• Caral-Supe y su entorno natural y social en los origenes de la civilizacion

      Shandy Solis, Ruth (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2005-06-13)
      We began our archaeological research on the origins of civilization in Peruin 1994 with esploration in the Supe Valle and excavation in Caral in 1996; in both cases thiis work stemmed from a personal initative and was supported by of a team of archaecologists. Subsequently , in 1999, in view of the firstresultl that had been published in Peru and abroad, the University of San Marcos added its finalcial support to the finds already being provied by the Municipalities of Supe and Barranca . Once Caral was officially recongized as a site of national interest in 2001,two years later the Caral-Supe Special,Archeological Project (PEACS) was created; excavation work in Caral and three other sites has been intensified and consolidation and restoration work is now under way; In addition, we have drawn up a Master Plan and there are projects currently in execution to ensure that the important cultural heritage of Caral is presented in the most appropriate natural and context.
    • Investigaciones arqueológicas en Tumshukayko (Caraz, Ancash)

      Bueno Mendoza, Alberto (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2005-12-30)
      Tumshukayko is a gigantic monumental archeological place located in the outskirts of the north direction of the city Caraz, county of Huaylas, Ancash. It represents a true early urban concentration in a wide space, with a great dominat central mound, where we have begun the archaelogical excavations supported by the UNMSM.
    • Una Casa de Moneda provincial bajo administración privada: Arequipa, 1837-1842

      Luque, Juvenal (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-06-19)
      The following one articulates it is a rehearsal that tries to present the problem that surrounded the operation of the House of Currency in their first stage, when it was low the private administration. The knowledge on the history of this republican mint is very scanty and that that here is sought it is to enlarge this panorama with you move news like the inventory of the machineries, a documental annex, the global montos of monetization and it is demonstrated that the coinage didn’t enter to the local commercial circuits if it didn’t leave to the exterior via export, reinforced this tendency with the fact that the mint only coins the calls currencies of high value (pesos and means pesos).
    • Finanzas y filantropía en el Perú del siglo XIX El caso de José Sevilla Escajadillo: 1813-1886

      Reyes Flores, Alejandro (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      In the early 19 century Peruvians had the opportunity «to make money» in the same way as the thousands of foreigners who arrived in our country for that purpose. Those men followed two different paths to achieve fortune and a new social status in 19 th th century Peru: the opportunistic and mercenary use of the State mechanisms, and the «modern» implementation of responsible and creative work, savings, investment, reinvestment, education, compliance of law, giving value to time, living frugally and other modern ideas. Don José Sevilla follows the latter school of thought in this generation of 19 century Peruvians. In the first part of this essay we try to present how José Sevilla made his fortune. In the second one we describe and analyse the contents of his will and his philanthropic legacy to public institutions, relatives, friends in the United States and in 19 th century Peru. We shall previously reconstruct Peru and the northern coast as the general framework of the lengthy life on don José Sevilla, the origin of his wealth, the methodology of his work in the world of finances and his philanthropic legacy.
    • Centenario de la Independencia y el próximo Bicentenario: Diálogo entre los Próceres de la nación, la «Patria Nueva» y el proyecto de comunidad cívica en el Perú

      Casalino Sen, Carlota (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      This article has in five sections. Section 1 analyses the social and political context for the celebration of the Hundredth anniversary of the Peruvian Independence during the Administration of Augusto B. Leguia. Section 2 describes how this celebration took place. Section 3 explains the meaning of the Panteón de los Próceres in the context of this celebration. Section 4 goes beyond that period to show how, during that celebration, a new tradition is born reflecting the fragmentation of our society. Section 5 links the dates of those celebrations with the current period and with our own preparation and reflections about the second century of Peruvian independence.
    • Particularidades fonéticas del quechua Yaru - Huánuco

      Dominguez Condezo, Víctor (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      Luego de deslindar sobre la relatividad del quechua auténtico, se describen las variedades del supralecto del quechua Yaru-Huánuco y las características fonéticas habladas en Huamalíes, Dos de Mayo, Valle del Pillco, Panao, Pampa de Junín, Chaupihuaranga y Cerro de Pasco, en base a textos recogidos in situ en grabaciones magnetofónicas, en áreas sociolectales indicadas. Se presenta el grado de comprensión de emisiones radiofónicas de siete supralectos del Perú, analizadas por Torero y en base a este modelo, se intenta señalar las diferencias sociolectales del quechua de Ancash-Huaylas y Yaru-Huánuco (Quechua I, estudiado por nuestro amigo y lingüista más importante). Finalmente se anotan las diferencias fonéticas muy especiales con los sonidos [ch], [tr], [ts] y [s].
    • ¿Es realmente posible otro mundo? O el lema de la Revolución Francesa reconsiderada 1

