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The Journal of International Women's Studies is an on-line, open-access, peer reviewed feminist journal that provides a forum for scholars, activists, and students to explore the relationships among theories of gender and sexuality and various forms of organizing and critical practice.


The library contains articles of Jounral of International Women's Studies as of vol. 1(2001) to current.

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  • Gendering the Public Sector: Women’s Status in Local Administrations. A Case Study from Spain

    Bermúdez-Figueroa, Eva (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    Women’s role in political representation has been deeply studied in the administration and political literature, but scarcely researched from an employment point of view. Furthermore, there is a lack of attention to public employment in administrations, specifically municipalities, which are the closest public level to the citizenry. We claim women's employment in public administration presents similar characteristics to private employment—occupational segregation, wage gap, glass ceiling—despite being a traditional niche of protected employment for women in Europe and globally. This fact is contrary to what might be expected, from a guarantor of equality in the public sector.
  • Impact of the Turkish Labor Market on Physical Activities and Sports

    Gözde, Ersöz; İnce-Yenilmez, Meltem (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    The sports industry is growing fast on a global scale and is inclusive of both the manufacturing and service sectors because of its versatility and diversified workforce. In Turkey the growth rate in college graduates with degrees aligned to the industry is significant. However, despite the representation of women in the industry as athletes and teachers, within sports management women remain significantly underrepresented. This discussion highlights the cultural norms that contribute to gender representation and forecasts the gender equity benefits that would accrue to greater female representation in the sports industry.
  • Book Review: Gender and Succession in Medieval and Early Modern Islam, Bilateral Descent and the Legacy of Fatima

    Hashemiolya, Zahra (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
  • Book Review: The Rights of Women: The Authoritative ACLU Guide to Women’s Rights (Fourth Edition)

    Grasso, Maxcy (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
  • Does Gender Matter? Job Stress, Work-Life Balance, Health and Job Satisfaction among University Teachers in India

    Solanki, Sandip; Mandaviya, Meeta (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    This study investigates gender differences in the perceived level of stress of university instructors in India. An online cross-sectional survey was completed with 86 respondents comprised of 51 males and 35 females in the state of Gujarat. Results indicate that job stress on work-life balance is significantly stronger for females. Additionally, male respondents scored higher in managing anger at work compared with female respondents and reveal a stronger detachment with work. Further, male respondents have more health-related issues compared with females due to job stress and imbalance in work life, while females exhibit lower career resilience due to family characteristics and responsibilities. This research contributes to the research on work-life balance specific to the teaching profession. Originality/value: To the best of the author’s knowledge this study is unique and different from other studies as this is the first study concerning India.
  • Note from Special Issue Editors

    Ince-Yenilmez, Meltem; Venkatesan, Madhavi (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
  • Book Review Essay: Nepali Migrant Women: Resistance and Survival in America

    Chawrun, Isabella (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
  • Characterization of European female informal investors

    Las Mercedes, María De (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    In recent years, most sectors have benefited from an explosion in the creation of startups in different entrepreneurial environments. Along these lines, there has been a growing interest in the role of informal investors in the creation of new companies with the aim of identifying the characteristics that could help governments and regulators to promote different measures that help economic growth. Various studies identified that informal investments (that is, those that cover the financing needs of business plans in their entrepreneurial stage) contribute to entrepreneurial activity at national level. The objective of this analysis is to identify the factors that characterize the female informal investors in Europe. The analysis will be performed using data from the website "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor" (GEM) from the year 2015 at the individual level for different regions in Europe (South Europe, Central Europe and North Europe). The purpose is to evaluate characteristics of female informal investors in different European countries with the objective of facilitating the identification of potential measures or actions that could be implemented by national and local organisms to promote informal investment, and in general to support entrepreneurship.
  • “Not Women’s Work”: Gendered Labor, Political Subjectivity and Motherhood

