• Grace in Saiva Siddhanta Vedanta, Islam and Christianity

      Emmanuel Pazhepura (Dharmaram College, 1377-09-03)
      The Seminar held at Tamil Nadu Theological Seminary, .Arasaradi, Madurai, in October 1971 concentrated. on the Study of "Grace" in various Religions. Specialists in various religions came together, shared their views, discussed many aspects of grace and arrived at a comprehensive concept of "Grace as viewed by Saiva Siddhiinta, Vedanta, Islam and Christianity." It is to the credit of Dr. Albrecht Frenz, that the proceedings of the seminar have been made available to us. That grace has been operating throughout the seminar becomes abundantly clear when one reads this book. I
    • Meeting of Religions

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Vadakethala, Francis Vineeth; Chethimattam, John Britto (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      Ever since the beginning of human history man in his search for the satisfaction of his needs has gone beyond the immediate problems and sought the ultimate meaning of life, the unsoundale mystery of his existence, trying to bridge the gulf between being and truth, existence and realization. Consciously or unconsciously, he wanted to relate his timely existence to something that is unconditional. This search for the Unconditional was in fact the essence of his religion. In defining the unconditional, however, man differed considerably. The Unconditional was considered by some as the pleroma of all existence whereas others thought it as absolute sunyata or void. Thus the religious man, though ever in search for reality, light and immortality, was nevertheless not the same everywhere. The very approach to reality characterized the angle of his vision and changed his grasp of it. Since reality itself is incomprehensible, every authentic approach, however defective it be, helps only unveil certain new aspects of it. Religions are, therefore, complementary and not contradictory. Dialogue is essential for them, for their own mutual growth and maturity.
    • A Modern Review of Hindu Dharma

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Kuppuswamy, B (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      The term Dharma has been one of the most powerful and influential terms in Indian thought and society for several millenia, dating from Vedic times. Even today it is very influential at all levels of society and among all classes, castes, and creeds. However, there are diverse ways in which the term has been used. It stands for religious observance, righteousness, jsutice, conformity to law, conformity to custom, obedience to the social roder, sense of duty, etc. Thus, it has religious, moral, ethical as well as legal significance. This is one of the important reasons why it is impossible to translate the term Dharma to any other non-Indian langugae. 
    • Manu's Vision of the Hindu Dharma

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Manickam, T. M. (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      The socio-religious life of the Aryan people seems to have achieved a cultural maturity at the stage of the formation of the Dharma-Laws as promulgated by Manu, probably a mythical figure to whom the "Dharma-Laws" are attributed. The Hindus who claim cultural lineage to the Aryan stalk of civilization respect Manusmrti as their book of the "Rules of conduct" with respect to their socio-moral and religious life. The Manusmrti presents in a systematic form the laws of Hindu Dharma. The Hindu Dharma is essentially a way of life to be lived following strict moral principles in view of realizing a great religious ideal, moksha, which is strongly founded on a philosophy of life.
    • Is the Meeting of Religions Possible?

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Devaraja, N. K. (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      The issue raised in the title of the this paper constitutes not merely an academic, but a practical problem of great urgency, particularly in the context of our national life. The recent upsurge of communal violence in several parts of the country has once more brought into focus the need of thinking out ways and means for promoting harmony, among different countries and groups that make up our multi-religious society. This is not to say that our discussion should ignore the academic or theoretical aspects of the problem; however, to, the extent to which religion constitutes a practical concern, theoretical reflection on the issue under reference cannot be divided from consideration of the practical consequences of discord and strife among, followers of different religions.
    • Images of Man

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Kuppuswamy, B (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      The central concern of the book is education. As the authors write, "To become a unique, free, responsible human being and to create a better world by constructive social change are the central concerns of education for us". However, the authors realise that each culture continues to look at man from its own angle, in spite of the great efforts made by philosophers from the most ancient days up to the modern rimes and the efforts of the scientists in the last, two centuries, to think objectively of man, his limitations and his assets. This is because, as the authors put it, "Culture enlarges as well as limits man's knowledge of himself since each culture has its own way of knowing man and other realities."
    • Man's Dialogical Nature and the Dialogue of Religions