      Wallerstein, Immanuel (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      This text was prepared for the UNESCO CERES Conference Facing social transformations in the 21st century. A conference on inequality, pluralism and environment, held in 29-30 June 2006 at the University of Utrecht. After reviewing the structural crisis of the economy and the capitalistic world in the last few years, and after reinforcing the set of guiding questions, I. Wallerstein wonders if another world is really possible? And if so, how should it be? And how could we build it? His replies deal with three key issues: pluralism, the environment and inequality.
    • Aprendimos a convivir con los senderistas y militares»: Violencia política y respuesta campesina en Huamanquiquia, 1980-1993

      Aroni Sulca, Renzo Salvador (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      This study reconstructs the political violence that stroke the Andean communities of the district of Huamanquiquia, in the province of Victor Fajardo, centralsouthern part of Ayacucho. The presence of armed actors in these communities polarized the peasants and had terrible consequences for the community organization and the safety of its members. Their possibilities of cohesion were weakened during the critical years of war, ancient inter and intra community conflicts arose and permeated the social process of violence. During this process, the peasants of Huamanquiquia managed to survive adapting themselves to the circumstances of war and to the political objectives of the armed sectors. This could be considered as a type of peasant response of adaptation-in-resistance.
    • «¡Vio cómo el negro tiene derecho!» El debate etno-racial y político de las comunidades quilombolas en el sur del Brasil 1

      Rodríges, Vera (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      his article inserts itself in the point of view of anthropological outputs that approach to thematic of the emergency of political and ethnic contests, been at the center of by the Communities Quilombolas in Brazil, in relation with similar experiences in the Latin and Central America. For so much, it analyzes the trial that engenders the claim of right partner-cultural of the Quilombo of the Anastácia, a community located in the south of Brazil and that comes building a path of resistance and fight in that that the native speeches name as it seeks by their lost lands. In that social dynamics incorporate itself diverse social agents, such as Black Social Movement and Agents of the Public Power, whose acts contribute for the (re) making of ethnic and collective identities
    • «Hacéis caciques aunque sea de un palo...» Kurakas ilegítimos y ladinismo en el temprano Perú colonial

      Arana Bustamante, Luis (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      This essay puts toghether and discusses some early historical evidence about Andean ‘illegitimate’ kurakas from the origins of colonial system to c. 1615. They were appointed to their posts by colonial authorities and the most uncapable in their tasks would cause many disturbances in social indigenous life in colonial times. The main concern is to improve the historical basis for analysis of somewhat confussing archival evidence derivated of conflicts between Andean central Highlands kurakas in administrative and ‘idolatry’ colonial trials.
    • Ambiguedad de la imagen en la cristianización del Perú: trento, los jesuitas y el tercer concilio

      Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      En el contexto de la contrarreforma católica y de la consolidación de la colonización andina, se examina el uso misionero de las imágenes cristianas y las ambigüedades de su adopción e interpretación. El tema es enfocado a partir de la llegada de los jesuitas y, luego, bajo las directrices emanadas del tercer Concilio Limense. El autor se introduce, de esta forma, en uno de los temas más sugestivos de la historia colonial peruana: el proceso de cristianización en los siglos XVI y XVII.
    • Lambayeque y el norte peruano en un contexto «mundializado»

      Aldana Rivera, susana (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2006-12-29)
      At the north of Peru, Lambayeque is a very rich agricultural region that is facing the globalization process as Perú itself. So it is very important to state the region´s historical foundation in order to understand how Lambayeque people –peruvian people– will be related with the global market and also how its agricultural development, its crops and its agricultural products will be realized in such global market.
    • Representaciones del cáncer de cuello uterino y su relación con la sexualidad femenina Las voces de los actores políticos y de la sociedad civil de Ayacucho, Lima, Piura y Ucayali en el marco de la introducción de una nueva vacuna

      Cristobal, Irene (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2007-06-18)
      The uterin cancer is the second cause to death by neoplasia in Peruvian women. In the context of the recent introduction of a vaccine against this kind of cancer, this document is presented to show the picture of uterin cancer and its relation with the leaders and political actors’s sexuality picture as a setting to promote or not the introduction of this vaccine as a health politic. The document picks the voices of political actors and members of civil society from Ayacucho, Lima, Piura and Ucayali.
    • Movimientos sociales y dictadura militar La experiencia política del Paro Nacional del 19 de julio de 1977 *

