports, barriers, and learning preferences related to the persistence of online Indigenous university students. Two Indigenous community meetings were held, 212 online Indigenous students were surveyed, 20 Indigenous students were interviewed, and a talking circle was held with six Indigenous university online students. The strongest converging factors related to persistence were (a) cultural; recommendations for more Indigenous faculty and culture on campus, (b) social; good relationships with faculty and students, positive social environment, time management, and motivation, (c) cognitive; literacy, mathematics, and computer skills, and (d) physical; financial support, affordable housing, family support, and non-academic support at university. Students preferred embedded media, graphics, virtual environments, and games over other online design elements. Email was the preferred method to communicate with faculty. Texting, using social media, and virtual environments were preferred to communicate with other students. Most students had extensive experience with texting, Facebook, and chat, but far less experience with blogs, Twitter, or Wikis. Students liked group work but assigning one mark for group projects worked against social cohesion. Most students reported having the skills needed to complete online courses, with the exception of time management. The findings support a wholistic Indigenous human model of university persistence that includes intersecting social, cognitive, physical, and cultural components. Keywords: Indigenous, Aboriginal, persistence, university, online, Indigenous student experience, Canada    Résumé: Les objectifs de la recherche étaient d'identifier les principaux soutiens, obstacles et préférences d'apprentissage en lien avec la persévérance des étudiants universitaires autochtones en ligne. Deux réunions au sein d'une communauté autochtone ont été organisées, 212 étudiants en ligne autochtones ont été interrogés, 20 étudiants ont été interviewés, et un cercle de discussion a été organisé avec six étudiants universitaires en ligne autochtones. Les facteurs convergents les plus fortement en lien avec la persévérance étaient (a) culturels : recommandations d'une présence accrue de professeurs et de culture autochtones sur le campus, (b) sociaux : bonnes relations avec les professeurs et les étudiants, environnement social positif, gestion du temps et motivation, (c) cognitifs : compétences en littératie, mathématiques et informatique, et (d) physiques : soutien financier, logement abordable, soutien familial et soutien non académique à l'université. Les étudiants ont préféré les médias intégrés, les graphiques, les environnements virtuels et les jeux à d'autres éléments de design de cours en ligne. Le courrier électronique était la méthode préférée pour communiquer avec le corps enseignant. Les textos, les médias sociaux et les environnements virtuels ont été privilégiés pour communiquer avec les autres étudiants. La plupart des étudiants avaient une grande expérience des textos, de Facebook et du chat, mais beaucoup moins des blogs, de Twitter ou des wikis. Les étudiants ont aimé le travail en groupe, mais l'attribution d'une note pour les projets de groupe est allée à l'encontre de la cohésion sociale. La plupart des étudiants a déclaré avoir les compétences nécessaires pour suivre des cours en ligne, à l'exception de la gestion du temps. Les résultats soutiennent un modèle humain autochtone holistique de persévérance universitaire qui comprend des éléments sociaux, cognitifs, physiques et culturels qui se croisent. Mots-clés: autochtone, aborigine, persistence, université, en ligne, expérience des étudiants autochtones, Canada
  • Exploring E-Learning Delivery in Saudi Arabian Universities

    Walabe, Eman; Luppicini, Rocci (Athabasca University Press, 2020-12-18)
    Abstract: This qualitative research study explored E-Learning delivery in Saudi Arabian Universities from a holistic perspective to advance knowledge on the evolution of Saudi Arabia’s distance education system. Data collection consisted of 28 in-depth, one-on-one interviews with instructors and course designers to capture missing insider perspectives and was supplemented by a thematic analysis of core supporting documents related to the universities’ strategies for delivering online learning. Three core thematic areas were isolated and analyzed: (1) Distance education growing pains, (2) Learning theory integration challenges, and (3) Pedagogical and technical alignment. Stafford Beer’s Viable Systems Model (VSM) provided an interpretive lens to explain how Saudi Arabia’s distance education system remained viable while passing through periods of significant change. A blended learning model is proposed to address the complex interplay of factors influencing E-learning delivery within Saudi Arabia’s distance education system. Keywords: distance education, online learning, E-learning, blended learning, pedagogical and technical support Résumé: Cette étude fondée sur une recherche qualitative a exploré l'offre d'apprentissage en ligne dans les universités saoudiennes dans une perspective holistique afin de faire progresser