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Chethimattam, John Britto (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      This can be called an era of dialogue. Scientific and technological progress has made our globe rather small and brought men closer together. Communications explosion has made our earth a global village where news even from the remotest corners are communicated all over the world via satellites in matter of seconds. In such a situation man cannot remain isolated from other men, nor hermetically insulated against their ideas and aspirations. The two great world wars accelerated the progress by throwing peoples for centuries kept apart by geography, religion and culture into the laps of each other during, a catastrophic dislocation of normal living. Dialogue among Christian churches in the West started when Catholics were forced by circumstances to accommodate Protestant refugees in their churches and vice versa Protestants bad to show hospitality to Catholic refugees. The long forgotten religions of the East came fully into the picture when nations of the East gained their political independence and asserted their identity in the world body of nations. But this spontaneously growing dialogue among religions only, brings out a long neglected dimension of man; his dialogal psychic structure, which contemporary philosophical thinking and religious experience have brought into focus.
    • Meeting of Religions in the Crisis of Civilization

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Vidyarthi, P. B. (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      The problem of whether or not religions can meet commands the greatest attention of thinking minds today: recent developments in science and psychology have shown how the old materialistic and mechanistic world-outlook on which the philosophy of the last three hundred years was based and which is still dogmatically followed by the social sciences, has now become totally outmoded giving place to what Oppenheimer calls the "principle of complementariness." We understand that freedom is no less true than determinism. The greatest enemy of religion for the past three hundred years has been the mechanistic method of science. It has resulted in the liquidation of all moral and I spiritual values.
    • Research Seminar on Non-Biblical Scriptures

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Pathrapankal, Joseph (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      It is the collection of the articles presented in the Seminar on Non-Biblical Scriptures. It is more than a I book;  it is the story of the evolution and realization of a need acutely felt not only by scholars but also by the average thinking faithful, all over the world, and especially in this country, which is the home-land of practically all the major world Religions. A review of this book consisting of 707 pages would naturally entail a critical appraisal of  its contents, which, however, is far beyond the limitations set for me.
    • Religious Studies and the Global Community of Man

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Berry, Thomas (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      We are presently creating the multiform human tradition as the effective and encompassing society in which each person and each particular society finds a comprehensive context for existence in the human order of being. Within this universal society of mankind each human person becomes heir to the fulness of man's past cultural achievements, participant in the convergent cultures of the present, and, according to capacity, maker of the future. This convergence of the present, the consequence of scientific and technological improvements in travel and communication, has not so far been characterized by any dominant religious or spiritual motivations. Yet it can be seen that exterior convergence does not bring about interior communion, nor does it necessarily Iead to cultural enrichment. An effective human development that could preserve and enhance the human quality of life requires a sensitivity to the deeper forms of communication between subjects. For these reasons an understanding of the interior and religious life of man and reconciliation of traditions with each other become matters of urgency.
    • CHOS

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Rao, S. K. Ramachandra (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      It is usal to describe Tibetan religion as Buddhism, or more specifically Tantric Buddhism. The Tibetans themselves call their religion mere CHos(religion, dharma), even as the Hindus call theirs dharma. There is no doubt that Buddhist influences are both unmistakable and predominant, but it would not be correct to brand this religion as Buddhism. Moreover, the Buddhist influences that came to colour this religion so significantly were by no means native tot he soil; they were not indigenous developments. In fact, Buddhism had to undergo total transformation before it came to be accepted in Tibet and Mongolia.
    • The Meeting of Religions in the Modern World