    Wilhoit, Mary E. (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    This article challenges broadly applied beliefs about the gendered nature of informality and the marginalization of single mothers to argue that many such women in Ayacucho, Peru routinely sought out formal-sector jobs and used these to exert authority over certain local processes of development. I argue that this situation, influenced in part by the male-dominated nature of the lucrative but completely informal coca economy, may also reflect Andean ideologies of maternal authority and the freedom afforded to single, rather than married, women. This article draws on over sixteen months of fieldwork in rural Ayacucho, during which time I observed women’s efforts to diversify and reconfigure their households and analyzed their income strategies in relation to political involvement and kinship networks. As I describe, my interlocutors were primarily landless, and sold food from home, engaged in hacienda ‘invasions’, and took available jobs with NGOs and municipalities. These jobs were often short-term, part-time, and low paying, and development and municipal projects sought women specifically for such positions, believing men were unlikely to take them. Countering the global pattern of women’s relegation to the informal sector, however, as well as the notion that single women are inevitably disproportionately marginalized, female heads-of-household in the Huanta region regularly sought formal, even government-sponsored jobs and used such positions to improve their own situations and direct community change.
  • Book Review Essay: Good Girls Marry Doctors: South Asian American Daughters on Obedience and Rebellion

    Kanji, Khadijah (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
  • Quality of work and unpaid reproductive labour in the South African labour market

    Mackett, Odile (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    Since the 1970s and 1980s, women’s increased labour force participation has caught the attention of scholars, governments, labour unions and organisations such as the ILO. The increase in female labour force participation has accompanied the globalisation and liberalisation of product and labour markets around the world. As a result of these changing characteristics around the labour force, particularly as it relates to growing precariousness in the labour market, the ILO developed the Decent Work Agenda to set a standard with which to measure workplace vulnerability. They also listed gender equality as a cross-cutting goal of the Agenda and recognise the reproductive labour of women and its contribution to women’s vulnerability in the labour market. Using a Decent Work Index as an indicator for quality of work, this study made use of two waves of the South African time-use survey to investigate the relationship between time spent on unpaid reproductive labour and the quality of paid work. The analysis found that there is a significant relationship between time spent on unpaid reproductive labour and the quality of paid work, although this relationship is only significant for female workers. Furthermore, the study finds that this relationship was also only significant when economic and labour market conditions were relatively poor. This confirms the theorisations of feminist scholars who have written about the pressure which is put on households during times of economic distress when governments employ contractionary fiscal measures and businesses scale down by reducing benefits and laying workers off. Given that this relationship is only significant for women, this confirms that women’s domestic responsibilities are in fact a hindrance to their advancement in the labour market and a key source of gender inequality in the productive sphere.
  • Women and Local Government Elections in Turkey: Analysis of Supply and Demand-Side Framework

    Abdulai, Abdul -Malik; Ceter, Ayten; Nyadera, Israel Nyaburi (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    How do women perform in Turkish local government elections? Existing studies have delved on the subject of participation and representation of women in political activities and the main concern has been to assess the factors responsible for the underrepresentation of women in politics. However, previous studies have largely focused on the representation of women in national legislative assemblies seemingly to assert that political representation of women is confined to national politics and their representation in local governments is largely overlooked. This paper seeks to fill the lacuna in the literature by focusing on participation and representation of women in local government in Turkey. By using the supply and demand-side framework, we seek to understand factors that have contributed to the low representation of women in local governments in Turkey.
  • Crafted for the Male Gaze: Gender Discrimination in the K-Pop Industry