les connaissances concernant l'évolution du système de formation à distance en Arabie saoudite. La collecte de données a consisté en 28 entretiens individuels approfondis avec des enseignants et des concepteurs de cours afin de recueillir les points de vue manquants venant des praticiens. Elle a été complétée par une analyse thématique des principaux documents d'appui liés aux stratégies des universités en matière de prestation d'apprentissage en ligne. Trois domaines thématiques fondamentaux ont été isolés et analysés : (1) Les difficultés de croissance de l'enseignement à distance, (2) Les défis de l'intégration de la théorie de l'apprentissage, et (3) L'alignement pédagogique et technique. Le modèle de systèmes viables (VSM) de Stafford Beer a fourni une grille d'interprétation pour expliquer comment le système de formation à distance de l'Arabie saoudite est resté viable tout en traversant des périodes de changements importants. Un modèle d'apprentissage mixte est proposé pour aborder l'interaction complexe des facteurs qui influencent la prestation de l'apprentissage en ligne au sein du système de formation à distance de l'Arabie saoudite. Mots-clés: formation à distance, formation en ligne, e-learning, formation mixte, soutien pédagogique et technique
  • Evaluating Teaching Presence In An Online Nursing Course: Proposing a New Taxonomy

    Baker, Micah; Richardson, Stephanie; Rubio, Fernando (Athabasca University Press, 2020-12-18)
    Teaching presence has been considered crucial in the success of distance education since its inception. In online courses the role of teaching presence has received significant attention within the Community of Inquiry framework since Anderson, Rourke, Garrison and Archer (2001) defined a set of categories that constitute teaching presence and proposed a tool to assess them. However, there has been limited research addressing whether the instrument proposed by Anderson et al. adequately captures course- or discipline-specific features and whether the inherent characteristics of certain disciplines may result in different instantiations of teaching presence. In this article, we describe how the teaching philosophy that permeated an online nursing course determined how teaching presence emerged in the course. We describe the application of Anderson et al.’s (2001) framework to the analysis of the interactions in the course and the modifications to the original coding scheme that resulted from the analysis. Keywords: teaching presence, online learning, Community of Inquiry, graduate Nursing online courses, qualitative method, CoI taxonomy
  • Exploring the Creation of Instructional Videos to Improve the Quality of Mathematical Explanations for Pre-Service Teachers

    Kay, Robin; Ruttenberg-Rozen, Robyn (Athabasca University Press, 2020-10-30)
    Abstract: One of the primary skills required by mathematics teachers is the ability to provide effective explanations to their students. Using Kay’s (2014) theory-based framework for creating instructional videos, this study explored the quality and growth of explanations embedded in mathematical instructional videos created by 37 pre-service teachers (female = 26, male = 11). The Instructional Video Evaluation Scale (IVES), comprised of four constructs (establishing context, explanation heuristics, minimizing cognitive load, engagement), was used to assess the quality of two videos (pre-feedback and post-feedback). The initial video created by pre-service teachers (pre-feedback) revealed a number of problem areas, including providing a clear problem label, using visual supports, noting potential errors that might occur, writing legibly, highlighting key areas, listing key terms and formulas, being concise, and using a clear, conversational voice. After receiving detailed feedback based on the IVES, the ratings of the second video (post-feedback) for each of the initial problem areas increased significantly. The IVES scale, grounded on Kay’s (2014) framework, helped identify and improve the effectiveness of pre-service teachers’ explanations of mathematics concepts.   Keywords: pre-service teachers, instructional videos, mathematics teaching, explanation   Résumé: L'une des principales compétences requises des professeurs de mathématiques est de fournir des explications efficaces à leurs élèves. À l'aide du cadre théorique de Kay (2014) pour la création de vidéos pédagogiques, cette étude a exploré la qualité et la croissance des explications intégrées dans les vidéos pédagogiques mathématiques créées par 37 enseignants stagiaires (femmes = 26, hommes = 11). L'échelle d'évaluation de la vidéo pédagogique (IVES), composée de quatre concepts (établissement du contexte, heuristique d'explication, minimisation de la charge cognitive, engagement), a été utilisée pour évaluer la qualité de deux vidéos (pré-feedback et post-feedback). La vidéo initiale créée par les enseignants stagiaires (pré-rétroaction) a révélé un certain nombre de domaines problématiques, notamment fournir une étiquette claire du problème, utiliser des supports visuels, noter les erreurs potentielles qui pourraient survenir, écrire lisiblement, mettre en évidence les domaines clés, énumérer les termes et formules clés , utilisant une voix claire et conversationnelle et concis Après avoir reçu des commentaires détaillés, basés sur l'IVES, les notes de la deuxième vidéo (post-feedback) pour chacun des problèmes initiaux ont augmenté de manière significative. L’échelle IVES, fondée sur le cadre de Kay (2014), a permis d’identifier et d’améliorer l’efficacité des explications des enseignants de formation sur les concepts mathématiques.   