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Macquarrie, John (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      For thousands of years the several cultures of mankind and the religions belonging to them went their ways in relative isolation. To be sure, there was always some coming and going, and we are constantly surprised to discover how even in the most remote times of antiquity the migrations of peoples and the adventurous voyages of traders led to the dissemination of ideas far beyond their native regions. But in general it would be true to say that mankind was divided into fairly homogenous cultural and religious blocks, each concentrated in a particular region of the earth's surface. Some historians have been so impressed with these divisions that they have maintained that (at least, until very recently) there has been no unitary world history but rather a collection of histories, each of them self-contained and carrying within itself the springs of its own development, flowering and eventual decline. A notable advocate of this point of view was Oswald Spengler, and it is interesting to note how he regards each culture as determined in all its aspects by certain basic world-conceptions that ate essentially religious in character. More recently, Arnold Toynbee has also argued the case for viewing the past of mankind as a plurality of histories, each relatively independent. His scheme is even more elaborate than Spengler's, and recognizes more than a score of cultures or civilizations.
    • Objectives and Obligations of Dialogue of Religions

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Masson, J. (Dharmaram College, 1975-07-16)
      Before becoming and action, dialogue is a contact; even before becoming a contact and in order to be a contact, dialogue is a spirit. Only then do we come to the practical event, dialogal action. As our old authors have often remarked, "we act according to what we are." Before having an effect on someone else, we must thus be ourselves; before giving out things or ideas or even giving our love we must be ourselves. Moreover, even in meeting with someone, it is not the place where one happens to be, the office one is performing at the words one says, which constitute the essential; but in depth what one is, as a man, as a Christian. Before starting a dialogue, before even thinking of dialogue, one should evaluate and question whether he may be too frivolous, whether he has the necessary weight of humanness and of holiness. This is the first practical aspect.
    • The Absolute as a Common Ground of Mysticism

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Kadankavil, Kurian T. (Dharmaram College, 1976-01-30)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the contention that an absolute is a common and ultimate foundation in all forms of mystical experience found in major world religions. The initial question is whether we can have a concept of the absolute at all. If we were to admit its possibility, it has to be conceded that it would belong to a supra-reflective consciousness. As we know, knowledge in its initial form is pure awareness or consciousness. Here not only the object is known but knowledge itself is known. This awareness is not in a communicable form for, of itself, it never affirms; nor does it deal with anything that is not existentially in act; it does not picture itself or represent. Consequently even the idea of "otherness" of object is absent from it. This pre-reflective consciousness is to be conceived as the opposite pole of a supra-reflective consciousness.
    • Encounter Between Hinduism and Christianity

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Mampra, Thomas (Dharmaram College, 1976-01-30)
      Encounters between one religion and another have been constant phenomenon in India for centuries, at first among Indian religions themselves and later between Indian and other religions. However, today, the meeting of religions is a more common feature, as the world is gradually growing smaller and smaller, and every man is becoming the neighbour of everyone else. All the same, one cannot minimize the need for encounters among religions, as all of them are obliged, one way or other, to meet the challenge posed by a growing secularism, materialism and atheism. Scholars like Raymond Panikkar and others are of the opinion that religions are moving towards an encounter not merely on account of the present irreligious wave, but also because of their inner dynamism, both intellectual and existential; intellectually, because no religion can claim to have deciphered fully the mystery of man and God; existentially, because man himself suffers more and more the attraction as well as the repulsion of other religions. The meeting of religions is a vital religious problem. A missionary zeal without knowledge and love, would lead to disastrous consequences. A proud isolation without regard for others would be impious selfishness and cause the ruin of one's own religion.
    • Dialogue In India

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Nambiaparampil, Albet (Dharmaram College, 1976-01-30)
      "Living as we are in close contact with men of other religions, the Church in India must engage in dialogue with them. Inter-religious dialogue is the response of Christian faith to God's saving presence in the religions traditions of mankind and the expression of the firm hope of the fuffilment of all things, in Christ ... " These lines, drawn from the consolidated report of the different workshops of 'the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India, are the result of a very serious attempt at reflecting on the dialogue-activity that is being carried on by the Church in India. This Calcutta session bad as its main task, to prepare for the Synod in Rome that studied Evangelization, and to draft a letter to the Synod. But the Church in India had to relate its evangelisation to the commitment to dialogue. There was no question of compromising any of the activities: of evangelization, of dialogue, of development. In this C.B.C.I. Session; we see an attempt on the part of the Church at a self-understanding as an open community engaged in one pilgrimage of hope.
    • Religious Experience