    Jonas, Liz (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    This paper explores the ways in which the idol industry portrays male and female bodies through the comparison of idol groups and the dominant ways in which they are marketed to the public. A key difference is the absence or presence of agency. Whereas boy group content may market towards the female gaze, their content is crafted by a largely male creative staff or the idols themselves, affording the idols agency over their choices or placing them in power holding positions. Contrasted, girl groups are marketed towards the male gaze, by a largely male creative staff and with less idols participating. The most dominant feature of their content is the women’s lack of agency, be it in lyrics, body movements or public interaction. Thus, it is important to highlight the need for women to gain agency over their occupation as many of their male counterparts are afforded. There are positive examples of women with agency in their creative processes, but girl group idols typically do not have the chance to portray lived female experiences or stories. This discrimination happens when the market is feminized, and employers feel they can justify their actions with incorrect arguments such as that women’s labor is casual and thus not as serious as man’s. This labor market is divided based on the gender roles Korean society assigns to either sex, giving men more freedom to operate in society whereas women are restricted to systemic patriarchal standards. In the idol industry, this appears through the infantilization of women in order to appeal to the male gaze. To de-age them to an age when they are sexually available and attractive makes them a desirable commodity to consumers. This is evident when girl group idols age or experience other life events as they exit the workforce. Contrasted, male idols are expected to continue their career, even as they age. This paper seeks to shed light on the discrimination that exists in a market currently emerging in the world outside Korea and the Korean diaspora, highlighting the need for a conversation in feminist academia.
  • 'Noble Mothers' and their Others: Racialized Women Entrepreneurs and Poverty Finance

    Ireland, Heather Montes (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
    Microfinance has become standardized within global development policy, disproportionately impacting the lives of women of the global South and, increasingly, in the global North with the dismantling of the welfare state. Poverty finance policies employ an entrepreneurial model to facilitate women’s labor market participation whereby borrowers are extended microcredit, or small loans, to invest in their microbusinesses. Global poverty finance is, however, deeply gendered and racialized in ideology and practice. This paper explores the ways that entrepreneurialism, as a cultural formation, privatizes women’s labor into normative gendered, feminine, and domestic labor sectors alongside the expansion of markets and neoliberal restructuring of economies. This paper argues that entrepreneurialism, and its narrative and visual rhetoric galvanized by poverty finance brokers, uphold a gender- and racially segregated micro labor force based upon a false dichotomy of “noble” racialized mothers of the global South as respectable entrepreneurial subjects. As the neoliberal capitalist logics of global poverty finance rearticulate the burden of impoverishment onto the poor, this encumbers the microentrepreneur to ‘rise above’ her class and socioeconomic conditions. In the global North, however, mothers of color largely define the margins of entrepreneurialism, and are often decried as recipient subjects. Entrepreneurial policies and practices re-create the politics of austerity and anti-welfare sentiment that have long undervalued the kincare, social reproductive labor, and mother work of women. This paper, lastly, argues for focus to the creation of feminist economic policies addressing the structural conditions of racial capitalism and its colonial and imperial legacies.
  • Book Review: Syrian Women Refugees: Personal Accounts of Transition

    Erzenoglu, Aynur (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-07-14)
  • Study on the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Women Population of Bangalore, India

    Menon, Sangeetha; Sharma, Shweta; Kathirvel, Manikandan (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-06-25)
    India has observed the most devastating increase in cases of diabetes today—especially Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The high prevalence of diabetes mellitus is due to rapid urbanization of the suburban regions. Diabetes mellitus continues to increase as a result of rapid cultural and social changes, such as increasing urbanization, ageing populations, dietary changes, reduced physical activity, and unhealthy behavior. Development and maintenance of healthy lifestyle behaviors can be the most effective strategy in reducing complications and premature death among women living with T2DM. There is currently insufficient information available on the prevalence of T2DM and associated factors in the women population of Bengaluru. With this context, the present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its association with various risk factors among the women population of Bengaluru, Karnataka. Diabetes was found to be prevalent in women in the under 40 years of age group and was prevalent in all categories of workers, i.e., heavy, moderate, and sedentary. Most of the detected diabetes cases had a Body Mass Index (BMI) >25 and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) > 0.85, both risk factors for the development of diabetes. Most of them had a positive family history and didn't exercise or practice dietary restrictions. The association between increasing age, low educational status, obesity, waist circumference, and diabetes mellitus was found to be significant. It was observed that the association between family history of diabetes and other risk factors in females and diabetes mellitus was highly significant.
  • A Template for the Future: Resonant Leadership in The Song of Deborah