Mots-clés: enseignants stagiaires, vidéos pédagogiques, enseignement des mathématiques, explication   Authors Dr. Robin Kay is currently a full professor and dean in the Faculty of Education at Ontario Tech University in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. He has published over 160 articles, chapters, and conference papers in the area of technology in education, is a reviewer for five prominent computer education journals, and has taught in the fields of computer science, mathematics, and educational technology for over 25 years at the high school, college, undergraduate, and graduate levels. Current projects include research on laptop use in higher education, BYOD in K-12 education, web-based learning tools, e-learning and blended learning in secondary and higher education, video podcasts, scale development, emotions and the use of computers, the impact of social media tools in education, and factors that influence how students learn with technology. Dr. Kay received his MA in Computer Applications in Education and his PhD in Cognitive Science (Educational Psychology) at the University of Toronto. Email:   Dr. Robyn Ruttenberg-Rozen is an assistant professor of STEAM education and graduate program director in the Faculty of Education at Ontario Tech University in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada. She explores pedagogical practices and current discourses in STEAM education around typically underserved, linguistically and culturally diverse, and exceptional populations of learners and their teachers. At the centre of her research is the study of change, innovation, and access in pedagogical spaces (virtual and face-to-face) with a focus on strategies and interventions. Her graduate and undergraduate teaching includes courses in integrated STEAM learning, mathematics methods and content, qualitative research methods, curriculum theory, and theories of learning. Email:
  • TATE Special Issue

    Cotnam-Kappel, Megan; Vaughn, Norman (Athabasca University Press, 2020-10-30)
    Welcome to this special issue of the International Journal of E-Learning and Distance Education. This issue features twelve articles about the use of digital technology in Canadian teacher education programs. The authors of these research studies are members of the Technology and Teacher Education (TATE) special interest group of the Canadian Association of Teacher Education (CATE).
  • Finding the Right Fit: Exploring ESL Teachers and Students’ Perceptions of iLit ELL, a Technology-based Literacy Program’s Use with High School English Language Learners

    Shahbazi, Sara (Athabasca University Press, 2020-10-30)
    Abstract: The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of ESL secondary teachers and their perceptions towards the use, effects, and integration of iLit ELL, a technology-based language program designed for English language learners, as well as the perceived effects the program had on students’ motivation and attitudes towards learning English. Data were collected using teacher interviews, student focus groups, and final reflections, as well as researcher observations and field notes. The collected data were analyzed through the steps of Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis to broaden the breadth and depth of the content and complexity of each narrative independently. Data were then compared across individual experiences and interpreted in a dynamic and active process that involved double hermeneutics. Based on the data collected throughout the study, findings indicated that technology integration is affected by teachers’ adaptability to change; teacher mindset affects teachers’ acceptance, integration, and effective use of technology; when applied purposefully, technology and differentiated instruction increases student motivation and teachers’ efficiency; and technology with embedded scaffolds can enhance student autonomy and motivate student learning. From the emerging themes, the following recommendations are suggested for stakeholders and future research: differentiated professional development for teachers; applying consistent school and system-wide supports and beliefs on technology; adopting a universal designs method to teaching; further exploring teacher perceived efficacy and actual performance of technology integration; and a comparative study exploring best instructional models. Keywords: iLit ELL, high school English language learners, technology, interpretive phenomenological analysis, ESL, student motivation Résumé: Le but de cette étude phénoménologique interprétative était d'explorer les expériences vécues des enseignants du secondaire ESL et leurs perceptions concernant