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Vadakethala, Francis Vineeth (Dharmaram College, 1976-01-30)
      Theistic or monistic, pantheistic or panentheistic, only in some sort of a superhuman experience, the religious man finds his own fulfilment. Whenever the finite encounters the inexhaustibility of the Infinite, it opens up new avenues of religious experience, giving birth to different types of mysticism, all of which, in spite of their distinctive notes, tend to be the expressions of a great converging' experience of humanity. Our world of time is so tiny, and the need for transcendence is so great, that from the beginning of history we find- men who sought the meaning of their life in transcendence. Whatever be its form, mysticism presupposes man's openness to the other and is based on his inner communication with what he is not, be it defined in positive or negative terms. It is dialogal by nature, which may be a dialogue between jivatman and paramatman, between man and God, between the finite consciousness and the Infinite consciousness or between the two poles of his own very being characterized by becoming. Implied, therefore, in every type of mysticism, is man's basic call to the beyond and the boundless, uttered in the innermost depth of his being which bears the divine reflection as its very constitutive base.
    • Spiritual Experiences and Integral Realization

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Basu, Arabinda (Dharmaram College, 1976-01-30)
      Hinduism at its highest can very well be described as a record of the varieties of spiritual experiences and a most luminous guide to spiritual disciplines. In its basic scriptures we come across different statements of the nature of the supreme Reality. Theologians and philosophers not especially impressed by the validity of spiritual experience of a comprehensive nature find this baffling. Even those who have faith in the truth of the scriptures portraying the nature of the Reality in diverse manners, describing features of the Absolute in such a way that the statements seem to be mutually contradictory, try to emphasize one statement over the others. Their motive is philosophical consistency' and from their point of view, they are justified. But in the process of building a foolproof metaphysical system based on spiritual experience, they sacrifice something, sometimes indeed a great deal of the variety and richness of spiritual experience. It is necessary to enquire into the structure, function and capacities of that in man who is capable of having spiritual experience. Equally it is incumbent on us to investigate the nature' of spiritual experience as such, whether it does or does not outstep the boundaries of logical reason or whether it must conform to the canons of philosophical thinking.
    • C. G. Jung's Analysis of Religious Experience

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Avens, Roberts (Dharmaram College, 1976-01-30)
      The amount of creative work produced today in the field of psychology, the eagerness with which an ever larger number of Westerners' resort to psychotherapy 'in order to alleviate their mental discomfort, if not anguish, yes, even the widespread fascination with the so-caned esoteric doctrines - whether they ate formulated as 'theosophy, yoga, occultism or in other ways - are all indications that psychology has become the new instrument for understanding and defining the human situation This no doubt is largely due to the failure of the traditional religious and theological ways to provide man with a key to meaningful life. One could hypothesize almost ad infinitum about the reasons for such a momentous breakdown. Since, however, in this paper we propose to explore C.G. jung's concept of religion, it is only proper to cite at the very outset what he considers as the major cause of the languid state of religion in the West.
    • Zen Enlightenment and the Intellectual Approach

      Nandhikkara, Jose; Lee, Jung Young (Dharmaram College, 1976-01-30)
      It is often tempting to neglect intellectual effort in a study of the sutras and teachings in Zen Buddhism. One of the predominant characteristics of Zen is often understood as an anti-intellectual movement. What is the place of intellectualization and the learning of sutras in Zen? How can one be enlightened without any intellectual process? Even though one may not realize truth through intellectualization, the intellectual attempt to understand the true self is inescapable for the beginner. Perhaps "(it) is the only way possible for the beginner," as Garma Chang describes, "for who can get into Zen without having first some understanding or 'conceptual knowledge' about it? There is no exception to this for anyone."