    Thomas, Lyola (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-06-25)
    While leadership seems to come naturally for many great leaders, leadership is also a skill that can be learned. Some leaders gradually grow into successful leadership positions but, for others, leadership is a challenge that they suddenly find themselves rising to meet. In the heroic poem, The Song of Deborah, we come face to face with Deborah--a woman who suddenly becomes a leader--and she leads her community to victory and social transformation. This paper delves into her character and her leadership role within her patriarchal cultural history and attempts to investigate and understand if leadership skills are personality specific or gender specific and if women leaders share a common distinctive style. The paper concludes by framing a template for ideal leadership that is gender neutral and more suited for the emerging generations of the future based on the concept of resonant leadership and how these principles can even be adopted by contemporary leaders to make their leadership more reflective and thus more effective. The main objective of this paper is to popularize the concept of resonant leadership by reviewing it from a literary perspective using The Song of Deborah as a text that exemplifies this type of leadership.
  • My Motherhood, My Way: A Sociological Study of Contemporary Employed Mothers in Kolkata

    Bhaumik, Sanjukta; Sahu, Sudhansubala (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-06-25)
    Motherhood in India has been understood primarily by placing mothers in the domestic space. A mother is constructed as a protector and the complete caregiver of her children. But there have been significant changes in the status of Indian women recently. In the 21st century, with suitable qualifications and employment opportunities, women have the choice to be economically independent and career-driven, which has a profound impact on their roles and responsibilities as protectors and caregivers in the home. It is essential to study and document how women in this generation have started to redefine their roles and negotiate what a mother's duties are at home. This study aims to make a systematic inquiry to understand the issues and challenges faced by employed mothers in everyday life and how they balance their career and childcare activities. Researchers investigate this through a qualitative study on mothers employed in different types of professions in the city of Kolkata. Data was collected by conducting in-depth interviews of around twenty-nine urban, upper-middle class employed mothers from different professional backgrounds to have a set of diverse narratives about their experiences and struggles. The key findings of this study provide an insight into the challenges that mothers face and their balancing mechanisms. Such studies have the scope to motivate many employed mothers by presenting some cases of women who have succeeded in breaking the stereotypical ideas of motherhood and are redefining their stories in more humane terms.
  • Brain Fog among Perimenopausal Women: A Comparative Study

    Shrividya, S.; Joy, Molly (Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University, 2021-06-25)
    Menarche is the beginning of a girl's ability to ovulate and reproduce. Visible menopause symptoms are absent with little hormonal changes during pre-menopause. Perimenopause is the transitional period which is a slow process from normal to no menstrual periods at all, which often takes up to 10 years. In menopause, ovarian development of estrogen decreases significantly, and this results in painful effects such as hot flashes, nausea, exhaustion, etc. Another common symptom is brain fog: a mostly temporary state of diminished mental capacity marked by an inability to concentrate or to think or reason. The study intends to analyze brain fog differences in perimenopausal women between the ages of 37 and 50 following two different diets. The sample consisted of 100 women; 50 were lacto-vegetarians and 50 were lacto-non-vegetarians, and in the same group 50 were homemakers and 50 were employed women. The tool used for this study was Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and analyses were done using statistical techniques like descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test using SPSS software. Results revealed that there was no cognitive impairment and no brain fog between the sample of 50 lacto-vegetarian and 50 lacto-non-vegetarian perimenopausal women who were employed and homemakers. But lacto-vegetarians had better Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores than lacto-non-vegetarians, and employed women showed better Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores than homemakers. The study revealed this and other observations and findings that broaden scope for further research in this area.

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