l'utilisation, les effets et l'intégration d'iLit ELL, un programme de langue basé sur la technologie conçu pour les apprenants de langue anglaise, ainsi que les effets perçus. le programme portait sur la motivation et les attitudes des étudiants envers l'apprentissage de l'anglais. Les données ont été recueillies à l'aide d'entretiens avec les enseignants, de groupes de discussion d'étudiants et de réflexions finales, ainsi que d'observations de chercheurs et de notes de terrain. Les données collectées ont été analysées à travers les étapes de l'analyse phénoménologique interprétative pour élargir la largeur et la profondeur du contenu et de la complexité de chaque récit indépendamment. Les données ont ensuite été comparées à travers des expériences individuelles et interprétées dans un processus dynamique et actif, impliquant une double herméneutique. Sur la base des données recueillies tout au long de l'étude, les résultats indiquent que l'intégration de la technologie est affectée par l'adaptabilité des enseignants au changement; l'état d'esprit des enseignants affecte l'acceptation, l'intégration et l'utilisation efficace de la technologie par les enseignants; lorsqu'elles sont appliquées à dessein, la technologie et l'enseignement différencié augmentent la motivation des élèves et l'efficacité des enseignants; et, la technologie avec des échafaudages intégrés peut améliorer l'autonomie des étudiants et motiver leur apprentissage. À partir des thèmes émergents, les recommandations suivantes sont suggérées pour les parties prenantes et les recherches futures: développement professionnel différencié pour les enseignants; appliquer des soutiens et des croyances cohérents à l'échelle de l'école et du système en matière de technologie; adopter une méthode de conception universelle pour l'enseignement; explorer davantage l'efficacité perçue par les enseignants et les performances réelles de l'intégration de la technologie; et une étude comparative explorant les meilleurs modèles pédagogiques. Mots-clés: iLit ELL, apprenants de langue anglaise, technologie, analyse phénoménologique interpretative, ESL, motivation des élèves
  • The Case for Digital Timelines in Teaching and Teacher Education

    DeCoito, Isha; Vacca, Stefano (Athabasca University Press, 2020-10-30)
    Abstract Digital timelines have been both transformational and supportive in enhancing the ways in which information is shared through text, images, interaction, and creativity to achieve course goals and objectives across numerous disciplines. In analyzing the experiences of teacher candidates (TCs) in their creation of a variety of resources to address the development of their digital competencies, it is worthwhile to further explore the design and effectiveness of one resource in particular, digital timelines. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore TCs’ development of digital timelines in a senior science methods course and to demonstrate the ways in which digital timelines can assist educators in their practice. Through surveys, interviews, and student coursework, the author examines TCs’ attitudes towards technology, experiences with creating digital timelines, and their utilization of technology to promote and foster global skills and competencies. Findings of this study indicate beneficial effects of developing digital timelines including flexibility in achieving a variety of learning goals (including multi-scale analyses, visualizing different spatial and temporal arrangements, developing historical contexts, etc.) associated with the assignment, flexibility in application and actualization, and enhanced motivation and engagement. TCs engaged in knowledge construction as they created visually-enhancing and interactive timelines, and in doing so circumvented reducing, simplifying, and imposing linearity on complex scientific discoveries in the history of the discipline. TCs achieved success in developing scientific timelines that effectively immersed their peers in dynamic multimedia learning environments offering multiple sources of text, images, games, video, and audio, among other multimodal components. Key Words: digital timelines; teacher candidate; teacher education; 21st century skills Résumé Les ligne du temps numériques ont été à la fois transformationnelles et favorables en améliorant la manière dont les informations sont partagées à travers le texte, les images, l'interaction et la créativité pour atteindre les objectifs du cours dans de nombreuses disciplines. En analysant les expériences des candidats enseignants (TC) dans leur création d'une variété de ressources pour aborder le développement de leurs compétences numériques, il vaut la peine d'explorer plus avant la conception et l'efficacité d'une ressource en particulier, les ligne du temps numériques. Ainsi, l’objectif de cet article est d’explorer le développement par les CT de ligne du temps numériques dans un cours de méthodes scientifiques de haut niveau et de démontrer les façons dont les ligne du temps numériques peuvent aider les éducateurs dans leur pratique. Au moyen d’enquêtes, d’entretiens et de cours d’étudiants, l’auteur examine l’attitude des TC à