International Journal of Sino-Western Studies (IJS, 1799-8204) is a Chinese-English bilingual academic journal, which is published twice a year in June and December in Finland by the Nordic Forum of Sino-Western Studies. It is published simultaneously in printed and electronic online versions. We aim at encouraging Sino-Western dialogue, research, and enhancement of scholarly activities, e.g, conferences, student & scholar exchange, academic essay prize, and publication. As part of its publication programs, the Forum publishes a new Chinese-English bilingual journal to promote Sino-Western Studies internationally. IJS is indexed by Scopus, Emerging Science Citation Index.


The Globethics library contains vol. 1(2011) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • On the Definition and Research Methods of Intellectual History: Taking the Origin of Liberation Theology for example

    Danchun, He (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    As a kind of historical research consisting of “ideas”and“history”, the study of the intellectual history mainly deals with two kinds of problems: one is to see what a thinker said in the dimension of ideas, and the other is to judge why he said so from the dimension of history. Therefore, the research approach of intellectual history can be divided into“external research method” and “internal research method”. The external research method pays special attention to the interactive relationship between thought and historical context, and places people in the historical context to be observed and analyzed, while the internal research method pays special attention to analyzing the circumference of the system of thought in the theoretical development. This paper analyzes the origin of liberation theology as an example with external research method and internal research method, such as qualitative analysis software, inference and deduction, transcendental dialectic, and also applies the writing patterns of“continuity” and “discontinuity”. The paper proposes that that the origins of liberation theology can be considered in terms of a number of factors, including Christian ecclesiastical base, German theological thought, Roman Catholic Reformation, and the personal situations of liberation theologians,etc.
  • Ontological Theory Based on Practical Wisdom——An Exploration of the Gains and Losses of Mou Zongsan's “Metaphysics of Morality” Construction

    Qian, Wu (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    Mou Zongsan constructed a philosophical ontology of “moral metaphysics” based on the unique practical wisdom of Confucianism. His argument for the “Moral metaphysics” not only includes the “ontological argument” in his later philosophical system, but also includes the “philosophical history argument” that reinterpreted Confucian discourse in the middle of Mou's thought. Mou emphasizes the “Cosmological approach” in “Zhongyong” and “Yizhuan” and takes it as a successful development of the “Moral approach”in “The Analects of Confucius” and “Mencius”, in order to continue the Confucian tradition of “ontology insight based on practical evidence”. However, the ontology of “Moral metaphysics” ultimately inherited the practical ontology concept of Confucianism, but failed to complete the modern transformation of the practical ontology approach corresponding to this practical ontology, resulting in a fundamental tension between the practical ontology concept of “Moral metaphysics” and its speculative ontology approach.
  • Discussion on the Study of Philosophy and Theology in the Perspective of the Intellectual History:: Taking Martin Luther's Influence on Heidegger as an Example

    Li, Ruixiang (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    In the study of the intellectual history in the traditional Chinese academia, the intellectual history is often secondary and indifferent in comparison with the history of politics and revolution. And the limitations brought about by such a bias are very clearly reflected in the traditional Chinese academic circles' perspective and attitude towards the study of Martin Luther. Luther has often been rigidly confined to the realm of peasant revolutionary movements, social history of religion, and church history; the important contribution of his intellect in the development of Western intellectual history and related humanistic fields has often been overlooked. The first two sections of this paper will start from the different schools and methods of research in the intellectual history of in the West, discussing on the one hand the differences between the research paths in the intellectual history in the West and those in pure theology and philosophy, and on the other hand the research methods and paths of the different schools in the intellectual history in the West, in order to illustrate the important contributions of Luther's intellect in the path of the history of ideas. Section three will develop in depth the entry points and innovations of the study of Luther's influence on Heidegger in the context of the history of intellect. Section four will discuss the innovations and breakthroughs in this study in relation to its predecessors through the innovations in Section three. Through this study, the importance of Luther in the development of Western intellectual history can be comprehensively and systematically represented. This study will be linked to the current series of studies on “Martin Luther and the Third Enlightenment” in the Chinese academic circles, calling for Luther's intellect not only not to be neglected, but also to be placed in an important position in the study of the history of Western intellect.
  • The Exotic Country in the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns: Images of China in the Battle of the Books

