• Editorial - Global Diversity of Distance Education

      Cookson, Peter S. (AU Press, 2001-07-01)
    • Issues and Challenges of Providing Online Inservice Teacher Training: Korea's experience

      Jung, Insung (AU Press, 2001-07-01)
      To meet the need for flexible and interactive teacher training, the Korean government created a Cyber Teacher Training Center (CTTC) in the summer of 1997. The CTTC project developed a software platform for managing online inservice teacher training, eleven general training courses, with plans to add more courses each year. This article examines the needs met through the introduction of online inservice teacher training and the strategies that have been employed in the process. This paper also analyzes the major impacts of online teacher training and looks at the challenges facing online inservice teacher training in the coming years.
    • Learning Objects: Resources For Distance Education Worldwide

      Downes, Stephen (AU Press, 2001-07-01)
      This article discusses the topic of learning objects in three parts. First, it identifies a need for learning objects and describes their essential components based on this need. Second, drawing on concepts from recent developments in computer science, it describes learning objects from a theoretical perspective. Finally, it describes learning objects in practice, first as they are created or generated by content authors, and second, as they are displayed or used by students and other client groups.
    • The Technological Consolidation of UNED in Spain

      Garcia Aretio, Lorenzo (AU Press, 2001-07-01)
      This article discusses the role of the technologies that have been utilized to advance distance teaching and learning by the National Distance Education University (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia -- UNED) of Spain. Following a description of UNED's historical development and organizational structure, UNED's experience with various educational media is discussed. Printed teaching materials, in the form of didactic units, were one of the first methods to be utilized when UNED began its operations in 1972. In turn, the role of radio and audio recordings, television and video recordings, telephone, videoconferencing, computer systems and computer-mediated communications are also described. UNED's pioneering projects, including the virtual classroom, virtual campus and a program for the physically handicapped, are also detailed. Recent experiments include providing access to radio and television programs on the Internet and adoption of WebCT. On the horizon for UNED are portals for cellular phones using WAP technology and gearing up for multiple applications in accordance with Universal Mobile Telecommunications Technology (UMTS). Lorenzo García Aretio is a Doctor in Educational Science, Professor of Education, and UNESCO Chair in Distance Education at the National Distance Education University (UNED) of Spain. He has also been Director of the University Institute of Distance Education at UNED. As a writer and editor, Lorenzo García Aretio has published 15 books on distance education. He has also written more than 70 articles and chapters for various distance education journals and books.
    • Interactive Television in Schools: An Australian Study of the Tensions of Educational Technology and Change

      Evans, Terry; Stacey, Elizabeth; Tregenza, Karen (AU Press, 2001-07-01)
      This paper outlines some key issues that arose from several projects that investigated the use of interactive television in schooling. In this paper we draw on these projects, to illustrate and discuss how a (then) new form of distance education -- satellite-based, narrowcast ITV -- was designated for use in primary (elementary) and secondary (high school) classroom settings, how it was implemented, and how it collapsed as an endeavour. Issues raised by students, teachers and administrators are related to each to illustrate how ITV slowly declined over several years, despite its usefulness for some and strong support from those involved.
    • Patterns of Interaction in a Computer Conference Transcript

      Fahy, Patrick J.; Crawford, Gail; Ally, Mohamed (AU Press, 2001-07-01)
      An analysis of the interaction patterns in an online conference from a distance education graduate course was conducted, using an approach that focused on the transcript's interactional and structural features. A new tool for transcript analysis, the TAT (Transcript Analysis Tool), was used to analyze interactional features, while structural elements suggested by social network theory were examined. Analysis of the patterns of interaction in the conference showed interaction was variable, and that while all participants were engaged, intensity and persistence of participation were unequal among individual participants in several ways. The TAT showed the proportions of five major types of sentences in the transcript, corresponding to different modes of interaction (questions, statements, reflections, engaging comments, and quotations/citations). The findings showed that the TAT seemed to relate usefully to other work in this area, and that social network principles were valuable in the analysis of conference interaction.
    • A Case Study in Planning Online Interaction