l’égard de la technologie, les expériences de création de ligne du temps numériques et leur utilisation de la technologie pour promouvoir et favoriser les compétences et compétences mondiales. Les résultats de cette étude indiquent les effets bénéfiques de l'élaboration de ligne du temps numériques, y compris la flexibilité pour atteindre une variété d'objectifs d'apprentissage (y compris des analyses multi-échelles, la visualisation de différents arrangements spatiaux et temporels, le développement de contextes historiques, etc.) associés à la mission, la flexibilité dans l'application et actualisation, et une motivation et un engagement accrus. Les CT se sont engagés dans la construction des connaissances en créant des ligne du temps interactifs et améliorant visuellement et, ce faisant, ont contourné la réduction, la simplification et l'imposition de linéarité sur des découvertes scientifiques complexes dans l'histoire de la discipline. Les CT ont réussi à développer des ligne du temps scientifiques qui immergeaient efficacement leurs pairs dans des environnements d'apprentissage multimédias dynamiques offrant de multiples sources de texte, d'images, de jeux, de vidéo et d'audio, entre autres composants multimodaux. Mots-clés: chronologies numériques; candidat enseignant; formation des enseignants; compétences du 21e siècle
  • Technology Used to Support Learning in Groups

    Brown, Barbara; Thomas, Christy (Athabasca University Press, 2020-10-30)
    Abstract: Across disciplines, researchers recognize that working together in a small group can be a challenging learning activity, particularly in an online course where group members meet remotely. This 2-year, design-based research study focused on improving group work in both online and blended sections of an undergraduate course for pre-service teachers. Surveys were completed by instructors (N = 15) and students (N = 361) at three different junctures during the course to learn about how technologies were used by students and instructors to support group work. Interviews were also conducted at the end of the term to gather in-depth descriptions about the types of technologies and how they were used by students and instructors to support group work. Findings indicated that students and instructors selected a combination of technologies, including institutionally supported and mainstream applications such as shared workspaces to coordinate, track, and monitor group progress. Students and instructors also described using communication technologies to manage group challenges related to scheduling, communicating, and integrating tasks into the project. Findings contribute to our understanding about how technologies were used to support process and product when working on a group assignment.   Keywords: technology-supported, online, group work, group assignment, social interdependence, teacher education   Résumé: Dans toutes les disciplines, les chercheurs reconnaissent que travailler ensemble en petit groupe peut être une activité d'apprentissage stimulante, en particulier dans un cours en ligne où les membres du groupe se rencontrent à distance. Cette étude de recherche de deux ans basée sur la conception s'est concentrée sur l'amélioration du travail en groupe dans les sections en ligne et mixtes d'un cours de premier cycle pour les enseignants en formation. Des sondages ont été complétés par des instructeurs (N = 15) et des étudiants (N = 361) à trois moments différents pendant le cours pour apprendre comment les technologies étaient utilisées par les étudiants et les instructeurs pour soutenir le travail de groupe. Des entrevues ont également été menées à la fin du trimestre afin de recueillir des descriptions détaillées sur les types de technologies et la façon dont les technologies étaient utilisées par les étudiants et les instructeurs pour soutenir le travail de groupe. Les résultats ont indiqué que les étudiants et les enseignants ont choisi une combinaison de technologies, y compris des applications soutenues par l'établissement et des applications grand public, y compris des espaces de travail partagés pour coordonner, suivre et surveiller les progrès du groupe. Les étudiants et les instructeurs ont également décrit l'utilisation des technologies de communication pour gérer les défis de groupe liés à la planification, à la communication et à l'intégration des tâches dans le projet. Les résultats contribuent à notre compréhension de la façon dont les technologies ont été utilisées pour soutenir les processus et les produits lorsque nous réalisons un travail en groupe.   Mots-clés: soutenu par la technologie, en ligne, travail de groupe, affectation de groupe, interdépendance sociale, formation des enseignants  
  • Fostering Learning through Making: Perspectives from the International Maker Education Network

    Lock, Jennifer; Gill, David; Kennedy, Thomas; Piper, Stephanie; Powell, Alwyn (Athabasca University Press, 2020-10-30)