    Wanjing, LIANG (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    Preceded by Renaissance, followed by Enlightenment, the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, as an important cultural and intellectual event in European minds, has not received the attention it deserves. The Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns which happened in 1690s England, also known as the Battle of the Books. In the battle about the superiority of ancient culture or modern culture in the West, China as an exotic country of the East was repeatedly mentioned, and in the polemical writings between Sir William Temple and William Wotton, China was given two entirely different faces: "Politically Prominent China" and "Pagan China". By analyzing the state of Chinese knowledge and the mechanism of image production in the polemical writings of British intellectuals, this paper discusses the role and ideological function played by the image of China in Enlightenment Britain, and then deliberates the construction of the British state, religious consciousness, and reflexive subject in the Early Modern period.
  • Matteo Ricci and the New Horizon of the Intellectual World in late Ming: A Response to Prof. XIE Wenyu’s Article “The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven and the Differences in Concerns between Chinese and Western Thinking”

    Qinghe, XIAO (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    With the publication and circulation of The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) since the late Ming Dynasty, related criticisms abound. On the whole, the accusations against this book are no more than three: invoking backward medieval theosophy and science, misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the indigenous Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and a missionary hermeneutics in the style of "for my own use". This article is a response to Prof. XIE Wenyu's article on The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven. The article responds to each of the points in Prof. Xie Wenyu's article from ten aspects. The article argues that Matteo Ricci and The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven played a positive role in the cultural exchanges between China and the West and the development of Confucianism in the late Ming Dynasty. If this role is not considered to be significant, the reason lies not in Matteo Ricci himself, but in Confucianism itself.
  • The concept of religious authority and power of the monarch in Shang Dynasty

    Xing, HAN (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    The Shang Dynasty people practiced theocentrism, Valuing Sacrifices and serving ghosts,and everything had to be predicted through divination. There are many deities in the Shang Dynasty, including three major systems: heavenly gods, earthly spirits, and human ghosts. Di has the greatest authority and is the ruler of nature. He has the characteristics of being extraordinary, not being influenced by human will, and is the supreme god in the belief world of the Shang Dynasty people. He is integrated with the ancestors of the Shang kings. The original meaning of Di was the ancestor and the god of reproduction of all things in the universe, which was very similar to the Western concept of 'God' as the creator. In the religious belief system of the Shang Dynasty, people did not directly offer sacrifices to the heavenly gods, and every request must be achieved through the intermediary of the ancestral ghosts. After the death of the Shang kings, they were all honored as Di, which led to the formation of the "combination of sorcerers and kings" and the "the unification of politics and religion" system in the late Shang Dynasty. In the late Shang Dynasty, a trinity structure of Di, Ancestral Spirit, and Kings was formed,which dominated the heavens and earth jointly, completed the integration of theocracy and kingship, and the combination of supreme god and extreme authoritarianism, formed a political ideological system of Religious indoctrination, had an important impact on later Chinese history and is worthy of our in-depth study.
  • The China Aspiration in Light of Jacob’s Narrative (Genesis 25:19-36:43):: Toward a Chinese Public Theology for Human Flourishing in the Third Millennium

    Feng, Jacob Chengwei (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    Compared to the five centuries of global colonial history, China’s (semi-)colonial history lasted only a little over one hundred years (1840-1949). However, since 1949, coloniality, anti-colonialization, anti-imperialism, and decolonization have continued to lurk in ideology, philosophy, politics, and most importantly in Chinese theology. This paper argues by engaging with Jacob’s narrative (Genesis 25:19-36:43), Chinese public theology can adequately engage in meaningful dialogue with the Aspiration, including the China Dream (Zhongguo meng 中国梦) and a Community of Shared Future for Mankind (renlei mingyun gongtongti 人类命运共同体), by articulating a Chinese public theology of human flourishing on domestic and international levels. The paper first analyzes China's (semi-)colonial/anti-colonial history in four stages with its various influences on Chinese theology. Then the paper adopts a three-layered “sandwich” approach to expose the profound epistemic crisis that is deeply embedded in Chinese theology. Finally, the paper attempts at a constructive Chinese public theology for human flourishing in the Third Millennium.
  • On the Legal Culture Analysis of Yanzhou Anti-Church Case in Late Qing Dynasty