      Murphy, L. A. (AU Press, 2001-07-01)
    • USQ: An e-University for an e-World

      Taylor, James C; Swannell, Peter (AU Press, 2001-07-01)
      The rapid rate of technological change and the rapidly growing number of institutions now embarking on Internet-based delivery means that more institutions are involved in distance education than at any other time in history. As institutions throughout the world increasingly offer courses via the Internet, there will emerge a global higher education economy in which institutions will face global competition for students, especially those involved in continuing professional education and lifelong learning. The emergence of the global higher education economy could well act as a catalyst for overcoming the institutional inertia that typifies the organisational culture of many universities. This transition from the Industrial to the Information Age was encapsulated by Dolence and Norris (1995), who argued that to survive organisations would need to change from rigid, formula driven entities to organisations that were "fast, flexible, and fluid" (p. 31) -- adjectives not typically used to describe the salient features of universities! This case study outlines the response of a well-established dual mode institution, The University of Southern Queensland (USQ), to the "gales of creative destruction" (Schumpeter, 1950, p. 84) that currently beset higher education institutions throughout the world.
    • Open University Center of the Pontifical Javeriana University, Colombia

      Parra de Marroquin, Omayra; Clarizia Corredor, Lina (AU Press, 2002-01-01)
      According to García Canclini (1990) there is the assumption that Colombia is a hybrid society. Upon this standpoint, and within a traditional higher education structure characterized by being fundamentally conventional or campus based, the Open University Center of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana was created as an education program that breaks with every traditional scheme, which in turn, encourages a new learning pattern. The Open University Center emerges as a "social response" focused on the "here and now" of today's society in Colombia. The Javeriana University (a hybrid university) can be placed in this context as well as the Open University Center, as a part of it. Since its creation, through its programs this center offers education to the most vulnerable of Colombia's population, contributing to raise their quality of life. In this article, the authors outline the Open University Center's place in the University's context: its historical development and its structure concerning students, programs, regulations, infrastructure and technological equipment. They also identify the implications and relationships of the traditional education proper of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, as well as the projection and contributions of the Open University Center to the University's future in the pedagogical order of distance education towards virtual education. According to Garcia Canclini (1990) Latin American countries are a synthesis that intertwines vestiges of indigenous cultures and colonial Catholic Spanish traditions with current political, educational, and communication developments. From this dynamic, traditional cultures are melded with modern-day influences to create a modern day culture in which to be educated means one knows how to incorporate advances in technology with art and literature of the vanguard to create a traditional setting of social privilege and symbolic distinction. The multi-temporal heterogeneity of modern culture, therefore, is a consequence of an historical condition in which modernization complements, rather than replaces, the traditional and ancient (Garcia Canclini, 1990, p. 45). From the foregoing, we can say that Colombia is comprised of a society that has, in the past, whole-heartedly embraced traditional higher education structures. As a result, new educational programs that fundamentally break with traditional expectations, well necessary and welcomed, signal a fundamental shift in this country. One such fundamental shift can be witnessed in a new program called Distance Education for Primary Education Teachers, a program designed specifically to seek out and address problems experienced by teachers in their classrooms. Developed for teachers who cannot move to the city (location of the University) to pursue formal higher education studies, this distance education program has altered in the perception of what university is all about, thereby creating a viable and alternative social response to the "here and now" of Colombia's social, economic, labor, and educational contexts.
    • The Hybridisation of Conventional Higher Education: UK Perspective

      Lewis, Roger (AU Press, 2002-01-01)
      Before the creation of the United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) - its Charter was given in 1969 and the first students were admitted in 1971 - the full-time residential model of higher education was pervasive, with part-time and distance modes of study seen as separate and inferior. The UKOU demonstrated the effectiveness of distance learning but also, because of its success, in some ways inhibited change in the mainstream tertiary sector. As social and political pressures on the sector grew, higher education providers were forced to innovate and models of “open learning” offered ways forward. As a result, the distinction between “distance” and “face-to-face” delivery rapidly eroded during the 1990s. However, barriers still remain to a more radical approach to provision as a whole.