      Valladares Quijano, Manuel (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2007-06-18)
      The present work summarises the development of the major movements with the direct interviention of the working class and of the social masses that took place throughout several weeks in Lima and provinces, and concluded in the extraordinary National Strike of 19 July 1977, against the ‘second phase’ of the military dictatorship; in fact the political trends of the working movement leadership are broadly approached, and the trends among grassroots movements.
    • Turismo y re-creación étnica en la selva peruana

      Plasencia Soto, Rommel (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2007-06-18)
      The observation of indigenous societies in the Amazonia give us a firm basis to make precisions about the anthropology of tourism, understood as a guided, organized and anchored glance at exotic representation and cultural consumption.
    • Perú y España, política exterior peruana 1968-1975

      Puertas Porras, Elizabeth; Maldonado Felix, Hector (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2007-06-18)
      In the XX century the foreign policy of Peru was characterized for its Panamericanism conservative for which reason in the context of Cold War Peru held a close relationship with U.S.A. The foreign policy of Peru was favorable to conservative and authoritarian government of Franco in Spain (1936-1975). The government of Velasco (1968-1975) changed the traditional foreign policy and developed an autonomous foreign policy to USA which did not affect its relationship with Spain but increased it and thus Peru and Spain signed several agreements of technical and cultural cooperation.
    • Jaguar e ideología en las sociedades del Período Formativo: Pacopampa un caso en los Andes centrales

      Morales Chocano, Daniel (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2007-06-18)
      In the Peruvian Central Andean Range the material culture of societies of the Formative Period (1500 to 400 B.C.) include anthropomorphic jaguars in their iconography. Archaeological diggings in the Pacopampa site have unearthed the iconographic representation of anthropomorphic jaguars as recurrent elements in pottery with incisions. This character would be linked to the idea of the Jaguar God, that in our opinion, represents the supernatural powers that control natural phenomena during the various seasons. The jaguar icons in Pacopampa evolve from the animal natural figure and become anthropomorphic figures in a process that based on ethnographic data is interpreted as the transformation of shaman into jaguar, its most eloquent image in the Andean world being the Raimondi Stele of Chavin. According to Julio C. Tello this image continued to evolve to become the Wiracocha god of the Incas.
    • Las teorías del desarrollo y subdesarrollo en la sociología latinoamericana

      Rios Burga, Jaime R. (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2007-06-18)
      Latin-American sociology inserts itself in and is different from social scientific creativity under the terms of dominance of the global corporate capitalism. The use and boundaries of its key categories and theories become increasingly rigorous and deep in accordance with the concepts, theories and models in each of its stages. The theories of development and underdevelopment are a typical example of this. How are development and underdevelopment theories constructed and changed between dependence and theoretical autonomy? This paper aims at reconstructing from a theoretical point of view, the most outstanding moments of the sociology of development and underdevelopment in Latin America. It is necessary to take stock and include its contribution to a comprehensive sociological theory of development as part of a social transcultural theory of development in the life of societies
    • Reacción de los indígenas de Cajamarca ente a la Independencia de Trujillo y Lima, 1821-1822

      Espinoza Soriano, Waldemar (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2007-06-18)
      The Creole population of the city of Cajamarca, capital of its namesake province, upon a suggestion and invitation of the marquis of Torre Tagle, Intendent of Trujillo, declared its independence on 8 January 1821. When the local indigenous nobles learnt this fact they argued that the new State should be ruled by a descendent of Atahualpa who lived in the neighbourhood. Their request was heard and transmitted to Torre Tagle but no answer was ever given to the Indian nobility. This proves that for the Creole oligarchy and aristocracy of the Intendence of Trujillo the descendants of the Incas never represented a ruling choice.
    • Globalización y cultura Dimensiones peruanas *

      Mejia Navarrete, Julio (Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 2007-06-18)
      Along the last few years in Peru, and more generally in Latin America, a vast social movement is taking place. It is a very diverse, sometimes even contradictory, movement that appreciates local identities with clear elements from the Andean universe, in the midst of a globalisation dynamics that seemed imminent and absolute. We gradually assist to a process whereby peoples reinforce a sense of national unity and reclaim their rights to exist beyond the global standardisation pattern. Our paper is far from finished but is a starting point to develop some key aspects of the relationship between globalisation and culture in Peru, that have not yet been adequately studied.