    Fei, QIAO (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    Yanzhou Anti-Church Case, which happened in the late Qing Dynasty in Shandong Province, contains complex legal culture besides political factors. For the causes of happening, the national psychology of Chinese tradition "prevention of Hua-Yi ", the idea of" community standard "and the civil regulation making by Yanzhou people according to the emotion logic are the legal cultural factors that why Yanzhou Case taking place. During the dispute settlement processing, the cultural view of "one culture only" conflicted with the "multiple coexistence" , the value orientation of "public opinion" conflicted with the "legal rights" , and the style of "legal rights appeal " conflicted with " hidden rules response". These reflect the difference between Chinese and Western legal culture. Anti-Church Case was the result of the collision between "tradition" and "modern" in late Qing Dynasty, missionary and anti-church case processing also promoted the transformation from traditional China to modern. Today, the conflict between tradition and modern has not been stopped, our cultural modernization, psychological modernization still have a long way to go.
  • Women and Aged Disability: A Study of Naomi’s Gender identity and its Transformation in the Book of Ruth

    Zhengyi, Mo (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    This paper attempts to investigate Naomi’s gender identity and its transformation based on the integration of feminist and aged disability perspectives. Focusing on dismantling and restoration of Naomi’s  gender identity in the story of Ruth, the investigation exposes how such a transformation is related to the norm of womanhood set in the patriarchal society of biblical Israel. Naomi’s case reflects how the patriarchal values of ancient Israel obscured and shaped identities of the post-menopausal women, some of the most vulnerable members of the society. This investigation offers contemporary readers an opportunity to contemplate similar instances within their own communities and to reflect on what different individuals and communities can do to protect the dignity and well-being of the oppressed.
  • St. Augustine’s Cosmological Arguments on Transcendent Beauty

    Junxiao, BAI (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    Based on the Christian doctrine of creatio ex nihilo, Augustine argues that God created all forms from nothing, and the physical-temporal world simultaneously sprang into existence when corporeal forms were created and motions occurred; thus, time and space are creatures. In order to argue for the intelligent design of the world, Augustine investigates the attributes of formless matter, corporeal form, and intelligent form in the order of creation, which is logical order rather than temporal order. All forms, which are good and beautiful in different degrees, contain the triad (beauty, measurement, and order) as the common good and constitute universal harmony, manifesting the transcendent beauty of God. The human form is superior to all other corporeal forms because it is a combination of the corporeal and intelligent forms; thus, not only can it reason the unchangeable principles (metaphysical forms) underlying physical phenomena, but it also can receive the ethical beauty existing in the commandments of the Creator.
  • Lu Shiyong’s Interpretation of the Nature and Artistry of A Verse in “Nine Songs”

    Xiaoqiang, WANG (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    Lu Shiyong(1591?—1642?) put forward the claim that A Verse in “Nine Songs” is “not a piece of a funeral oration”. Lu proposed that it is a lyrical verse and elaborated on it in terms of the theme, the relationship between humans and the gods, and the background of the work. He held that A Verse in “Nine Songs” has the characteristics of “being elegant and pathetic”, reflected in it has “short sentences and long rhymes” and “an elegant context”. The general characteristics of A Verse in “Nine Songs” is that its language is concise and its semantics natural and simple. Lu explained his view of A Verse in “Nine Songs” having “an elegant context”, in terms of the emotional charm, the mingling of the emotions and the scenery, and the mastery of expressing feelings via verse, and thus expanded the area of research of his poetry theory.
  • The Definition, Methods and Other Related Issues of Intellectual History ——Also on the History of Martin Luther's Thoughts in China

    Ying, YANG (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    Intellectual history, tracing the history of human thought, is the understanding and presentation of various thoughts and concepts that have appeared in human history. The Chinese term 思想史 is translated from the English terms “intellectual history” and “history of ideas”, which were once used interchangeably, especially in the 20th century, since at least two reasons: the definition of “idea” and the history of the development of academic disciplines. The use of English terms in confusion is undoubtedly a reflection of the phenomenon of different opinions on the definition of the connotation of the intellectual history. By enumerating the explanations about the meaning of intellectual history of Collingwood, Lovejoy, Isaiah Berlin, Skinner and many other famous, not only to show the ambiguity of what is intellectual history, but also to seek uniformities among the different definitions. It is that intellectual history points to the spiritual creation and experience of human beings, and can guide people to discover and reach the most real place of history. Based on their respective understanding on intellectual history, historians use various research methods to pursue the thoughts and concepts in the course of human history from the perspectives of pure history, philosophical history, social history, etc., in order to find something valuable and meaningful. On the basis of sorting out and analyzing the basic problems of intellectual history, this paper further illustrates the connotation and methods of intellectual history by taking the study of the history of Martin Luther and his thoughts in China as an example.
  • K. H. Ting’s One-Sided Interpretation of Xin (信) as a verb