    How are we preparing teachers to design and foster learning through making where disciplinary knowledge and skills are applied and developed? One approach that addresses this question can be found from the International Maker Educational Network (IMEN); an online professional learning community built upon shared interests in educational making. Members meet regularly to share their maker context and experiences and what can be gleaned to help support developing capacity to design and facilitate learning through making. In further studying their professional practice using a self-study methodology, four IMEN members shared their respective maker contexts, illustrating examples of making in formal and informal learning environments and what is being learned from their experiences. These cases provide examples of strategies and approaches that are being used to support learning through making and provide insight into developing and utilizing knowledge and skills in fostering learning through making in P-16 educational contexts. The article concludes with three recommendations for practice to support educators and teacher educators in fostering learning through making. Résumé Comment préparons-nous les enseignants à concevoir et à favoriser l'apprentissage en faisant en sorte que les connaissances et les compétences disciplinaires soient appliquées et développées? Une approche qui répond à cette question peut être trouvée dans l'International Maker Educational Network (IMEN), une communauté d'apprentissage professionnel en ligne fondée sur des intérêts communs dans la création de l'éducation. Les membres se réunissent régulièrement pour partager leur contexte et leurs expériences de créateur et ce qui peut être glané pour aider à développer la capacité de concevoir et de faciliter l'apprentissage par la création. En étudiant davantage leur pratique professionnelle en utilisant une méthodologie d'auto-apprentissage, quatre membres d'IMEN ont partagé leurs contextes de créateur respectifs, illustrant des exemples de fabrication dans des environnements d'apprentissage formels et informels et ce qui est appris de leurs expériences. Ces cas fournissent des exemples de stratégies et d'approches qui sont utilisées pour soutenir l'apprentissage par la création et donnent un aperçu du développement et de l'utilisation des connaissances et des compétences pour favoriser l'apprentissage par la création dans les contextes éducatifs P-16. L'article se termine par trois recommandations pratiques pour aider les éducateurs et les formateurs d'enseignants à favoriser l'apprentissage par la création. Keywords: Learning, Making, Makerspaces, Maker Mindset, Teacher, Teacher Educator Apprentissage, Création, Makerspaces, Maker Mindset, Enseignant, Enseignant Éducateur
  • Multiple Perspectives on Digital Literacies Research Methods in Canada

    Hagerman, Michelle; Beach, Pamela; Cotnam-Kappel, Megan; Hébert, Cristyne (Athabasca University Press, 2020-10-30)
    Abstract In this article, we call for Canadian digital literacies researchers to invest in designs and research methods that centralise in-the-moment insights, embrace complexity, and that are informed by a deep commitment to authentic, ethical reciprocity that serves the communities in which our work is placed. We present three cases that offer multiple perspectives for how we might operationalise these principles, and we consider implications for the use of data collected with new approaches to digital literacies assessment, with virtual retrospective think alouds, eye-tracking, and spy glasses video. As the first co-authored article by The Digital Literacies Collective, this article contributes our shared position on the methodological priorities that will enable Canadian digital literacies researchers to construct new, contextually-situated frameworks that inform digital literacies policies and practices in Canadian systems of schooling. Keywords: digital literacies; research methods; Canada; think aloud; eye tracking; spy glasses; assessment Résumé Dans cet article, nous appelons les chercheurs canadiens en littératie numérique à investir dans des conceptions et des méthodes de recherche qui centralisent les connaissances instantanées, embrassent la complexité et sont éclairées par un engagement profond envers une réciprocité authentique et éthique au service des communautés dans lesquelles se situe notre travail. Nous présentons trois cas qui offrent de multiples perspectives sur la façon dont nous pourrions opérationnaliser ces principes, et considérons les implications pour l'utilisation des données collectées avec de nouvelles approches d'évaluation des littératies numériques, avec des rétrospectives virtuelles de réflexion à haute voix, des suivis du mouvement des yeux, des vidéos enregistrées par lunettes d'espionnage. En tant que premier article co-écrit par le Collectif des littératies numériques, cet article défend notre position commune concernant les priorités méthodologiques qui permettront aux chercheurs canadiens en littératies numériques de construire de nouveaux cadres contextuels qui éclairent les politiques et les pratiques des littératies numériques dans les systèmes scolaires canadiens. Mots-clés : littératies numériques; méthodes de recherche; Canada; réfléchir à haute voix; suivi de l'oeil; lunettes d'espion; évaluation

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