Livonijos įtaka Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės christianizacijai: kryželiai XIV a. II pusės–XV a. Lietuvos kapuose
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AbstractBy this article, we begin a search into short pilgrimages to holy places in the neighboring areas. Such data are abundant in archaeological research in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, but because of the size of this article we must limit our discussion to one group of finds. We selected the most obvious testimony or Christianity – crucifixes, which are recognized as the source of Christianity in Lithuania. Crucifixes were found in 15 graves from 9 Lithuanian burial sites of the 14th–15th c. They are of 9 different types (Figs. 1–3, 5–8, 10, 11). They were found singly or on a chain composed of baubles, glass or enamel beads and cowry shells. Only one crucifix of each type IV–IX was found. Analogous type I, VII and IX crucifixes (Fig. 12) were found in several archaeological sites in Livonia. In several Livonian sites of the 12th–14th centuries crucifixes resembling type IV in Lithuania were found. Type III and VII crucifixes (Fig. 4, 9) were found in Livonia, the Teutonic Order and Novgorod land. Types II, VI and VIII are not known in neighbouring areas. The analogous of crucifixes in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Livonia confirm the supposition that at the beginning of Christianization the believers undertook pilgrimages to holy places of the nearest neighbours.