    Huang, Paulos; Ying, YANG (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    K. H. Ting has challenged traditional Reformed theology with xin (信), since he understood the Chinese word xin so differently from the Religious Reformers, e.g., Martin Luther, understanding the NT Greek concepts πιστεύω, πιστός and πίστις to the point that Ting proposed to dilute its role in justification (danhua yinxin chengyi;淡化因信称义). I hereby aim to explore the distinction of and reason for Ting’s understanding which departs from traditional Reformed theology from within the framework of traditional “Chinese” conception of religion and ethics; in the meanwhile the NT Greek and Reformation Latin traditions have also been studied as a subsidiary role insofar as they illumine the Reformers’ positions. This study is not conducted through political theology, but in the light of systematic and semantical, especially conceptual analysis, because the former has been well studied but the latter approach has not been explored well enough. Both πίστις and xin have many layers of meaning in NT Greek and Chinese classics, literature, or even common parlance, but Ting paid attention only to the connotation of xin as a verb. When Ting discussedthe doctrine of justification by faith, he had neither distinguished clearly enough the differences among πιστεύω, πιστός and πίστις, nor among credo, fidelium and fides. In addition to a verb, xin is used also as an adjective, a verb-noun, an adjective-noun and a noun, but because of his one-sided interpretation Ting has understood xin differently from Martin Luther and other Western predecessors.
  • The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven and the Differences in Concerns between Chinese and Western Thinking

    Wenyu, XIE (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-11-30)
    The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven is a book recording the idea-exchange between the Catholic missionaries and Confucians in the Ming Dynasty. In understanding the book, it demands as the background the knowledge of the western history in thought behind Matteo Ricci’s mind-set, such as natural theology, Aristotle’s philosophy, and the Protestant theology. With this consideration in mind, we have traced Ricci’s appealing to the way of logical arguments in demonstrating the existence of God, which presents Catholic dogma as a philosophy. In this way, Ricci became ignored of the development of Chinese thought regarding the issues of arche, essence, and good-evil. Indeed, Chinese thinkers have engaged profoundly in these issues and proposed various solutions which invite thinkers to engage in sentimental appreciation. Ricci’s ignorance of these efforts results in blocking his understanding of Chinese thought at a deeper level. My analyses of the dialogue in the book show that this historical exchange of ideas stays only at a superficial phrase.
  • On the Succession of the Thrones in Early Ancient China

    Zhenren, OUYANG; Yu, Tian (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-05-26)
    This essay argues that the succession of the thrones possibly originated from Confucius, then it was developed by his seventy famous disciples, and later it faded when confronted by Xunzi’s strong assertion in the Rites system. This process reflects the arduous exploration of the pre-Qin Confucianist School into traditional Chinese political system from both theory and practice. The succession of the thrones is not only an innovation based on the historical facts in early ancient China, but also a reconciliation for the chaos back then. The scene of societal prosperity brought by the succession of the thrones is depicted at the beginning of chapter Yao Code, the Book of History. Also, in the Analects, the praise of the Kings Yao, Shun and Yu can be regarded as the praise of the succession of the thrones, yet it has an inner tension with the Rites system. The strong relationship between the primitive Confucianist School and the Way of Tang and Yu as well as Rong Cheng Shi, the bamboo slips unearthed in Hubei Province, negates the possibility that the latter are the works of the Mohist School. The succession of the thrones proposed by the pre-Qin Confucianist School was strongly suppressed both by the feudal lords for the sake of their vested interests and the traditional Rites system, which are the genuine reasons for the disappearance of the fore-mentioned and related literature. At the very core of the succession of the thrones, there exists a spirit of criticism on the reality at the time, which showed strong sympathy towards the masses who lived in adversity, and it is an important national resource in the process of China’s modern construction of its political system.
  • Two Kinds of Love: On the Interpretation of Luther's View of Love by the Finnish School Mannermaa

    Ruixiang, LI; Huang, Paulos (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-05-26)
    In the midst of the dilemmas facing the history of contemporary Western theory, Martin Luther's concept of love and his theology of the Decalogue have been given more and more attention by more and more researchers. The interpretation of Luther's concept of love by the Finnish school in contemporary Lutheran studies has also been increasingly recognized. In this paper, we will discuss the interpretation of Luther's view of love by Mannermaa, the father of the Finnish school. The first two sections of the paper will deal with Luther's critique of the view of love ruled by the Greek philosophical tradition and the Catholic ‘theology of Glory’ in Mannermaa’s interpretation. The third section will introduce the important themes of faith and salvation in Luther's ‘theology of the Cross’ by discussing Mannermaa’s interpretation about love, thus highlighting the importance of the theme of love in theology. The last section will further discuss the inheritance of Luther's view of love and his theology in contemporary phenomenological philosophical thinking, which can then comprehensively show the important position of Luther in the history of contemporary theory and its research value.
  • Portraying Our Lady of China: An Alternative Visual Modernity in China

    Lihui, DONG (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-05-26)
    This paper focuses on the icon of “Our lady of China”, which was initiated in the early 20th century, to explore the possibility of an alternative visual modernity that mixed together Chinese and western visual cultures as a new one. Through examination of the patronage and reception of its earlier model of “Our lady of Donglü”, this paper concentrates on the beginning of the encountering of traditional and foreign cultures that exemplified by the icon in China during the early 20th century, to delve into the multiple social and historical contexts within which the modern ways of seeing were shaped in native China. The argument is that it is the 20th-century icon of “Our lady of China” that at last effectively visualized the specific Chinese notion of taking Madonna as “Mother Emperor”, which pursuit could trace back to the centuries-long Sinicization of the western icon of “Maria Regina”. The conclusion is that the icon of “Our lady of China” conveys both realistic and Christianized modernity, while at the same time it also distinguishes with several current typical narratives of modernity. In this sense, the icon of  “Our lady of China” provides us a kind of so-called “alternative visual modernity” in the process of visual enlightenment in China in the early 20th century.
  • Chinese Cultural Tradition and Cosmopolitanism

    Ximeng, AN (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-05-26)
    Cosmopolitanism is an ideal, not a reality. It's a decentralized theory, not a systematic theory. It has many different names. From the ancient to the modern times, it has been increasingly perfect and close to realization. It has been partially fulfilled in the world. Confucius once advocated "great harmony with the world". Sun Yat-sen carried forward the concept of "the world for the common good",and he absorbed the "universal ideas" of Western socialists. The idea of "world government" was formed in recent times. It was the ideal of our sages to organize a "union of sovereign states" to jointly maintain peace and eliminate war. This article is just to sort out the idea of the unity of the world, without any practical suggestions. This is a theoretical idea, not a practical one. Chinese scholars in modern times studied western ideas and then used them to examine Chinese classics to find new ideas. By combing through old papers, they gained a lot and were able to enlighten the people. We should have a grand vision, facing the world more advanced thinkers broad spirit.
  • Augustine and Martin Luther on Free Will : From the enslaved will to the bondage of the will

    He, Teng (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-05-26)
    This paper focuses on the comparison between Augustine’s and Luther’s understanding of the bondage of the will. As a philosopher of will, Augustine establishes the independence of the will in his earlier work. In his debate with Julian of Eclanum that comes from his later period, Augustine emphasizes grace and original sin. The salvation and freedom of humans rely on the Holy Spirit. In the debate with Erasmus, Luther introduced the conception of the necessity of will. However, both thinkers have different understandings of faith. Augustine has an intellectual understanding of faith, while Luther is a fideist.
  • Martin Luther’s Theory of “Two kingdoms” and Its Practical Dimension

    Danchun , HE; Huang, Paulos (Eurasia Academic Publishing Group, 2023-05-26)
    Luther’s “theory of two kingdoms” outlines “the kingdom of God” governed by “spiritual government” and “the kingdom of the world” governed by the “secular government”. It also emphasizes the obedience to the secular rulers regardless of their tyranny. Luther’s solution to the problem of their tyranny made him controversial, especially after the oppression of civilians and Jews by the extreme power politics in Auschwitz tragedy in World War II. Some scholars argue that it has kept religion indifferent to society and politics. To address this issue, Niebuhr and Moltmann proposed a political theology that focuses on the reality of human conditions in this earthly life. Latin American liberation theology further applied secular theology to practice, but it eventually shifted to spiritual construction in the face of the spiritual crisis of the loss of theological identity. The relationship between the two kingdoms can be explored from the perspective of spirit (πνευματικῶς pneumatikoos), soul(ψυχήν psychēn) and flesh (σαρκίνοις sarkinois). This paper aims to demonstrate the inherent affinity between the two kingdoms and respond to the criticism of the “two kingdoms” theory.

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